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University of Toronto 






(Second Series.) 

Feom APRIL 16, 1909, to OCTOBER 8, 1909. 


APRIL, 1909, TO SEPTEMBER, 1909. 


Printed .lud PubUabed by Qeomb Tucker, at the Kditorial, Piiutiu^' aud Publishiug Offices of ''Tuk Electbician," Salisbury-court, Fleet-street. 




(Second Series.) 




•Municipal, Foreign and General Notes 8 

•Conapanies' Meetings, Reports, Dividends, 

Statutory Returns, &c 9 

Companies (New Electrical, &c.) Registered 9 

" Entries in these Indexes are not included in the 
Gbhbbal Ihdbx, 



Bankruptcies 3 

Electricity Supply and Tram- 
way Accounts 4 

Institution of Electrical 
Engineers 5 


Legal Intelligence 5 

Obituary 6 

Parliamentary Intelligence 6 

Reviews 6 


Telegraphy 7 

Telephony 7 

Wireless Telegraphy and 

Telephnuy g 

Works, &c.. Descriptions of., g 
Names of Authors of Articles and Papers are indexed alphabetically in the GENERAL IKDEX, and not under the sub-headingt. 

General Alphabetical Index. 

Heavy figures denote that the subject 
matter Is a *' Leading Article " or la 
the "Editorial Notes." When the 
sig:n (11 is placed after a title It sig- 
nifies that the article in question ap= 
peared intheCorrespondencecolumns 

Abady. Jacques : The Photometry of Diffe- 
rently Coloured Lights. (C) 639 (see alst pp. 
534. 540. 638. 677. 758) 
Abi.ett. C. a. : The Determination of the 

Economy of Reversing Rolling Mills. 995 
Accident. Fatal, at Clifton Colliery, Notling- 

ham, 560 
Accident. High Tension in Italy. 736 
Accidents to Tramway Passengers. 78 
Accounts, Analysis of. [Liverpool Trams] 536, 
[Bolton] 595 {.see also p. 575), [West Ham] 
658. [Manchester] 696. [Glasgow Tramsl 1021 
Accounts, Elec. Lighting. Board of Trade Form 

of, 190 
Accumulator Motor Cars for Railways, 356 
Accumulators for Peak Load [Taylor] (Cl, 182 
Accumulators y. Steam Plant, 116 
Adler. E. {see Sabersky. E.) 
Adden BROOKE. G. L. ; Mansbridge Con- 
densers. 361 
Aerial Flight ,it Bushy (Cartoon), 327 
Agnev/. p. C. : Experimental Method for the 

Analysis of E.M.F. Waves. 993 
Agriculture and Horticulture, Elec. in. 29, 397. 

44. 480 
Agriculture. Royal Show at Gloucjster. 440 
Airey-Morris. H. : The Photome^'-y of Diffe- 
rently Coloured Lights (C), 758 [see also pp. 
534. 540. 638. 677) 
Alexanderson. E. F. W. : 
Alternator for One Hundred Thousand 

Cycles, 541 
Repulsion Motor v/ith Variable-Speed Shunt 
Characteristics. 721 
Alkali-Chlorine Electrolytic Cell. Curient and 
Energy Efficiencies of the .'^inlay IDonnan. 
Barker and Hill). 80 
Allen. P. R. : Large Gas Engines. 902 
Allen. R. G. : Testing the Insulation Resist- 
t ance of Live Cables on Direct-current Systems 

by the Kc-lvin Testing Set. 539 
Alloys. Copper. The Magnetic Properties of 

certain [Ross and Gray]. 679 
Alloys. Electro-deposited. The Conditions 
which determine the Composition I Field', 
Alternating-Current Windings. Determination 

of the Leakage of [Schenkel]. 595 
Alternator for One Hundred Thousand Cycles 

[Alexandeison]. 541 
Alternator. Parsons Patent Compounded. 463 
Alternators in Parallel. The Operation of 
[Anson] 865. (C) 919. 960. [Edgcumbej iC) 
919. 960. [Ellis] (C) 959 
Alternators. S'ngle-phase. The E.M.F.s In- 
duced in th^ Exciting Winding of, 'BruhnJ 
Aluminium direct from Bauxite. 40 
Aluminium Welding. 14 
Amalgamated Association of Tramway and 

Vehicle Workers. 274 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers. 234 
Amileamation of American Elec. Lt. Companies 

Ambulances. Elec. 235 

American institute of Elec. Engineers, 368. 934 
Ammeter for the Accurate Measurement of 

Large Alternating Currents (North upl 998 
Arr.meters and Voltmeters. British Standard 

Specification for. 1020 
Anson. J. W. : The Operation of Alternators 
in Parallel. 865, (C) 919. 960. {see also p. 959) 
Antenna IPickardJ. 587, [Cram] (C) 881, 

IStone] (C) 920 
Antiquation. 178 

Apparatus. Elec, Co-operative Buying. 534 
Apparatus, Elec. Railway, Recent Improve- 
ments in [Davis], 722 

Arc, Carbon, Relighting of [Pollock, Wellisch, 
Ranclaud]. 708 

Arc. Duddell Singing. An Improved Form, 
[Nasmyth] 747. [Duddell] (C) 799 

Arc. Elec. The Rotation of. in a Radial Mag- 
netic Field [Nicol I. 845 

Arc Lamp Lowering Gear and Accessories, 562 

Arc Lamps. Magnetite. 41 

Architecture, Crystal, The Seven Styles of [Tut • 
ton]. 834 

Arco. Count : A New System of Wireless 
Telegraphy used by the Telefunken Company. 
89. (C) 228. 370; 461. 661 {see also pp. 99. 
142, 157, 174, 325, 332, 367, 374, 376, 617. 

Armature Reactance. Experimental Analysis 
of [Kapp]. 297 

ARI.1STROHG. H. E. : Address to Section B of 
the B.A.. 838 {see also p. 816) 

Arno. Prof. R. : Measuring Small Currents of 
High Frequency, 368 

Arresters. Aluminium Lightning, 493 

Artom. Alessandro : Researches in Radio- 
Telegraphy. (Cl 559. 677 {see also pp. 349. 
388, 464. 504. 559, 597, 799) 

Aspinall. J. A. F. : The Electrification of 
Railways. 91, 94 

Association of Engineers-in-Charge, 1018 

Association of Teachers in Technical Institu- 
tions. 314. 598 

Atmosphere, Upper, I nvestigations qn the Elec. 
State of. 3 i" 

Atmospheric Loss off Wires under Direct Cur- 
rent Pressures [Watson]. 828 

Atmospheric Nitrogen. Utilisation of. for the 
Manufacture of Air-Saltpetre [Bernthsenj, 

Austin. L. W. : 

A Method for producing Feebly Damped 
High-frequency Electrical Oscillations for 
Laboratory Measurements, 642 [^ee aho 
p. 720) 
SomeContact Rectifiers of Elec.Currents. 265 
The Advantages of a High Spark Frequency 
in Radio-Telegraphy, 590 

Australia. Electrical Progress in, 967 
Auto-Converter, " C.M.B.," 491. [Macfariane 
and Surge] 498. 506. (C) 597. 720, [Murohy[ 
(C) 559. 639. 759 
Auxiliary Poles for Direct-current Machines 
[DoddJ. 616 

Baden, Elec. Traction in. 459, 535 

Baldwin. F. G. C. : Some Cx>nsiderations in 

the Manipulation of Dry-Core Teleptione 

Cables. 133 


30. 72. 109. 152, 194, 239, 279, 320, 363, 402. 
444. 485, 527, 570. 648, 688, 731, 769, 811. 
854, 929, 971, 1013, 1055 

Barker, J. T. {sec Donnan. F. G.) 

Barker-Raymond. E. : Inductive Signalling 
(C) 1002 

Barn-s. H. T. : The Absolute Value of the 
Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, in Terms of 
the International Electrical Unit. 749 

Pates. F. W. : The Effect of Light on Sulphur 
Insulation. 907 

Battery Charging Station at the Montague- 
street Garage of the Brighton. Hove & Pres- 
ton United Omnibus Co.. 421 

Battery. The Employment of. in an Alternat- 
ing-current Generating Station. 451 

Beadle. Clayton, and Stevens. H. P. ; The 
Composition and Durability of Cable Papers. 
5, 58, 84 {see also pp. 496, 512) 

Bearings. Roller. 965 

Beattie. Dr. R.. and Elton. P. M. : Differen- 
tial Ballistic Methods of Measuring Hystere- 
sis Losses, 299. 341. (C) 392. 474, 516, 557 
{see also pp. 346. 351) 

Beaver, C. : The Composition and Durability 
of Cable Papers, 496 (see also pp. 5. 58, 84, 

Behn-Eschenburg. Dr. : Oerlikon Alternat- 
ing-current Railway Motors and their Effects 
on Telephone Systems, 208 
Bellini. E. : Researches on Radio-Telegraphy 
(C) 597. 799 {see also pp. 349, 383, 464, 504' 
559, 6771 
Berlin, Electricity Supply in, 4S1 
Bernthsen. a. ; Utilisation of Atmospheric 
Nitrogen, particularly for the Manufacture 
of Air-Saltpetre. 343 
Birthday Honours, 451 
Blackiriars Bridge. Widening. 849. 870 
Blackman. a. S. : Steam Turbines, 412, (Dis- 
cussion) 434 
Blanc F. : A Graphical Method for Deter- 
mining the Flux Density in Teeth. 65 
Bleaching and Disinfecting. Electrolytic, in 

Laundries. 476 
Board of Trade Revised Regulations, 552 
Boiler Efficiency Calculator. 285 
Bolton. Notes on Power Supply in. 416 
Bolton, Things Elec. at, 575 (see also p. 595) 
Boot. Horace : 
Diesel Oil Engines in Small Generating Sta- 
tions (C). 266 
The Design and Requirements of Electric 
Power Works. 139 
Booster. Reversible Relay Regulator, 129 
Boosters. Two Large. 418 
Bradford-Leeds Tramway Service. 398 
Brandt, O. : Metallic Filament Lamps, 220 
Brass Furnace. Elec. Induction, 774 
Brazil, H. : Parallel Running with Earthed 

Neutrals (C). 140 
Bridge, Electrically-operated. 602 
British Association, ,';77. 614. [Thomson] 776. 
[White] 781. [Rutherford] 791. 816. 817. 
[Gray] 821, [Marchant] 823. [Watson] 828. 
[Thornton and WilUams] 833. 877. [Tutton] 
834. [Fox] 835. [Armstrong] 838. [Bronson 
and Shaw[ 844. [Bates[ 907. [Hahn] 907. 
[Report on Practical Standards for Electrical 
Measurements] 910. IDiaryl 914. [Phillipsl 
917. lEarhartl 918. [Lymarl 919. [Electro- 
chemistry] 918. [HigmanI 951 
British Standard Specification for Ammeter 

and Voltmeters. 1020 
Bronson. H. L.. and Shaw. A. N. : On Clark 

and Weston Standard Cells. 844 
Broughton, H. H. : 
Electric Cranes, 47, 209, 291, 782, 825, 905, 

English Technical Education (C), 267 (see 
also pp. 115, 123. 230) 
Brown. S. G. : Modern Submarine Telegraphy, 

622. 669 
Bruhk. H. : The E.M.F.s Induced in the Ex- 
citing Winding of Single-phase Alternators, 
Brush Discharjes. Actinic Properties of [Wat- 
son] (C). 229 
Brussels International Exhibition. 29 I 

Building Exhibition at Olympia. 66 
Building Operations. Electricity in. 976. 988. 

1031 ■ ■ 

Building Slip Equipment (Broughton). 782 
Surge, H. (see Macfariane, J. C.) 

Cabk Interruptions. 2. 40. 78. 116. 158. 204, 
246. 285. 328. 368. 408. 450. 492. 534. 576. 
614. 656. 694. 736. 774. 817. 858, 896. 934. 
976. 1018 

Cable Makers. German. " Kartell." 450 

Cable Papers. The Composition and Durability 
of (Beadle and Stevens]. 5, 58, 84, (Beaver] 
496, 512 

Cable Railway. Elec. 1020 

Cable Sheaths. Lead, Deterioration of [Spen- 
cer], 719 

Cable Suspenders. 1(X)6 

Cable Systems. Modern, [HoUingsworth] 411, 
(Discussion) 433 

Cables. Armoured, The Resistance and Reac- 
tance of. [Whitehead] 801. (Howe] (C) 342 

Cables, The Heating of Underground [Dick] 

Cables, The Insulation of, 1 
Cady, F. E. (see Hyde. E. P.) 
California, Heroult Elec. Furnace in. 41 
Campbell. A. : On Mag-netic Testing of Iron 

with Alternating-Current. 937 
Canadian Export of Electricity. 1051 
Cargo. Elec. Plant for Dischargin?. 694 
Cascade Tunnel, Elec. Operation of. 835 
Cell. Electrolytic Alkali-Chlorine. Current and 
Energy Efficiencies of the Finlay (Donnan, 
Barker and Hill], 80 
Cells. Cadmium. The Short-Circuiting of 

[Wold]. 1025 
Cells, Clark and 1 Weston Standard [Bronson 

and Shaw]. 844 
Cells. Murcurous Sultjhate for Standard [Fox], 

Cells, The Grouping of [Dunton] (C), 436 
Central London Railway Extension. 736 
Central Technical College. 858 
Centrifugal Force [Luckin]. 254 
Chapman. A. W. : Medical Examination of 

Tramway Employees. 961 
Charges for Electrical Energy. [Hale] (Cl. 677 
Charging Currents. The Calculation of. in 

Three-phase Cables [Marchant]. 823 
Charging. Systems of. 386 
Chartered Institute of Patent Agents. 117 
Chicago Elec. Power Supply, 548. 584, 624, 662 
Chichester (Electricity Works). 420 
Childs (J. Gl & Co.'s Specialities, 561 
Chilian Railv/ays. Electrification of, 1018 
Circuit-Breakers. The Effect of. on the Wear of 

the Elec. Equipment of Tramcars. 326 
City and Guilds of London Institute. 368 
City and South London Railway, 613 [Lift 

Accident Report]. 935 
Clifton Colliery. Fatal Accident at. 560 
Clocks. Public. Synchronism of. 656 
Coal Consumption in Small Stations. 695 
Coal Mines, Electricity in, 491, (Nelson] 494, 

C^^ALES, Dr. Dennis (see Kapp, Dr. Cisbert) 
Cohen. B. S. : The Most Economical Com- 
bination of Capacity and Inductance in 
Underground Telephone Cables. 581 
Colin, M.. and Jeance, R. : Note on Wireless 

Telephony, 51 1 
Collieries. Electricity in. %7 
I (^lliery Accident. Shildon Lodge. Inquest, 968 
Colliery Explosion, West Stanley. 722 
Cxjmpetition, Railway and Tramway, 765 
Commutation in Dynamo-EIec. Machinery, 
[Rudenberg] 702. [Highfield and Living- 
stone] (Cl 758 
Commutators in D.C. Generators [Highfield 

and Livingstone]. 460 
Commutators. Turbo- [Roberts). 121 
Concrete Mi.xer. Portable Elec. 935 
Condensers. Mansbridge. [British Insulated & 
Helsby Cables (Ltd, i] (Cl 351. (Addenbrooke) 
(C) 351 
Condensers. Some Tests and Uses of [Mordey], 

Condensing and Water Cooling Plants [Lunn], 

458. (Discussion) 473 
Conductivity. Elec. Peculiarities of. ex- 
hibited by Powders and a few Solid Sub- 
stances [Goddard], 71 1 
Conductivity of Flame. Electrical. Effect of a 

Magnetic Field on I Wilson). 953 
(inductors. Electrolytic. The Nature of. 251 
Conductors. Lightning, on Ely Cathedral. 858 
Converter-Auto. " C.M.B." 491. [Macfariane & 
Surge] 498, 506, (C) 597. 720. [Murphy] (C) 
559. 639, 759 
Converter. Motor. The Theory and Application 
of. [Hallo] 118. 180. [Rosenberg) ;C) 228. 310 
(Poking and Heating Elec. in Hotels. 41 
Cooking Apparatus (Le Radiant), 101, [Childs] 

Cooper. J. S. S. : Insulating Material (C. 266 
Co-Partnership [Day]. 849 
Copper Alloys, The Magnetic Properties of 
Certain [Ross and Gray). 679 




rSuppIement to " The Electrician,' 
L October 22,19(9. 

Corona Phenomena in Air and Oil. and Their 

Relation to Transformer Design [Moody and 

Facdoli). 862 
Cotton Mill Driving. 105. [Brazil) 849 
Country House Lighting. 274 
CouRSEY. P. R. : The New Telefunken 

Method of Wireless Telegraphy lO. 720 
Cowan, Edw. W. : The Institution ot Elec. 

Engineers iCi. 267 
Cradles. Back-Gear, for B.T.-H. Motors. 143 
Crystal Architecture. Seven Styles of (Tutton). 

Crystal Palace School of Engineering. 656 
Cram. E. R : Antenni (C) 881 . [sec alio p. 587. 

Cranes. Dock. 105. 234 
Cranes. Elec. [Broughton). 47. 209. 291, 782, 

825. 905. 1025 
Cranes. Elec.. at Salina Cruz and Coata- 

coalcos. 827 
Current Consumption [PilcherJ, 952. 964 
Currents. Elec.. Some Contact' Rectifiers of 

(AustinJ. 265 
Currents. Small, of High Frequency. Measuring 

lAmoJ. 366 (Sff alio p. 435) 
Customs Duties. 564. 644. 806. 924, 967 
Customs Duty in South Africs, 521 

Dalby, W. E. : a Modern Railway Prcblem. 
Steam or Electricity. 326. 369 

Dampness. Effect of, on Marble Panels. 737 

Davis. J. L. : Recent Improvements in Elec. 
Railway Apparatus. 722 

Dawson. P. ; Electric Traction on Railways. 
[Practical Consideration of Overhead Con- 
ductors] 9. 96. 171. 255; [Third Rail] (C). 
140; [Theoretical Consideratiors of Catenary 
Suspension] 378: ICoUcctors for Overhead 
Conductors]. 502. 542; [Feeders and Feed- 
ing Systems) 578 

Day. R. : Co-Partnership. 849 

" Denny *' Combined No-Volt and Overload 
Release. 101 

Depredation of Electricity and Tramway 
Undertakings. 596. 614 

Design of Electrical Machinery. 246 

Destructor Stations. Combined. 42. 56 

Dial Movement. Electrical Impulse, 803 

Dick. J. R. : The Heating of Underground 
Cables. 413 

Dielectric Stress in Three-phase Cables. The 
Distribution of [Thornton and Williams]. 833. 

Dielectrics and the Principal Tests applied to 
them [Germann and Hills). 162 

Diesel En^nes in Small Generating Stations. 
[Dixon] (C) 229. 352. (Boot) (Cl 266 

Discharges. Brush. Actinic Properties of 
[Watson) (Cl 229 

Disinfectant. Electrolytic. 602 

Disinfecting and Bleaching. Electrolytic, in 
Laundries. 476 

District Ckjuncils' Finance. 807- 

Diversity Factor amongst Lighting Consumers 
[Fernie). 538 

Dixon. L : Diesel Engines in Small Generat- 
ing Stations (C). 229. 352 

DoDC. J. N. : Auxiliary Poles for Direct-cur- 
rent Machines. 616 

Domestic Electricity. 357 

DoNHAH. F. G.. Barker. J. T.. and Hill. 
B. H. : Current and Energy Efficiencies of 
the Finlay Electrolytic Alkali - Chlorine 
Cell, 80 

DowHES, L W. : Some Considerations in De- 
signing Heavy Capacity Fuses 740 

Drive, Elec, for Battleships, 896 

Drysdale, C. V. : The Use of the Potentio- 
meter on Alternate-current Circuits. 8 

Dubois, Louis : Wetterhorn Eltctrically- 
operated Cableway. 667. 727 

Duddell Singing Arc, An Improved Form of 
[Nasmyth], 747 

Duddell. W. : 
A Bifilar Vibntion Galvanometer. 620 
An Improved Form of the Duddell Singing 
Arc (C), 799 (see alio p. 747) 

Dundee Elec. Works Fire, 577 

DuHTOH, W. F : The Grouping of Cells fC). 436 

Durtnall. W. P. : The Electric Propulsion of 
Shits. 873. (C) 881 

Eashapt, R. F. ; Effect of Temperature Varia- 
tions on the Lurrinous Discharge in Gases 
at Low Pressures. 918 

Earthing of the Neutral Paint of Three-Phase 
Generators ISumpner] (C). 100. 182. (Brazil. 
Marchant) (C) 140. [Warrall] (C) 592 

EccLES, Dr. W. H. ; 
The New Telefunken Method of Wireless 
Telep-aphy. 617. ICl 720 (see aho pp. 89, 
99. 142, 187. 174. 228, 325, 332, 387. 370 
Magnetic Storms and Wireless Telegraphy 
(C). 1001. (see ato pp. 975, 1041) 

Economics of Medium-sized Power Stations 
[P.'eiffer], 160, 226 (i« aho pp. 224, 266) 

EtxjC'JMBE. K. : Operation of Alternators in 
Parallel. 919. 960 

Education. Enrlish Technicil. Defects and 
Remedy. [Pohl] 115. 123. (Wright) (C) 230 
[Broughton; (Cl 267. (Wrii-),') (C) 351 

ElCHBERC. F. : Types of Alternating-current 
Ommutator Motors and the Best Frequency 
for Railways, 738 

EiCHHORN. Dr. G. : Feeebly Damped Oscilla- 
tions (C). 720 {itt also p. 642) 
Elec. Association of Victoria, 475 
Elec. Contractors' Association, 369 
Elec. Engineers. Corps of, 41. 158. 247, 316 

482. 535. 576. 934 
Elec Engineers in South Africa, 656 
Elec. Football League. 149 
Elec. Industrial Association, 387, 391. 435, 642 
Elec. Industry. The Position of the. 391 
Elec. Light Ompanies. American. Amalg.ima- 

tionof. 1018 
Elec. Lighting Accounts. 190 
Elec. Machinery. Design of. 246 
Elec. Progress in France and Austria, 247 
Elec. Standardising, Testing and Training In- 
stitution, 68, 842 
Elec. Supply Accounts. 203 
Elec. Trades' Benevolent Institution, 78. 143 
Elec Works and Refuse Destructors, 42. 56 
»* Electric and Ordnance" Co. 's Specialities. 183 
Electrical Industry. The Age of, '774 [see also 

p. 802) 
" Electrical World." 977 
Electricity and ' The Times," 338 
Electricity and Water Sucply. 943 
Electricity in Eye Hospitals, 303 
Electricity in Gas Works. 656 
Electricity u. Gas. 235. 274 


Ab.Tdfen, 728. 766, 839. 851 

Acton. 809 

Accrington. 359 

Aldershot. 360 

Ayr. 926 

Barnsley. 524 

Barnstaple. 728 

Barrow-in-Furness 101 1 

Bath. 809. 851 

Batley. 399 

Belfast. 236 

Bermondsey. 766 

Bexhill. 360 

Birkenhead. 685 

Birmingham. 276 

Blackburn. 317 

Blaclcpool. 317. 360 

Bolton. 317, 595 

Bootle. 567 

Bradford, 441, 728. 766. 926 

Bridlington. 926 

Brighton. 317 

Bristol. 567 

Broken Hill (Austrahal. 766 

Burnley. 236. 482. 728 

Burton-on-Trent, 236, 276 

Bury. 360 

Canterbury. 399 

Carlisle. 646 

Chesterfield. 728 

(^'Chester. 360 

Coventry. 441. 483 

Crewe, 236. 317 

Croydon. 276, 441. 524 

Darwen. 646 

Derby. 1011 

Devonport. 728 

Devonport (Tasmania). 483 

Dover. 317. 483 

Dundee. 236. 317. 646 

Eastbourne. 728 

Eccles. 728 

Exeter. 276. 646 

Flnchley. 483 

Fulham. 317 

Glasgow. 441. 766. 809. 1021 

Gloucester. 317 

(3ovan. 728 

Greenock. 766 

Grimsby. 236 

Hammersmith. 646. 685 

Hampstead. 317 

Harrogate. 969 

Homsey. 728 

Horsham. 926 

Hove. 524 

Hoylake. 399 

Huddersfield. 728 

Hull. 685. 766 

11 ford. 728 

Ipswich. 766 

Islington. 441 

Johannesburg. 969 

Kalgoorlie (W Australia), 604 

Keighley, 317 

Kirkcaldy, 646 

Kilmarnock. 685 

Lancaster, 318 

Launceston (Tasmania), 236 

Leeds, 237, 767 ■ 

Leicester. 1011 

Leigh. 360 

Leyton. 1011 

Uncoln. 318 360 

Liverpool. 536 

Loughborough. 524 

Maidstone. 646 

Manchester. 399. 483' 696 

Marylebone. 686 

Melbourne (Australia), 1011 

Morley, 360 

Nelson, 851 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 318 

New South Wales Tramways. 360 

Northampton. 483 

Norwich. 276. 400 

Nottingham. 483 

Oldham. 483, 567 

Perth, 728 

Electricity Snpply and Tramway 

Accounts— '<"iiiii I'"'. 
Plvmouth. 1011 
Poplar. 604 
Portsmouth, 767, 809 
St Helens (Lanes.), 318 
St. Pancras, 686, 852 
Salford, 646 
Sheffield. 604 
Shoreditch. 926 
Southport. 646 
South Shields. 809, 926 
Southwark. 647 
Stalybridge, 441 
Stepney, 276 
Stockton-on-Tees, 728 
Stoke-upon-Trent. 729 
Sunderland. 318. 360 
Swansea. 361 
Sydney (N.S.W.), 767 
Taunton. 729 
Warrington. 361. 4O0 
Wednesbury. 361,969 
Wellington. 604 
West Bromwich. 318. 361 
West Ham, 406. 483, 668 
Weymouth. 483 
Wimbledon. 926 
Wolverhampton. 605 
Worcester. 361 
Yarmouth, Great. 441 

Electricity Supply in Berlin. 451 
Electricity Supply in Paris. 247 
Electricity Supply in Rheinhessen, 247 
Electrobus. The Future of the. 576 
Electro-Analysis of Mercury Compounds with a 

Cold Cathode. 3 
Electro-Analysis. Report of the British Associa- 
tion Committee on. 919 
Electrochemistry at the British Association. 918 
Electro-Harmonic Society. 236 
Electrolysis by Earthed Returns in Am;ric3. 

Electrolytic Ck>nductors. The Nature of. 251 

Electrometer. A String [Labyl. 759 

•■ Electron." 285. 451. 695. 858 

Ellis. A. H. : The Operation of Alternators in 
Parallel (Cl 960. sffl also pp. 865. 919. 959 

Elton. P. M. [see Beattie. Dr. R.) 

E. M. F. Waves. Experimental Method for th; 
Analysis of (Agnew). 993 

Empire Press Conference. 355 

Energy. Charges for Eleclrical [Hale] (Cl, 677 

Energy Direction Indicator. 425 

Engineer (The) as his own Arbitrator, 714 

Engineer vefsus The Accountant. 752 

Engineering of Ordnance. 737 

Engineering Profession, The Status of the. 
[Thomas] 1018. 1046 

Engineering Standards Committee. 79 

Engineering Wonders of the World. 79 

Entz. Justus B. : Petrol-Electric Automobiles, 
773, 779 

Eureka Clock. 392 

Evans, H. H. : Developments in Electrifica- 
tion of Railway Terminals. 697 

EvELETH. G. D. : Recent Developments on 
Interurban Elec. Railways. 589 

Exhibitions, 68. 105. 147, 234, 274. 315, 397. 
480. 481. [Travel) 523, (Brussels) 563, 644. 
664.683. (British Medical) 602, (Ironmongery 
and Hardware) 602. (Genoa) 683. 726., 
(Turin) 726. 765. (Franco-British) 727 
lAccrington) 849. [Japan-British] 850 
[ Hampstead ( 886. lMotor( 887. (Gre?nock| 
1008. (Mode[ Engineering] 1009. 1 Esist 
London] 1051 

Exhibitions. International, Commercial Value 
of. 694 

Explosion, West Stanley Collisry. 722 

Explosions, Elec. 535 

Eyde. Sam : The Manufacture of Nitrates 
from the Atmosphere by the Electric Arc. 
Birkeland-Eyde Process, 334 

Faccioli. G. : (see Moody. W. S.) 
Factories. Report of H.M. Electrical Inspec- 
tor. 283, 306 
Factory and Workshop Acts, 1901 and 1907, 

Fair Wages Clauses of Government Ck)ntracts, 

Fans. Elec. An Ecclesiastical Aspect of. 255 
Faraday House, 68, 397, 842 
Faraday House Journal, 897 
Faraday Society, 2, ISabersky and Adler] 22, 

116. [Taylor] 474, (Sandfield) 510 
Fearnley. a. R. : Some Comparisons of 

Ck)ntinental and British Methods of Operat- 

inp Tramways, 936, (DjscI 962. Isec also pp. 

933. 934 
Fell. A. L. C. : Tramway Problems of the 

Future. 963. 994 
Fernie. F. : The Diversity Factor amongst 

Lighting Ckinsumers. 538 
Field. S. : The Conditions which Determine 

the Composition of Electro- Deposited Alloys, 

Financial Assistance from an American Elec 

Light Co.. 775 
Financial Organisation and Administration 

353, 357 
Finlay Electrolytic Alkali-Chlorine C-ll. Cur 

rent and Energy Efficiencies of (Donnan 

Barker and Hill). 80. 159 
Finsbury Technical College Old Students' Asso- 
ciation Magazine, 204 

FlsCHER-HnJNEN. J. : The Calculation of 

Single-phase Commutator Motors. 939 
Fishguard Harbour. Elec. Machinery at. 9t6 
Fish Van. Electrically operated, 3 
Fittings, B.T.-H.. for Tungsten Lamps, 761 
Fittings, Elec. Artistic. 87 
Fithngs. Ironclad. 1005 
Flame Arc Lamps. The Regulation of Alternate* 

current 1 Hdgner). 169 
Fleischmann. Lionel : The Breaking Down 

of Induction Motor Windings, 142 
Fleming. J. A. : 

A Standard of Wave Length for the Calibra- 
tion of Cymometers, 459 

Researches in Radio-Telegraphy. 349. 388, 
464. 504. (C) 559 [see also pp. 597, 677, 

Telefunken or Quenched Spark Discharger, 

The Production of Steady Elec. Oscillations 
in Closed Circuits and a Method of Testing 
Radio-Telegraphic Receivers, 216 

The Utilisation of the Total Radiation from 
an Inductively-coupled Antenna in Radio- 
Telegraphy, 333 
Electrical Inventions and the Training of the 

Electrical Engineer. 1044 
Fletcher. G. H. : Some Notes on Insulating 

Material, 221 {see also pp. 246. 2661 
Flux Density in Teeth, A Graphical Method for 

Determining [Blanc], 65 
Fox, C. J. J. : Mercurous Sulphate for Stan- 
dard Cells. 835 
France and Austria, Elec Progress in. 247 
Friedlander, E. : Electrically-driven Rolling 

Mills. 750 
Fuel. Lectures on. 1019 
Furnace. A New Elec. Hardening [Sabersky 

and Adler). 22 
Furnace, Elec.. and Electrical Process of Steel- 
making (Rodenhauserl. 206 
Furnace. E[ec.. as a Power Load. 1(X38 
Furnace, Elec. Induction, for Brass Smelting, 

Furnace. Cirod Elec, for the Manufacture of 

Steel IGi rod] 1045 
Furnace, Heroult Elec. in California, 41 
Furnace. Heroult. Elec. Steel (Turnbudl. 1031 
Furnaces. Automatically-circulating, of the 

Gin Type for the Elec. Production of Steel 

(Gin), 515 
Furnaces. Elec. 450 (see also p. 452) 
Furnaces, Elec, as applied to the Manufacture 

of Iron and Steel [ Keller), 452 {see also p. 450) 
Furnaces, Elec, in Canada. 614. 1018 
Furnaces. Elec. The Kjeliin and Rochling- 

Rodenhauser(K)el(in). 1034 
Furnaces, Steel. Elec. 817 
Fuse Carrier. Simplex. 803 
Fuse, New Porcelain Handle, 311 
Fuses, 326 
Fuses. Heavy Capacity. Some Considerations 

in Designing [Downes], 740 

Galvanising Steel and Iron Tubes. New Pro- 
cess. 761 

Galvanometer. Bifilar Vibration (Duddell). 620 

Carcke. E. : Electric Liehting Acts (Amend- 
ment) Bill (Cl. 559, 597 
Gary Plant of the Indiana Steel Co.. The 
Industrial Application of the Elec. Motor in 
IShoveri. 4. 19 {Discussion). 710 

Gas Engine and Producer Plant. The Com- 
bined Efficiency of a Small (Gibson), 17 

Gas Engine. The Large. 656 

Gas Engines. Large [Allen I. 902 

Gas Works. Elec. in. 656 

" C.B." Surface-Cxintact System in the Mile 
End-road. 62. 79. 230 

"G.B." System. 408 

" G.B." System of Elec. Traction, Technical 
Aspect of (Morris], 352 

Generators and Continuous-Current Motors, 
B,T.-H.. 385. 1006 

Generators and Motors, Siemens Continuous 
Current, 385 

Generators, Three - pha-e. Earthing of the 
Neutral Point. (Sumpner) IC) 100. 182. 
[Brazil. Marchant) (Cl 140, (Worrallj (C) 392 

German Bunsen Society. 2 

Germahn. T, and S. M. Hills : The Use of 
Dielectrics and the Principal Tests applied 
to them. 162 

Germano-American Patent Treaty. 52 

Gibson. A. H. : The (Combined Efficiency of a 
Small Gas Engine and Producer Plant, 17 

Gin, G. ; Automatically - circulating Furnaces 
o* the Gin Type for the Elec. Production ot 
Steel. 515 

GiROD. P. : The Girod Elec. Furnace for the 
Manufacture of Steel. 1045 

GoDDARD. R. H. : Some Peculiarities of Eke 
Ckinductivity exhibited by Powders and a 
Few Solid Substances. 711 

Gold Mining, Elec in, 29 

(>3vernment Grants to University Colleges, 3(8 

Graduate, The Engineering. 898 {see also p. 98'j) 

Graduates. College. Why Manufacturers Dislik J 
(Taylor) 980. {see also p. 996) 

Gray, G.. and Higgins. H. : Low Tempera- 
ture Experiments in Magnetism. 631 

Gray. H. B. ; Address to the Educationi 
Science Section of the B.A.. 821 

Gray. R. C. (see Ross, A. D.) 

Green, V. D : Electric Welding, 120 

Gunnery, Elec in Naval, 158 

gopplement to " The Electrlcia 
Octolier 2?, 1909. 




Hadawav. W, S : Elec. Heating, 818 

Hahn. Otto ; The Separation of New Radio- 

Active Disintegration Products. 909 

Hale. R. S,: Charges for Elec. Energy (C). 677 

Hallo, H. S. : The Theory and Application of 

the Motor Converter. 118. 180 {.see aho p. 

228. 310) 

H^NssEN. I. E. : Calculation of Iron Losses in 

Dynamo-EIec. Machinery. 746 
Harmonics. Even, in Alternating-Current 

Circuit ITaylorl. 911 
Harwood. W. a. : A New Standard of Light, 

Haulage Gear. Slipway, Electrically-driven, 746 
Headlights. Elec, 450 
Headlights for Motor Cars, 775 
Heat. The Absolute Value of the Mechanical 
Equivalent of. in Terms of the international 
Elec, Unit (Barnes], 749 
Heat, The Absolute Value of the Mechanical 
Equivalent of, in Terms of the International 
Elec. Units. 451 
Heather. H, J. S. : The Utilisation of Small 

Waterfalls. 27 
Heating and Cooking. Elec, in Hotels, 41 
Heating, Elec [Hadawayl, 818 {see also p. 836) 
Heating. Elec, Some Problems, 836 i,S€e also 

p. 818) 
Heroult Elec. Furnace in California, 41 
HiGHFiELD, W. E,, and Livingstone, R. : 
Commutation in D.C. Generators. 460 
Commutation in Dynamo - Elec. Machines 
(C). 758 (sc; a/so 702) 
High-Frequency Currents. Small. The Measu'e- 

ment of [Arno] 368. (see also p. 435) 
Higman. C. : International Electrical Stand- 
ardisation. 951 
Hill, B. P. {see Donnan. F. G.) 
Hills, S. M. (sfe Germann. T.) 
HiRD. W. B. : Interpole Designs, 219, {Dis- 

cussion\ 259 
Hiring of Elec. Apparatus, 18 
Hoadley. E. E. : The Influence of Metallic 
Filament Lamps on the Elec. Industry and 
on Street Lighting. 410. (Discussion) 433 
Hogner. Paul : The Regulation of Alternat- 
ing-Current Flame Arc Lamps, 169 
Hoist, Elec. New, 594 
Hollingsworth. E. M. : Modern Cable 

Systems. 411, (Discussion) 433 
Homerton Infirmary. 1019 
Horse Show Illumination, 397 
Horticulture, Elec. in (see Agriculture) 
Hospitals, Eye, Elec. in. 303 
HuMFREY. J. C. W. : Hysteresis Losses. Diffe- 
rential Ballistic Methods of Measuring (C). 
Hyde. E. P.. Cady. F. E,. and Middlekauff, 
G. W. : Selective Emission of lncandesc!nt 
Lamps as Determined by New Photometric 
Methods. 381 
Hydro-Elec Plant in the Highlands. 841 
Hydro-Elec Station in California. 615 
Hydro-Elec. Station at Zurich, 736 
Hysteresis Loss, Differential Testing for 

[Wilson], 583 
Hysteresis Losses. Differential Ballistic Methods 
of Measuring I Seattle and Eltonl. 299. 341, 
(C) 392, 474, 516, 557 {see also pp. 346, 351, 
Hysteresis Tests, 346 {see also pp. 299. 341) 

Ic? Manufacture and Central Stations. 897 

Illuminating Engineering Society. 285. 858 

Illumination. Physiological Effects in, 634 

Imperial International Exhibition, 222, 761, 
[Engineering Day] 775. 876 

Imperial of College of Science and Technology. 
40. 55, 204 

Incandescent Lamps, Selective Emission of. as 
Determined by New Photometric Methods 
[Hyde. Cady and Middlekauff). 381 

incorporated Municipal Elec. Association. 41, 
205, 407, 408. [Hoadley] 410, [Hollings- 
worth] 411. [Blackmanl 412, 430, [Sinclair] 
455, 470, [Lunn]458, 472 

India Rubber Co., 858 

Indicator, Energy Direction. 425 

Indicators and Tariffs. Maximum Demand, 115 

Indicators. Maximum Power, [Reason Co.] (C) 
474 {see also p. 425) 

Inductance. A Ballistic Test for [Kapp], 383 

Iron and Steel Industry. Transvaal. 851 

Iron and Steel Institute. 2. 40. 204, 475. 817 

Iron and Steel, the Production of. by the Elec- 
tric Smelting Process [Ljungbergl. 990 

Iron Losses. Calculation of. in Dynamo Elec. 
Machinery [Hanssen], 746 

Iron. The Electrolytic Theory of the Corrosion 
of. and its Applications [Walker], 217 

Institute of Chemistry, 602 

Institute of Marine Engineers, 896 

Institute of Metals, 576, 896 

Institution of Colliery and Mining Elec. Engi- 
neers. 2, 105 

Annual General Meeting. 264 {se-: also 

p. 262) 
Armature Reactance, Experimental Analysis 

of I Kapp]. 297 
Birmingham Section, 2, 158 
Building. New. 576 
Condensers Some Tests and Uses of [Mor- 

dey]. 247 
Conversazione, 475 
Dublin Section, 116 
Discussions at the Institution, 245 

Institution of Electrical Engineers 


Economies of Medium-si;-'-,i Pov.' t Gt ,tions 

IPfeiffer), 160. 226 (s.v „; ,, i , .'.M :'2bl 
Elec Works and Refuse Deriructni , I R^l.frt- 

son). 42. 56 
Gas Engine and Producer Plant, The Com- 
bined Efficiency of a Small [Gibson), 17 
Glasgow Section, 158 
Institution of Electrical Enginears, 262, 

[Cowan] (C) 267 
Insulation Resistance of Live Cables on 
Direct-current Systems, The Testing of, 
by the Kelvin Testing Set (Allenl. 539 
Interpole Designs [Hird], 219 {Discussion) 

L.C.C. Tramways. Elec. System of [Rider], 

7?. 82 {see also pp. 100. 140, 182, 392 
Leeds Section, 40 

Light, A New Standard of I Harwood). 17 
Metal Tungsten as " Valve " Electrode 

[Walter]. 991 
Motor Converters, The Theory and Applica- 
tion of, (Hall), 118, 180, [Rosenberg) (C), 
228, 310 
New Council, 39 

Power Factor in Alternating-current Sys- 
tems, The Improvement of [Miles Walker), 
Radio-Telegraphic Station at Cullercoats 

ISorensen], 289 
Resistance, LiveThree-wire System. Measure- 
ment of the Insulation of I Kapp and 
Coales). 138 
Resistance. Non-inductive. Water-cooled 
Standard, for Precision Alternating-cur- 
rent Measurements [Paterson and Raynerl 
15 '■ 

Rolling Mills. The Electrification of Steam- 
dnven Non-reversing [Mylan), 212, {Dis- 
cussion) 382 
Special General Meeting, 657 
Students' Section, 204. [Tour] 409 
Telephone Cables. Dry-cere. Considerations 
in the Manipulation of [Baldwin]. 133 

Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, 657 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 79, 246, 

Institution of Mining Elec, Engineers, 285, 465, 
535, 775, 1019 

Institution of Municipal Engineers, 79, 1 16, 614, 

Instruments, Elec, Errors in, 775 

Instruments, New Weston, 423 

Instruments, Switchboard, o' Siemens Bros & 
Co,, 130, 168 

Insulating Material, Notes on, [Fletcher] 221, 
246, ICooperl (C) 266 

Insulation for High-tension Terminals, Con- 
denser Type [Reynders), 536 

Insulation Resistance on Direct-Current Sys- 
tems, The Testing of, by the Kelvin Testing 
Set [Allen], 539 

Insulation Resistance, 326 

Insulation, Sulphur. The Effect of Lv'ht on 
[Bates), 907 

Insulators. High-tension. 751 

Insurance. Fire. 439 

International Candle. 203, 215, 427 {se' also 
p. 694. 717) 

International Electrical Standardisation [Hig- 
man]. 951 

International Electrotechnical CommissiDn. 175 

International Unit of Candle-power [Paterson). 
717 {see also pp. 203. 215. 427. 694 

Interpole Designs [Hird]. 219. {Discussion) 259 

Inventions. Electrical, and the Training of the 
Electrical Engineer [Fleming], 1044 

Inventions, International Protection, 315 

Inventive Genius, British, 563 

Ions, The Combination of. in Air at Different 
Temperatures [Phillips] 917 

Ireland. W. E, : The Central Repair Depot of 
the L.C.C. Tramways. 956. {Discussion) 962 

Iron and Steel. Discussion on the Electro- 
metallurgy of, 1036 

Iron, Magnetic Testing of, with Alternating 
Current [Campbell 1, 937 

Iron Ores, Smelting Titaniferous in the Elec. 
Furnace. 934 

Ives. H. E., and Woodhull. L. R. : A Tung- 
sten Comparison Lamp in the Photometry 
of Carbon Lamps. 992 

Jeance. R. (^fe Colin. M.) 

Jewett, F. B. : The Modern Telephone Cable. 

Jolley. a. e. 

Modern Incandescent:Elec Lamps. 700, 755 
The Power Characteristic of the Tungsten 
Filament, (C) 961. {see also p. 907) 

Junior Institution of Engineers, 40, 117 


Kapi', Dr. G., and Dr. Dennis Coales : 

A Ballistic Test for Inductance, 383 

Experimental Analysis of Armature Reac- 
tance, 297 

The Measurement of the Insulation Resis- 
tance of a Live Three-wire System, 138 
■■ Kartell." German Cable Makers', 450 
Keller, Ch. A. ; Elec Furnaces as applied 

to the Manufacture of Iron and Steel, 452 
KIEBITZ, Dr. F. : Fundamental Principles in 

the Design of Spark Telegraphy Stations. 

99 {see also pp. 89. 142. 157. 228) 
Kjellin. Dr. F. A. : The Kjellin and Rbchling- 

Rodenhauser Elec Furnaces. 1034 
Kloss. M. : The Starting Torque ol Three- 

Phase Motors, with Squirrel Cage Rotors, 898 

Laby, J. H. : A String Ek-cfromfter, 759 
Lamp. Metal Problem. 428 {see also p. 410) 
Lamp, New Type of Tanta)um Filament 40 
Lamp Theft. 807 

Lamp, Tungsten Comparison, in the Photo- 
metry of Carbon Lamps [Ives and Woodhull), 

Lamps ,Elec. for the Police. 967 

Lamps. Incandescent, Selective Emission of 

[Hyde. Cady and Middlekauff). 381 
Lamps, Metal Filament, 887 
Lamps, Metal Filament, British Made. 518 
Lamps, Metal, Small Candle-power 200 • volt 

Lamps, Metal, The Candle Power of, 895 
Lamps, Metal, The Influence of. on the Elec. 
Industry and on Street Lighting. IHoadley) 
410, (Discussion) 433. {see also p. 428) 
Lamps. Metallic Filament I Brandt). 220 
Lamps. Modern Incandescent Elec. [Jolley), 

700, 755 
Lamps, Portable, 492 {see also p. 517) 
Lamps. The Regulation of Alternate-current 

Flame-arc (Hogner[. 169 
Lancashire and Cheshire Municipal Tramway 

Managers. 106 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Co.'s Elec. 

Service, 1009 
Langdon-Davies Motors. 261 
Lauriol, p. : The Photometry of Differently 
Coloured Lights (C), 638 {see also pp. 534, 
540, 639, 677. 758) 
Leakage of A.C. Windings [Schenkel). 595 
Leakage Reactance [Rezelman), 742. 796 

Accounts. Elec. Lighting. Recovery of, 969 
Amalgamated Radio-Telegraph, 520 
Amalgamated Radio-Telegraph Co., 104, 188 
Assessment Appeals, 479, 521 
Bergtheil & Young r. Argus Printing, 273 
Blackwell (R. W.) i>. Derby Corporation. 681 
Blair u. Maidstone Palace of Varieties, 438 
Block Light u. Thos. A. Field. 233 
Braulik's (Geo.) application to revoke 
Bremer's Letters Patent No. 18.786, 1902, 
Bristol Gas it. Bristol Tramways, 145 
British Aluminium. 600 
British Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. i>. Braulik, 

436, 477 
Child and Another i>. Ward. 395 
Clarke i>. West Ham Corporation. 103. 681 
Consolidated Nickel, Tin & Copper Mines i>. 
Crompton & Co.. 146. 185. 233. 271. 313. 
599. 643 
Consulting Engineers' Fees in Australia. 1050 
County of Durham Elec. Power Distribution 
u. Commissioners of Inland Revenue. 438 
Re Devonport & District Tramways ii. Devon- 
port Corpn.. 104. 395. 724 
Electrical Co. v. O. H. Thomas. Son & Co.. 104 
Elliot u. National Telephone Co.. 1050 
Gould i>. Lehwess, 233, 273, 396 
Hall (Cuthbert) u. Marconi's Wireless Tele- 
graph. 599 
Handsworth Tramway Arbitration, 479 
Harvey 1'. Wycombe (Borough) Elec. Light & 

Power. 1049 
Hind u. Child. 396 

Jackson (W. F.) w. F. Bailey and F. H. Jack- 
son. 519 
Johannesburg Contracts. 520 
Johnson & Phillips i/. Palmer. 519 
King I Dublin United Tramways) u. Divisional 
Justices and Dublin Corporation u. Dublin 
United Tramways. 436 
London Electrobus Co.. 643 
Macaulay and Wife ii. Great Northern. 

Piccadilly & Brompton Railway. 146 
Millbank Station Award (Westminster Elec. 

Supply Corpn. and L.C.C). 479 
Morrison u. British Aluminium Co.. 478. 682 
Mountain & Gibson. 643 
Musgrave( John) u. Bradford Corporation. 437 
N. Western Elec. & Power Gas. 520. 561 
Patent Revocation Applications. 313. 805 
Phosphor Bronze Co.. 805 
Platinum Corpn., 520 
Post Office Telephones, 724 
Postmaster-General /■■. Great Southern & 

Western Railway. 519 
Return Conditions. Sale of, 600 
Seebold II. Page & Miles, 145. 188. 561 
Sykes'(W. R.) Interiocking Signal I'. McKen- 

zie Si Holland. 599 
Telegraph Construction & Mainte.nance »'. 

Merchant & Co. and Cohen & Co. 184 
Trade Discount. 643 
Uxbridge & District Elec. Supply. 479. 561. 

Wilkinson Feed Water Heater Patent. 273 
Williams i>. Beckenham Local Council. 519 
Wiring. Municipal, in Aberdeen. 922 
Workmen's Compensation. 27 
*' Z " Elec. Lamp Mff. u. Marples. Leach. 643 
•■ Z '• Elec. Lamp Mfg. i/. Zossenheim. 188 

Leeds-Bradford Tramway Service, 398 

Lentz Steam Engine, 24 

Le Radiant (Poking Apparatus, 101 

Licensing Wiremen and Wiring Contractor, 908 

Lift Control Gear, Elec. 944 

Lifts. Infirmary. 29, 684 

Light, A New Standard of [Harwood], 17 

Light, Some Properties of. of very Short Wave 

Lengths [Lyman]. 918 
Light Railways in Germany. 29 
Lighting. Asylum. 234. 479. 683 
Lighting, Cathedral, 1008 
Lighting, College, 1008 

Lightint;, Fixed Charges fcr, 564 

Lighting, Hospital, 521, 765, 650 

Lighting, infirmary. 684 

Lighting, Museum, 522 

Lighting, School, 523 

Lighting, Street, 304 {see also p. 309) 

Lighring. Street, and the Ijxal Government 

Board. 925 
Lighting. Street, at Southampton, 368 
Lighting, Street, in Large Cities, 556, 842 
Lighting, Street, in the City of London, 523. 

633. 642 
Lighting, Street, Test at Bradford, 309 {see 

also p. 304) 
Lighting. Village, 1010 
Lighting, Workhouse. 30, 236. 276, 359 441 

482. 524. 646. 685, 766. 889 
Linking-up in London, 158, 357 
Liverpool Engineering Society, 106 
Livingstone, R. Isee Highfield, W. E.) 

A New Type of Reactance Coil, 908 
Live Three-mre System. Measu.'ement of the 
I nsulation Resistance I Kapp and Coates). 138 
LjuNGBERG, E. J. : Production of iron and 

Steel by the Elec. Smelting Process. 990 
Load Factor. Relation of. to Power Costs. 377 
Local Government Board's Attitude. 735 
Lochgelly iron and Power Co.'s Collieries. 
Elec. Power Generation and Distribution at. 
[Paul). 866 
I-ocomotive. Side-rod Single-phase. 217 
Locomotives. Elec. for the British Columbia 

Elec. Railway. 832 
Locomotives, Elec, 613 {see also p. 620) 
Locomotives. Large Continuous-current, 620 

{see also p. 613) 
Locomotives. New. for the New York, New 

Haven & Hartford Railroad. 492 
London Army Troops. R.E.. Work of. 392 
London. Brighton & S.C. Railway's South 
London Line. Electrification of, 335, 535, 
656, 977, 1019 
London Chamber of Commerce. 358 
London County Council Electrical and High- 
ways Branch. 977 
London County (^uncil Employes and Con- 
ciliation. 481. 522 
London County Council Tramways. Central 
Repair Depot of [Ireland) 956. {Discussion) 
London County Council Tramways. The Elec 
System of [Rider). 77. 82 {see also pp. 100, 
140. 142. 1821. 896 
London (City of). Electrical Matters in. 615 
London Electric Supply Corpn., 802 {ste also 

p. 774) 
London Fire Brigade. 29 
London Hippodrome. 645 
LoNGMuiR. p.. and Swindek, T. : The Bristol 

Recording Pyrometer. 231 
Lowering Gear and Accessories. Arc Lamp, 562 
LuCKlN. H. : Centrifugal Force, 254 
LuHN, E. : Condensing and Water - cooling 

Plants. 458, {Discussion) 473 
Lyman, T. : Some Properties of Light of very 
short Wave Lengths, 918 


MacDonald. Prof. H. M. : Note on Horizon- 
tal Receivers and Transmitters in Wireless 
Telegraphy. 312 

Macfarlane. J. C. and Burge, H. : "C.M.B." 
Patent Auto-Converter. 498. 506. (C) 594, 
720 {see also pp. 506. 559. 639. 7591 

McLaren. J. ; The Extended Use of Elec- 
tricity on Board Ship. 860 {see also p. 857) 

Machinery. Elec. Inspection and insurance of, 
815. 842 

Maginnis, a. J.; The Elec Drive and Marine 
Propulsion. 671 

Magnet Coils. Note on the Heating of [Wil- 
liams]. 706 

Magnetic Observations at Falmouth 01)serva- 
tory. 918 

Magnetic Storm. The, 976, [EcclesJ (C) 1001, 

Magnetism at Low Temperatures [Gray and 
Higgins). 614, 631 

Magnets, Bar, The Self-Demagnetising Factor 
of. [Thompson and Moss). 871 

Mail Wasgons. Elec. 736 

Main Line Electrification in Baden. 459 

Manufacturers and Contractors. 522 

Marchant, E. W. : 

Motor, induction. Windings. The Breaking 

Down of [Fleischmann] (C>. 142 
Parallel Running with Earthed Neutrals 

(C). 140 
Triple- frequency Currents in Neutrals of 
Three-phase Star - connected Alternators. 
The Calculation of Charging Currents in 
Three-phase Cables. 823 

Marine Propulsion and the Elec. Drive [Magin- 
nis). 671 

Marine Propulsion. Elec, 285 

Mai-stilles International Congress of Applied 
Electricity. 1908. 492 

Medical and Surgical Research, Applications of 
Elec. in. 680 

Mercurous Sulphate (or Standard Cells [Fox). 

Mercury Compounds. Electro-Analysis with a 
Gold Cathode, 3 

Merchant Venturers' Technical College. 204. 
409, {Description) 627, 665 

Metal Tungsten as " Valve " Electrode 
[Walter], 991. 1018 

Metals. Apparatus for the Rapid Electro- 
analytical Separation of [Sand). 747 

Meter. Elec, Approved by B.O.T.. 326 




tBapplement to "The Electrician,' 
October 2!, 1909. 

Metropolitan Association of Elec. Tramway 

Managers. 398 
Metropolitan District Railway Fire, Report. 

Metropolitan District Railway, Improved. 

Service. 925 
Metropolitan Railway Collision, Report, 872 
Micrometers. Precision. 223 
Microphone. Improved. 451 
MlDDLEKAUFF. G. W. {set Hyde. E. P.) 
Midland Railway, Single-ph.ise Elec. Tr,iction 

on. 613. 636 
Mine Explosion Inquiry. 684 
Mine Signalling and Telephones. 106 
Mining. Coal. The Safe Use of Electricity in 

[Woodl. 904 
Mining. Elec. in. 105. 439. 521. 764. 807, 847. 
850, 887. 895. 966. 967, (Report, 1908] 1003. 
Mining Industr,-, Transvaal, 523 
Mirrors. Gold, for Searchlights. 859 
Moody. W. S. and Faccioli, G. : Corona 
Phenomena in Air and Oil and their Relation 
to Transformer Design. 862 
Mordev. W. M. : Some Tests and Uses of Con- 
densers. 248 
Morris, Prof. J. T. : 
Technical Aspect of the " G.B." System of 

Elec. Traction. 352 
The Technical Aspect of the " G.B." System 
of Elec. Traction, 352 
Moscow Contrac. 977 
Moss. E. W. : {s/€ Thompson. S P.) 
Motor Car Regulations, 69 
Motor Converter. The Theory and Applica- 
tion of (HalloJ. 118. 180. (Rosenberg) (C) 
Motor Control Apparatus. 267. 291 
Motor. Elec, and Belt Drive. 133 
Motor, Elec., The Industrial Application of. as 
Illustrated in the C.iry Plant of the Indiana 
Steel Co. [Shoverl. 4. 49. (Dixassion) 710 
Motor. Elec. with Mixed Windings. 858 
Motor, Rve and Six-speed Three-phase, 788 
Motor Omnibus Regulations, 2 
Motor, Repulsion, with Variable Speed Shunt 

Characteristics [Alexandersonl, 721 
Motor Starters, IGeipe! & Co.. Dennyi (C) 352 
Motors and Generators. B.T.-H. Continuous- 
current, 311 
Motors and Generators, Siemens Continuous- 
current, 385. 1006 
Motors. Back G-»ar Cradles for B.T.-H.. 143 
Motors. Elec. Interesting Types. 640 
Motors. Induction. The Application of the No- 
load and Short-circuit Diagram to the 
Design and Testing (Smith]. 125, 164 
Motors, Langdon-Davies, 260 
Motors, Oerlikon Alternating-current Railway, 
and their Effects on Telephone Systems 
(Behn-Eschenburgl, 208 
- Motors, Oerlikon Thre;-phase Variable-speed, 53 
Motors, Rolling Mill lYearsleyl. 760 
Motors. Shunt, in Mechanical and Electrical 

Parallel, 1044 
Motors. Single-Phas? Commutator, TheCalcula- 

tion of IFischer-Hinnen], 939 
Motors. Traction. Commutation Pole, 920 
Motors, Types of Alternating-current Com- 
mutator, and the best Frequency tor Rail- 
ways (Eichbergl. 738 
Municipal Business Methods, 816 
Municipal History and Works of a Small City, 

Municipal Officials' Expenses, 522 
Municipal Trading. Morality in. 816 
Municipal Tramways Association. 29, 204. 859 
933. IFeamley) 936. {Discussion) %2. 
[Richer] 952. 1 Ireland! 956. {Discussion' 962. 
IConference] 961. (Chapman] 961. (Fell] 962 
Murphy. L. : Th; C.M.B. Auto -Converter 
(C). 559. 639, 759 (s.'? also pp. 498, 506, 597, 
Murray, W. S. : The New Haven Railroad 

Electrification, {Discussion) 286 
Mylak, W. F. : The Electrification of Steam- 
driven Non-reversing Rolling Mills, 212, 
{Discussion) 382 


Nasmyth. G. W. : An Improved Form of the 
Duddell Singing Arc, 747 {set also p. 799» 

National Elec Manufacturers' Association, 
148,315.354.482.522, 1052 

National Institute of ApprenticKhip. 1052 

National Telephone Co., 246, (DinnerJ 268 

National Physical Laboratory (Collected Re- 
searches), 247 

Nelsoh, Robert : Electricity in Coal Mines, 

Newcastle Corporation Tramways, 8S8 

New Haven Railroad Electrification [Murray], 
{Discussion) Tab 

New York Central and Hudson River Railway, 
Extension of El»c. Traction on. 858 

New York Edison Co., The Electricity Supply 
Stations of the, 984. 1028 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 
New Locomotives for, 492 

NicoL, J. : The Rotaiirjn of the Elec. Arc in a 
Radial Mignetic Field, 845 

Nitrates, The Manufacture of. from the Atmos- 
phere by the Elec. Arc, Birkeland - Eyde 
Process [Eyde], 334 ' 

No-load and Short-circuit Diagram, The 
ApplicaHon of. to the Design and Testing of 
Induction Motors [Smith], 125, 164 

Northampton Institute, 977 

North- Eastern Railway, 398 

NoRTHRup, E. F. : Ammeter for the Accurate 
Measurement of Large Alternating Currents 


Brifht. J. B., 603 
Dowson. Aid.. 774 
Deacon. G. F.. 409 
Dudley. R. C., 106 
Ellis. Aid. C.. 645 
Harrison, H. E.. 753 
Newton. F.. 1052 
Ranee. J., 1009 
Robertson. C. J,. 1020 
Smith. T., 315 
Stanley. W. F.. 754 
Stuart. C. E.. SO 
Trenam. E.. 522 
Tufts. F. L.. 40 
Weaver. A. C. M., 409 
Wilson. J.. 30 
Wilson, M.. 754 

Observatory. Royal, at Greenwich and the Elec. 

Tramways. 977 
Oeriikon Three-phase Variable-speed Motors. 

Oil Engines for Use in Sub-stations [Taylor] 

(C). 266 
Oil. Transformer, Apparatus for Drying. 817 
Organ Blowing. Elec Equipments. 1051 
Oscillations. Continuous, in Surgery. 158 
Oscillations. High-frequency Elec, 184 
Oscillations, The Production of Steady Elec. 

in Closed Circuits, and a Method of Testing 

Radio-Telegraphic Receivers (Fleming and 

Dyke], 25, 216 
Osterreichische Ingenieur - und Architekten 

Verein. 204 
Overhead Wires, Lead-covered, 464 

Papers, Cable, The Composition and Dura- 
bility of, (Beadle and Stevens] 5, 58, 84, 
[Beaver) 496, 512 

Parallel Running with Earthed Neutrals. 
(SumpnerJ (C) 100, 182, [Brazill (C) 140. 
[MarchantI IC) 140 

Paris. Electricity Supply in. 247 


A_l... Nc.v. ui Parliament. 762 

Baker Street and Waterloo Railway Bill, 233 

Bills, Miscellaneous. 520 

Central London Railway Bill, 232. 599 

Cleethorpss Provisional Elec. Lighting Order 

Confirmation Bill. 562 
Colinton Tramways Order. 682. 847 
County of Durham Elec. Supply Bill, 396 
Elec. Lighting Acts (Amendment) Bill, 28. 
67, 102, 145. 188, 315. 357. 520, (C) 
[Garcke] 559. 597. 598. 774. 805 
Edgware & Hampstead Railway Bill. 966 
Elec. Railway Bills, 396 
Folkestone, Sandgatc and Hythe Tramways 

Bill, 189, 232. 274 
Gas Companies' Electricity Suppl" Bills. 102 
Gateshead and District Tramways Bill. 599, 

Glasgow Corporation Bill. 642. 724. 762 
Greenock Corporation Bill. 436, 479 
Holsworthy Provisional Elec Lighting 

Order, 762 
Ireland, Trunk Telephone System in, 562 
Liverpool Corporation Tramways Bill, 396 
L.C-C. (Tramways and Improvements) Bill. 
London Electricity Supply Legislation, 28, 

London United Tramways Bill, 188, 233 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Stations and the 

Government, l(X)7 
Marine Signalling, 847 
Metropolitan Ambulances Bill. 762 
Mines. Home Office Rules for Electricity 

in. 922 
Mining, Electricity in, 847, 966, 1007 
Morecambe Tramway P,0. Confirmation Bill, 

National Telephone O.'s Staff, 763. 847 
Naval Electrical Engineering Contracts, 922 
North East London Railway Bill, 562 
North Metropolitan Elec, Power Supply 

Bill. 189, 233 
North-West London Railway Bill, 188. 232 
Oldham Corporation Bill. 232, 642, 724 
Post Office and Wireless Telegraphy, 884 
Post Office Telephone and Radio-Telegraphic 

Services, 103 
Royal Assent. 966 

Scottish Provisional Orders, 103, 642 
Submarine Cables and Trawlers, 145 
Telegraph and Elec Light Wires, 189 

232, 356, 396, 599 
Telegraph (Arbitr tion) Bill, 232, 520, 562, 

Telephone Equipment for the Artillery, 103 
Telephone Plant Renewals, 67 
Telephone. Sunday Facilities. 966 
Tramcar Drivers' Hours. 232 
Torquay and Paipnton Tramways Bill, 562 
Watford Urban District Council Bill. 642 
West Kent Elec, Power Bill. 562, 642 
Wireless Telegraphy Act, 966 
V/ireless Telegraphy on Passenger Steamers, 

479, 805 
X-Ray Research Work, 28 

Parsons' Patent Compounded Alternator, 463 

Patent Amendment, 888 

Patent and Designs Act, 1907, 817 

Patent Office Procedure, 184 

Patent, Opposition to Grant of. 884 

Patent Record - (Appears usually before Ck)m- 

panies' Meetings in each Issue) 
Patent Revocations, 146, 24S 

Patent Systems and Industrial ProgreK, 592 
P.itents in 1908. 61 

Paterson, C. C. and Rayner. E. H. : 
Non-inductive, Water-cooled Standard Re- 
sistances for Precision Alternating-curient 
Measurements, 15 
The Proposed International Unit of Candle- 
power, 717 {see also pp. 203, 215. 427, 894) 
Paul, J. : The Generation and Distribution of 
Electrical Power at the Collieries of the 
Lochgelly Iron and Coal Co., 866 
Pearson, R. L. : The Thermo-E.M.F. of a 

Tantalum Copper Couple, 594 
Petrol-Elec. Automobiles (Entzl. 773. 779 
Personal. [Edison] 2, [Seabrookj 40. IBroc 
scombe] 148, (Fuller] 191, (Thomson) 275, 
ILeage] 316. (Brookin?) 358. [Wilson] 368, 
(Graves] 408. [Wilkinson] 408. [Kennedy, 
Wilson] 450, [Bishop] 482. [Hooghwinkel] 
684. [Smith] 727. (Westwood) 727, (Nathan, 
Miine] 675, (Adams) 935, [Houghton] 977, 
[Bastow] 1009, [Whalleyl 1019 
Pfeiffer, a. J. J. : Economics of Medium 
sized Power Stations, 160, 226 {see also pp 
224. 226) 
Phillips. P. : The Combination of Ions in Air 

at Different Temperatures, 917 
Phoenix Fire Office Rules for Elec. Installa- 
tions, 348 
Photometer, " Flicker," and Metal Lamps, 534 

{see also p. 540) 
Photometry, Accuracy in, 694 
Photometry of Differently Coloured Lights. 
(Wild] 540, IC) 677 {see also p. 534). [Lau- 
rial] (C) 638, [Abady] (C) 639, [Morris- 
Airey! 758 
Physical Society. (Drysdale] 8. (Fleming and 
Dyke] 25. 216 (Fleming and Richardson) 26, 
175. [Smith] 27. (Bragg and Glasson. Sad- 
ler. Lyle] 177, IDuddelll 301, [Fuller and 
Grace. Campbell and Smith] 302, [Wright, 
Stansfield, PatersonI 46B. [Nicholson] 469, 
[Carhart. Lowry. Campbell. Russell and Alty, 
Drysdale, Jordan] 590 
" Physikalische Zeitschrift." 78 
PhysikaMschtc-chnische Reichsanstalt, El»c. 

Work at. in 1908, 799 
PicKARD. G. W. : 
Antennae. 587 {see also pp. 881, 920) 
Solid Rectifiers, 553 
Pig-iron, Electrical Production of, 946 
PiLCHER. R. S. : Current Consumption. 952 

{see also p. 954) 
PoHL. Dr. R. : The Defects of English Tech- 
nical Education, and the Remedy, 116, 123 
{see also pp. 230, 267) 
Pollock. J. A. : The Re-lighting of the Carbon 

Arc. 708 
Postal Telegraph Clerks' Association. 69 
Potentiometer, The Use of, on Alternate- 
current Circuits [Drysdale], 8 
Powders, Pecularitiss of Elec. Conductivity. 
Exhibited by. and a few Solid Substances 
(Goddard). 71 1 
Power, Elec, The Charge for, at West Ham, 

393, 509 
Power Factor. The Improvement of, in Alter- 
nate-current Systems [Miles Walker), 144 
Power Generation by the Tides, 40 
Power Schemes. South African, 645, 685, 727 
Power Stations. Small, 408 
Power Supply. 672 
Power Supply, Elec. and Tariffs, 425 {see also 

p. 474) 
Power Supp[y. E[ec., in Bombay, 2 
Power Units. Cheap. 364 

Power Works. Eiec. The Design and Require- 
ments of [Boot;. 139 
Printing Works, Elec, in, 521 
Private Bill Legislation, 235 
Producer and Gas Engine Plant. The Combined 

Efficiency of a Small [Gibson), 17 
Protective and Controlling Apparatus and High 
Voltage Transformers for Outdoor Installa- 
tion (Randall). 637 
Provisional Order Revocations, 106, 148, 235, 

Provisional Orders Granted. 148, 565 
Provisional Orders, Transfer, 398, 566 
Pump. High Vacuum Mercury, 704 
Pumping. Elec, for Irrij.ation, 664 
Pumps, Colliery, Electrically Driven, 657 
Pyrometer, New Form of Fery Radiation, 293 
Pyrometer, The Bristol Recording (Longmuir 
and Swinden], 231 

Radio-Active Disintegration Products, The 

Separation of [Hahn[. 909 
Radium. Extraction of, 451 
Radium, The Value of. 409 
Railless Elec. Traction, 138, 976, 1002 
Railroad Electrification, The New Haven 

[Murrayl {Discussion). 286 
Rail Bender. Electrically Driven, 1019 
Rail Grinding Machine, New. for Tramways,295 
Rails, The Wear of, on Elec. Railways, 576 
Railway Amalgamation and Railway Rates,440 
Railway and Tramway Competition, 765 
Railway, College Elec, 385 
Railway Combinations, 399 
Railway. Elec. Apparatus, Recent Improve- 
ments (Davis), 722 
Railway, Elec. Cable, 1020 
Railway, Elec, Conditions in Austria. 695 
Railway, Elec, Euston -Watford, 850 
Railway Electrification, 284, (C) (Murad) 558, 

Railway Electrification in Brazil. 896 
Railway Electrification on the L.B. & S.C. 

Rly., 335, 535, 656,977, 1019 
Railway, Main Line, Electrification In Baden, 


Railway Problem, Modern; Steam or Elec- 
tricity (Dolby). 326. 369 

Railway Terminals, Developments in Elec- 
trification I Evans), 697 

Raiiway, 6.600-volt Single-phase, 328 

Railway, Victoria-London Bridge, Elec, 977. 

Railway, Vicloria-Sydenham, Projected, 969,' 

Railway Working, Six Months'. 736 

Railways, Alternating-current Commutator 
Motors and the Best Frequency for (Eich- 
berg), 738 

Railways. British. 764 

Railways. Canadian Main Line, Electrification 
of, 859 

Railways, Chilian, Electrification of. 1018 

Railways, Elec. Traction on [Dawson], [Practi- 
cal Considera'don of Overhead Conductors] 
9,96. 171. 255. [Third Raid (C) 140. [Theoreti- 
cal Considerations of Catenary Suspension] 
373. (Collectors for Overhead Conductors] 
502, 542, (Feeders and Feeding Systems) 578 

Railways, Interurban Elec, Recent Develop- 
ments on [Eveleth], 589 

Railways, Light. 106, 190. 235. 315, 603, 684, 
727, 765. 808. 850 

Railways, Light, in Germany. 29 

Railways, Main Line, Construction of Elec- 
trically-worked, in the United States, 736 

Railways. Single-phase. Energy Consumption 
of. 158 

Railways.The Electrification.of 1 Aspinail), 91 .94 

Ranclaud a. B. B. (see Pollock, J, A.) 

Randall. K. C. : High Voltage Transformers 
and Protective and Controlling Apparatus 
for Outdoor Installation. 637 

Rate Making. Equitable. 983 

Rayner. E, H. : {s'e Paterson, C. C.) 

React,=.nce Coii, A New Type of (Livingstone). 

Reactance. Leakage (Reselmanl. 742, 796 
Rectifiers, Contact (Austin). 265 
Rectifiers, Solid (Pickard). 553 
Reciprocating Engines and Exhaust Turbines. 

Reciprocating Engines and Turbines for Trac- 
tion Generating Stations (Rizzoi. 329 
Refrigerating Plant. Elec. at Philadelphia, 493 
Regulations, New Home OflSc? (C), 517 {see also 

p. 492 
Regulator, New Elec, 303 
Reichsanstalt, Physikshschtechnische,, Elec 

Work at. in 1908.779 
Relay Regulator, Reversible Booster, 129 
Remanencj, Neutralisation of, in Generators. 

55, [Mossayl IC) 142 
Re.'^earch. The Value of. 773 
Resistance, A New Form of Standard (Rosa), 

Resistance. A New Method for the Absolute 

Measurement of ! Rosal, 1023 
Resistances, Non-inductive, Water-cooled 

Standard, for Precision Alternating-current 

Measurements [Paterson and Rayner], 15 
Reversing Rolling Mills, The Determination of 

the Economy of 1 AblettI, 995 


Boiler Feed Water (Anderson). 347 
Development and Electrical Distribution of 

Water Power (Lyndon), 96 
Die Asynchronen Wechselstrommaschinen 

(Arnold and La Cour), 1040 
Die Atmospharische Elektrizitat [Mache and 

Schweidlerl. 636 
Die Chemischen Stromquellen der Elek- 
trizitat (Grimm), 348 
Die Elektrischen Eigenschaften und dis 
Bedeutung des Selens fur die Elektro- 
technik[Ries). 876 
Die Eiektrotechnik (Laudien[. 179 
Die " Elektrische " Taschenbuch [Scharlatt], 

Die Kraltfelder (Bierknes[. 876 
Die Normalen Eigenschaften Elektrischer 

Maschinen ((3oldschmidt), 795, 842 
Die Revision Elektrischer Starkstroman- 

lagen (Stern). 96 
Dynamobau (Pichelmayerl, 715 
Electrical Installations of Elec. Light. Power. 
Traction and Industrial Electrical Ma- 
chinery (Kennedy). Vols. 1. and II.. 635 
Electrical Laboratory Course [Archibald 

and Rankin). 593 
Electric and Petrol-Electric Vehicles[Paynter- 

Adams). 225 
Electric Bells (Bottonel. 556 
Electric Furnaces [Borchers], 138 
Electric Lamps (Solomon), 673 
E(ectric Lighting and Power Distribution 

[Maycock], 913 
Elec. Power and Traction [Daviesl. 95 
Electricity in Factories and Workshops 

(Haslaml. 716 
Electricity : Present and Future (Poincare), 

Eiektrische Lichteffekte (Biscanl. 998 
Elektrolytische Zahler (Norden(. 754 
E[ektrotechnische Messkunde (Konigswer- 

ther), 264 
Elektrotechnische Messungen und Mess- 

instrumente [Wernickel. 593 
Elementary Dynamo Design [Hird], 514 
Elementary Manual of Radtotelegraphy and 

Radiotelephony (Fleming], 179 
Elementary Manual on Steam, and the 

Steam Engine (Jamieson), 263 
Elementary Theory of Direct Current 
Dynamo Elec Machinery [Ashford and 
Kempson), 20 
Elemente und Akkumulatoren, ihre Theorie 
und Technik [Bein], 348 

Supplement to " The Electrician, 
October 22, 1909. 



Fevlews— co'idiuii/. 
Essays Biographical and Chemical [RamsayJ, 

Experimental Elasticity [Searle], 137 
Galvanotechnik [KrauseJ. 263 
Handbook of Wireless Telegraphy [Erskine- 

MurrayJ, 471 
Heavy Electrical Engineering [HobartJ. 429 
Horse-power Computer for Petrol Motors 

IGolding], 997 
Horse-power Computer for Steam, Gas and 

Oil Engines [GoldingJ. 997 
Iron and Steel IStansbiel, 306 
La Consommation des Chaudieres k Vapeur 

et I'Economie de Combustible [Sidersky], 

La Telegraphie sans Fils [1. van Dam], 226 
La Telegraphie sans Fil ITurpain], 388 
La Telegraphie sans Fil et la Telemecanique 
L'Electrotechnique Exposee a I'Aide des 

Mathematiques Elementaires [Paquet, 

Docquier and Montpelier], 837 
Le RLglage des Groupes Electrog^nes 

IRoutin]. 914 
Life Story of Sir Charles Tilston Bright, C.E. 

[Charles Bright], 19 
Liquid and Gaseous Fuels I Lewes], 58 
Magnetism and Electricity IRichardson], 914 
Management of Dynamos JLummis-Pater- 

son], 137 
Modern Power Gas Producer, Practice and 

Application [Alien], 674 
Natural Sources of Power I Ball], 348 
Notes on and Drawings of a f^our-cylinder 

Petrol Engine LSpooner], 755 
Phy.sikalische Wandtafeln IPfaundler], 180 
Practical Calculation of Transmission Lines 

I Rosenthal], 387 

(MonierJ. 430 
Pioper Distribution of the Expense Burden 

IChurchJ, 57 
Recherches sur la Preparation Electrolvtique 

des Composes du Plomb [Duvivier], 838 
Sammlung Elektrotechnische Lehrheite, 

IHoppeJ Vols. 1., II. and 111., 555 
Some Electro-chemical Centres IPring], 755 
Standard Handbook for Electrical Engi- 
neers, 306 
Traction Electrique [Battler], 795 
Uber die Oxydation des Stickstoffes im 

GekuhltenHochspannunsbogen bei Minder- 

druck [Koenig], 594 
Vectors and Vector Diagrams, Applied to the 

Alternating -current Circuit ICramp and 

Smith], 471 
Whittaker's Arithmetic of Elec. Engineer- 
ing, 472 

Reynders, a. B. : Condenser Type of Insula- 
tion for High-tension Terminals, 536 

Rezelman, J. : Leakage Reactance, 742, 796 

Rheinhessen, Electricity Supply in, 247 

Rheograph, The Abraham Double Projection, 

Rhine Water Power Scheme, 191 

RiDEAL. S. : The Purificalion of Water by 
Ozone, 517 

Rider, J. H. ■ Elec. System of the L.C.C. Tram- 
ways, 77, 82 {see also pp. 100. 140, 142, 1821 

Ri2ZO, G, : The Relative Advantages of Recip- 
rocating Engines and Turbines for Traction 
Generating Stations, 329 

R:)BERTS, R. J. : Turbo-commutators, 121 

Robertson, J. A. : Elec. Works and Refuse 
Destructors, 42, 56 

RochHng-Rodenhauser and Kjelhn Elec 
Furnaces, [Kjellinl, 1034 

RoDENHAusER, W. : The Elec. Furnace and 
Electrical Process of Steelmaking, 206 

Rolling Mills, Electrically - driven [Fried- 
lander], 750 

Rosa, E. B. : 
A New Form of Standard Resistance, 252 
A New Method for the Absolute Measurement 
of Resistance, 1023 

Rosenberg, Dr. E. : Motor Converters (C), 228 

Ross, A. D. : On the Maf>netic Properties of 
Certain Copper Alloys, 679 

Rosyth Works Pov/er Station, 888 

Royal Field Artillery (Territorial), 116 

Royal Institution, 117, 695 

Royal Society. 40, 1 16, 159, 247, 368, 408, (Con- 
versazione) 451 

Royal Society of Arts, 409, 475, 492 

RurENBERo, R. : Commutation in Dynamo- 
Elec. Machinery, 702 {see also p. 758) 

RussELi, A. and Wright, A.: T.he Arthur 
Wright Electrical Device for Evaluation 
Formulas and Solving Equation, 903 

Rutherford, Prof. E. : Address to Section A 
of British Association, 791 


Sabersky, E.. and Adler, E. : A New Elec. 
Hardening Furnace, 22 

St. Marylebone Electricity Tariff, 678 

Sand, H. J. S. : Apparatus for the Rapid Elec- 
tro-analytical Separation of Metals, 747 

ScHEMKEL, M. : Determination of the Leakage 
of Alternating-current Windings, 595 

Science m Public Schools, 794 

.Sccttish Tramway Officials' Association, 275, 

Sewage Effluent, The Elec Treatment of,2 13 

Sha'v, a. N. (5f.; Bronson. H. L.) 

Shenton, H. C. H. : The Practical Sterilisation 
of Water and of Sewage Effiuentf 290 

Ship-Board, The Extended Use of Ele'-tricitv 
on, 857 [McLaren], 860 

Ships, Elec. Propulsion of [Durtnali], 873 (C) 

Shovels, Electrically Driven Power, 925 

Shover, B. R. : The Industrial Application of 

the Elec. Motor, .is illustrated in the Gary 

Plant of the Indiana Steel Co., 4, 49, {Dr- 

cussion) 710 
Sign, Elec. Kaleidoscopic, 935 
Signalling, Elec, 408 
Signalline, Inductive [Barker] (Cl, 1002 
Signalling. Submarine, 450 
SignalUng System, Elec, New, 859 
Simplex Flexible System of Elec. Wiring, 46 
Sinclair, (^uncillor Alex. : Cheap Units, 455, 

470 {see also p. 517) 
Single-phase Alternators, The E.M.F.s Induced 

in the Exciting Winding of [Bruhn]. 20 
Single-phase Railways, Energy Consumption 

of, 158 
Smelting, Elec, of Iron Ore, 775 ' 
Smith-Catterson, J. K. {see Marchant, E. W.) 
Smith-Jervis, F. : The High-pressure Spark- 
gap (C), 720 
Smith, N. F : 

The Effect of Tension on Thermal and Elec- 
trical Conductivity, 846 

The Effect of Torsion on Thermal and Elec- 
trical Conductivity, 847 
Smith, Stanley P. : The Application of the 

No-load and Short - circuit Diagram to the 

Design and Testing of Induction Motors, 125, 

Smith, T. Vincent : Wireless Telegraphy in 

the German Army (C), 142 {see also pp. 53, 

Smoke and Vibration, 1010 
Smoke Nuisance, Alleged, 1008 
Smoke Prevention, 399 
Snyder, F. T. : Distillation of Turpentine by 

Electricity, 335 
Society of Engineers. 415, 896 
SoRENSEN, AageS. M. \ The Radio-Telegraphic 

Station at Cullercoats, 289_!C), 961 
South Lancashire Tramways, 399 
Spark-gap of an Induction Coil, 719 
Spark-gap, High-pressure [Jervis-Smith] (C), 

Spencer, T. G. : Deterioration of Lead Cable 

Sheaths, 719 
Starters, Double Revolution Drum Type, 231 
Starting Machine with Device for the Neu- 
tralisation of Remanence, 55 [Mossay] (C), 

Starting Torque of Three-Phase Motors, with 

Squirrel Caee Rotors [Kloss], 898 
Statistics, London, 968 
Status of the Engineering Profession, [Thomas] 

1018. 1046 
Steam Engine, The Lentz, 24 
Steel, Elec. Production of, 614 
Sleel, Elec. Purification of, 492 
Steel Works, Elec. in, 99 
Steelmaking, The Elec. Process of, and the 

Elec. Furnace IRodenhauser], 206 
Steinmetz, C. p. : Power Characteristics of 

the Tungsten Fihment. 907 {see also p. 9611 
Sterilisation of Water and of Sewage Effluents 

(Shenton], 290 
Stevens, H. P. {see Beadle, Clayton} 
Stone, J. S. : Antenns, (C) 920 {see also pp. 

587, 881) 
Storm, Magnetic, The, 975, [Eccles] (C) 1001, 

Street Lighting, 304 {see also p. 309) 
Street Lighting at Southampton. 368 
Street Lighting in Large Cities, 556, 842 
Street Lighting in the City of London, 523. 533. 

Street Lighting Test at Bradford, 309 {see also 

p. 304) 
Sub-stations and Power Distribution, S24 {see 

also pp. 1 60, 226) 
SuMPNER, W. E. : Parallel Running with 

Earthed Neutrals (C), 100, 182 
Supply Industry, Elec, in America, 40 
Surface Contact System, A New, 615 
Surface (Contact System, "G.B.," Report on 

Mile End-road System, 62, 79, 230, 352 
Surface Contact Systems, 77, 408 
SwiNDEN, T. {see Longmuir, P.) 
Switch and Fuse Combined. 135 
Switch, Intermediate, Lundberg's NewType of, 

Switchboard Instruments of Messrs. Siemens 
Bros. St. Co., 130, 168 

Tantalum and its Industrial Applications, 79 
Tantalum Lamp Factory at Dalston, Siemens 

Bros. Dynamo Works, 965 
Tariff, Electricityj in St. Marylebone, 678, 693, 

{see also p. 1002) 
Tariff Problems in Berlin, 775 
Tariffs and Indicators, Maximum Demand, 115 
Tariffs, (C) 1002, {see also pp. 678, 6931 
Taylor, A. M. : 

Cheap Units (C), 517 

Oil Engines for Use in Sub-stations (C), 266 
Taylor, F. W. : Why Manufacturers Dislike 

College Graduates, 980 
Taylor, J. B. : Even Harmonics in Alternat- 
ing-Current Circuits, 91 1 
Technical Training and the King, 533. 535 
Teeth, A Graphical Method for Determining the 

Flux Density in [Blancl. 65 
Teeth, Tips of, on Armature Cores [Miles 

Walker], 982 


Cable, New Submarine, to South America, 2 

Cable, New, to Argentina, 492, 976, 1018 

Cable Rates, South American. 69 

Cable Service, Australian, 396 

C.s. ■• Mackay Bennett," 849 

Cable Steamer, New, 315 

Cables, New Submarine, 275, 358, 576 

Telegraphy — i;,niinn,,i. 

Cables. Newfoundland, 522, 723, 761, 804. 

Colonies and the Cables, 325 

Commercial Cable Co. and Newfoundland 
Government, 723, 761. 804 

Empire Cable Communication, 967 

Indo-European Telegraph Service, 78 

International Code Telegraphy, 235 

Pacific Cable Board, 688 

P.O. Telegraphs and Telephones, 645 

Post Office Telegraph Staff, 144 

Press Conference and the Telegraph Service, 
467. 476 {see also p. 449) 

Press Telegram Rates Reduction, 614 

Rates, Australasian Cable, 439 

Rates, Cable, 449 {see also pp. 467, 476) 

Rates, Press Telegraph, 534 

Selective Call, Siemens, for Telegraph Sta- 
tions, 883 

Submarine Cables and Trawlers, 145 

Submarine Telegraphy, Modern [Brown], 
622, 669 

" Telconia " Telegraph Ship, 545 

Telegraph (Arbitration) Bill, 562 

Telegraph Cables, Damaging, 234 

Telegraph Wires. Underground. 926 

Telegraphs, Brazilian, 397 

Telegraphist's Cramp, 359 

Telegraphists under Fire, 577 

Telegraphy and the United States, 873 

Turkish Telegraphic Codes, 1053 
Telephone Rates, 107 
Telephone Cables, Dry Core, Considerations in 

the Manipulation of [Baldwin], 133 
Telephones, State Ownership of. 1 

Cable. A Large Telephone, 534 

Cables, Dry Cx)re Telephone, Some Con- 
siderations in the Manipulation of [Bald- 
win], 133 

Canada, State Telephones in. 69 

Capacity and Inductance in Underground 
"Telephone Cables, The Most Economical 
Combination of ICohen], 581 

Detector, New, for Wireless Telegraphy and 
Telephony, '736 

Glasgow Telephone Service. 924 

Hull Telephone Accounts. 368 

Impedance of Telephone Lines, 937 

Italy's Telephone Service, 1052 

London Telephone Service, 235 

Municipal Telephony, Hull, 275, 1009 

Paris to Madrid Telephones. 775 

Peking Telephone Service, 727 

P.O. Telegraphs and Telephones, 645, 808 

Rates in Australia, Telephone, 148 

Rates, Telephone, 107 

Telephone Cable, The Modern [Jewett], 1022 

Telephone on Monte Rosa. 889. 896 
Telephone Systems, The Effects of Oerlikor. 
Alternating-current Railway Motors on 
[Behn-Eschenburgl, 208 
Telephones, State Ownership of, 1 
Telephony over Long Distances, 399, 603 
Train Dispatching by Telephone, 204 

Temperature Variations, The Effect of, on the 
Luminous I Discharge in Gases at Low 
Pressures [Earhart], 918 

Tension, The Effect of, on Thermal and Elec. 
Conductivity [Smith], 846 

Testing Stations, 1019 

Textile Factories, Elec, Operation of [Wilson], 

Textile Industry and Electricity, 638 

Thermo-E.M.F. of a Tantalum Copper Couple 
[Pearson], 594 

" Therol " Electric Water Heater. 874. 881 

" The Times," Electricity and, 338 

Thomas. G. A. : The Status of the Engineering 
Profession. 1018. 1046 

Thompson, S. P., and Moss, E. W. : The Self- 
Demagnetising Factor of Bar Magnets, 871 

Thomson, Sir J. j. : Presidential Address to 
the British Association. 776 

Thornton, W. M.. and O. J. Williams : The 
Distribution of Dielectric Stress in Three- 
phase Cables, 833, 877 

Thury System, Development of, 897 

Thv/aite Fund, 604 

Tides, Power Generation by, 40 

Tobey, H. W. ; Recent Developments in Trans- 
formmg Apparatus, 659 

Tools, Workshop, Special, 1048 

Torsion, The Effect of. on Thermal and Elec 
Conductivity [Smith], 847 

Trackless Tramways, 102 

Trackless Trolley, 355 

Traction, Elec, in Argentina, 967 

Traction, Elec, in Berlin, 28S 

Traction, Elec. in Brazil, 736, 896 

Traction, Elec, in British Columbia, 508 

Traction, Elec, in Buenos Ayres, 328 

Traction, Elec. in Congo, 2. 68 

Traction, Elec, in France, 326 

Traction, Elec. in Hungary. 764 

Traction, Elec, in Japan, 2 

Traction, Elec. Main Line, in Baden. 459. 535 

Traction, Elec, on Mont Blanc. 615 

Traction, Elec. on Railways [Dawson], (Prac- 
tical Consideration of Overhead Conductore] 
9, 96, 171, 255, (Third Rail] (C) 140, [Theo- 
retical Considerations of Catenary Suspen- 
sion] 378, [Collectors for Overhead Conduc- 
tors] 502. 542, [Feeders and Feeding Sys- 
tems] 578 „ „ .. . 

Traction, Elec, on the L.B. & S.C. Railways, 
South London Line. 335 

Traction. Elec. Third Rail in [Railway Engi- 
neer. Dawson] (C). 140 

Traction, Heavy Elec, 204 

Traction Motor. Commutation-Pole. 920 

Traction. Progress of Single-phase Elec, 328 

Traction. Railless Elec, 136, 975, 1002 

Traction, Single -phase Elec, on the Midland 
Railway, 613, 636 

Trade Union Congress, 925 

Train Dispatching by Telephone, 204 

Train Lighting by Turbo-generator on Loco- 
motive, 313 

Training of the Electrical Engineer, and 
Electrical Inventions [Fleming], 1044 

Tramcar Disinfection, 275 

Tramcars. Single-Dectc v. Double-Deck, 933 
(ire also p. 936) 

Tramv;ay and Light Railway Officials' Associa- 
tion. 148. 736, 976 

Tramway. Camborne-Redruth, 764, 849 

Tramv/ay Current, The Cost of, 1018 

Tramway Employees, Medical Examination of 
(Chapman I. 961 

Tramway Fares. 575 

Tramway Halfpenny Fares. 157 

Tramway Lease. 149 

Tramway Matters. 933 

Tramway Orders. 1010 

Tramway Passengers. Accidents to. 78 

Tramway Problems in the Future [Fell] 963. 

Tramway Transfer. 680 

Tramways and Light Railways Association, 

Tramways and Railway Assessment. 70 

Tramways. Comparisons of British and Con- 
tinental. [Fearnley] 936. {Discussion) 962, 
{see also pp. 933, 934) 

Tramways, Current for, 655 

Tramways, L.C.C, Central Repair Depot 
I Ireland] 956. {Discussion) 962 

Tramways. L.C.C. Elec System of [Rider], 77. 
82 {see also pp. 100. 140. 142, 182) 

Tramways. L.C.C, Guide. 925 

Tramways, London United. Assessment. 925 

Tramways, Marble Arch-Cricklewood, 925 

Tramways, The Depreciation of, 1017 

Tramways, Trackless. 102 

Transformers. High-voltage, and Protective 
and Controlling Apparatus for Outdoor In- 
stallation IRandallJ. 637 

Transforming Apparatus, Recent Developments 
in [Tobey], 659 

Transmission Lines. Calculation of High-ten- 
sion Power. 328 

Transmission Lines, Overhead, 398 

Triple-frequency Currents in Neutrals of Three- 
phase Star-connected Alternators [Marchant 
and Catterson-Smith). 674 

Trolley, The Overhead, 934 

Tungsten Filament. Power characteristic of the. 
[Steinmetz] 907. [Jolly] (C) 961 

Tungsten Lamps, Regulable, 340 

Tunnel Boring, Electricity in, 924 

Turbine, Steam. Economies. 934 

Turbines, Exhaust and Reciprocating Engines. 

Turbines. Exhaust. Operation, 492 

Turbines, Impulse, 897 

Turbines, Parsons, at Lot's-road (venerating 
Station, 955 

Turbines, Steam [Blackman], 412, {Discus- 
sion) 434 

Turbines, Tests on Curtis, 475 

Turbines, Willans Vacuum, 295 

Turbines, Wind [Childs], 561 

Turbo-commutators [Roberts], 121 
Turbo-Generators, The Rating of, 655 
TuRNBuLL. R. : The Heroult Elec. Stee 

Furnace. 1031 
Turpentine. Distillation of, by Electricity 

ISnyder], 337 
Tutton, a. E. H. : The Seven Styles of Crystal 

Architecture, 834 
Tyne Tube Scheme, 107 


Underground Railways of London. 976. 978 

University of Birmingham. 858 

University of Sheffield. 450 

Units Cheap [Sinclair], 455, 470. [Taylor] (C) 

Units, Large Power Station. 554 
University of Bristol, 204 
University College (London). 475 
University College of Dundee. 79 
University Colleges of Great Britain, 426 
University of Liverpool. 158 
University of London, 576 
University of Manchester, 576 

Vacuum Tubes. New kind of Glow in, 205 
Ventilation of Libraries, 1037 
Victoria-Crystal Palace Tube, 1010 
Victoria-London Bridge Elec Railway, 977 
Victorian Institute of Engineers, 40 
Vienna, Electricity Supply in. 656 
Voltmeters and Ammeters. British Standard 
Specification for, 1020 


Wages Clauses, Fair, of Government Contracts. 

Walker. Miles : The Improvement of Power 
Factorin Alternating-current Systems, 144 
Tips of Teeth on Armature Cores, 982 
Walker, W. H. : The Electrolytic Theory of 
the Corrosion of Iron and its Applications. 
Walter, L. H. : Measuring Small High-fre- 
quency Currents, 435 
The Metal Tungsten as " Valve " Electrode. 
991, 1018 



rsnpplement to " The Electrician, 
L October 22. 1909. 

W^te Heat from Coke Ovens, Utilisation of, 

Waterfalls. The Utilisation of Small (Heather). 
Water-Hammer. 1004 127 

Water Heater, Elec. • Therol." 874. 831 
Water-power Scheme. Large Canadian, 409 
Water Supply and Electricity, 943 
Water. The Purification of. by Ozone [Ridealj, 

Watson. C. J. and E. A. : Actinic Properties of 

Brush Discharges (Ci, 2» 
Watson, E. A. : Atmo: ; heric Less off Wires 

under Direct-currer.T Pusiiirej,. 828 
Wave-length. A StanJv : c:. for the Calibra- 
tion of Cymometers i Fie mine), 459 
Welding. Aluminium. 14 
Weldine, Elec.. of Rail Bonds, 705 
Welding. Elec, ICreenl. 120 
Weulisch, E. M. (i,v- Pollock, J. A.) 
West Ham. The Charge for Elec. Power at, 393 
Westminster E!ec. Supply Corpn.. 976 
Weston Instruments. New. 423 
Wetterhorn Electrically-operated Cableway 

[Dutois). 667, 727 
Whitehead. J. B, : The Resistance and Reac- 

tanc? of Armoured Cables, 801 {ue also p.842) 
White's, Sir Wm. : Presidential Address to 

Section G of the British Association, 781 
Wild, La[icelot W. : 

Differential Methods of Measuring Hysteresis 
Losses (Cl, 435, 516 {.see also p. 299, 341) 

The Photometry of Differently Coloured 
Lights, 540, (C) 677 {see also pp. 534, 638, 
639. 7581 
Willans Vacuum Turbines, 295 
Williams. G. T. : Note on the Heating of 

Magnet Coils. 706 
Williams. O, J. {see Thornton. W. M.) 
Wilson. E. : 

Differentia! Ballistic Methods of Measuring 
Hysteresis Losses (C), 351 

Hysteresis Loss, Differential Testing lor. 533 
Wilson, H. A. : Effect of a Magnetic Field on 

the Electrical Conductivity of Flame. 953 
Wilson, H,W, : The Elec, Operation of Textile 

Factories. 631 

Wind Turbines IChildsl. 561 

WinJing. Elec,, The Itfland System, 493 



Ai: '\ : V.'iivk-is, Sob 

An: : • ... L''.ih^.,'.iui. ol the Radiation 
from ar. Inductively Coupled, in Radio- 
Telegraphy (Fleming), 333 

Antennae (Pickard), 587 

Classes, Wireless Telegraph, 354 

Cullercoats. Radio- Telegraphic Station at 
(Sorensenl. 289 

Detector. New, for Wireless Telegraphy and 
Telephony, 736 

Directive Wireless Telegraphy at the Brescia 
Exhibition. 1019 

Duplex System of Wireless Telegraphy, 116 

France. Wireless Telegraphy in. 604 

Frequency, High Spark. The Advantages ofj 
in Radio-Telegraphy (Austin!, 590 

Carman Army, Wireless Telegraphy in the 

Hotels. Wireless in. 45 

Lepel System of Wireless Telegraphy, 142, 
174, 325, 367. 374. 376 {see also pp. 89, 
157, 228, 332. 370. 461. 617. 661. 720 

Licences, Wireless Telegraph. 158 

Magnetic Storms and Wireless Telegraphy 
lEcclesJlC). 1001 

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Stations and the 
Government. 1007. 1017. 1045 

Military Operations, Wireless Telegraphy in, 

Navy, Wireless Telegraphy in, 766 

Notes, 30. 70, 107, 149, 191, 236, 275, 316, 
359. 440. 482. 566, 604, 646, 685, 765, 808, 
851, 857, 889, 1011, 1053 

Oscillations. A New Method ol Transmitting 
Messages by Means ot, through the same 
Circuit, 657 

Oscillations, Continuous, in Surgery. 158 

Oscillations, Feebly Damped High-fre- 
quency Electrical, The Production of, for 
Laboratory Measurements, [Austin] 642, 
(Eichhorn) (C) 720 

Oscillations, High Frequency Elec, 184 

Wireless Telegrapby and Tele- 
phony -■■'■hi'"". •'. 

Oscillations. The Production of Steady Elec. 
in Closed Circuits, and a Method ol Test- 
ing Radio- Telegraphic Receivers (Flem- 
ing and Dykel. 216 

Post Otlica and Marconi Wireless Stations, 
615, 859. 884 

Poulsen System of Radio-Telegraphy. 908, 
(Sorensenl (C) 961 

Radio-Telegraphy, Researches in (Fleming] 
349, 388, 464, 504, (CI 559, (Artom( (C) 
559, 677, I Bellini] (Cl 597, 799 

Railway Train, Wireless on a, 130 
(Smith) (Cl, 142 {see also pp, S3, 1 16) 

Receivers and Transmitters, Horizontal, 
in Wireless Telegraphy [MacDonald], 312 

Sea, Wireless Telegraphy at, 368 

Spark Telegraphy Stations, Fundamental 
Principles in the Design ol IKiebitzj 99 
{see also pp. 89, 99. 142. 157, ;-', 228, 325, 

Steamers. Wireless Telegraphy on Passenger, 
479. 805, 847 

Telefunken Co.'s New System of Wirebss 
Telegraphy, lArcol 89. (Cl 228. 370, 461, 
661, (Ecclesl 617. (Cl 720. ICourseyl (C) 
720 {see also pp, 99, )42. 157. 174. 325, 
332. 367. 374. 376 

Telefunken or Quenched Spark Discharger 
(Fleming). 332 

Tenitoria) Force, Wireless Telegraphy in the, 
53, 1 16 {see also pp. 142. 1571 

Wave Length, a Standard of, for th*; Calibra- 
tion of Cymometers (Fleming). 459 

Wireiess Stations. Equipment of, 897 

Wireless Systems. Rival, 325 

Wireless Telegraphy Act, 966 

Wireless Telephone Notes, 30, 70, 359. 399, 
808, 1011. 1053 

Wireless Telephony. Note on [Colin and 
Jeance], 51 1 
Wires. Overhead. Lead covered, 464 
Wiring, Elec. Simplex Flexible System, 46 
Wiring. Municipal, in Sheffield. 887 

Wiring Problem, another Solution, 39 
Wiring Rules. 284 
Differential Ballistic Methods of Me,-isuring 

Hysteresis Losses (Cl. 351 
Hysteresis Loss. Differential Testing for. 583 
Wold. P. 1. : The Short-Circuiting of Cadmium 

Cells, 1025 
Wood. C. R, : Safe Use of Electricity in Coal 
Mining. 904 • 

WoODHULL. L, R, : {see Ives, H. E.) 
Workhouse Contracts and L.G, Board, 357 
Bolton, Notes on Power Supply in, 416 
Chicago Elec, Power Supply, 548. 584. 624, 

Chichester Electricity Works. 420 
Fishguard Harbour, Electrically Driven 

Machinery at. 946 
Indiana Steel Co.. Industrial Application of 
the Elec. Motor as illustrated in the Gary 
Plant of IShoverl. 4. 49 
Lochgelly Iron & Power Co.. EUctrical Power 
Generation and Distribution at the Col- 
heries of (Paul). 866 
Merchant Venturers' Technical College, 

Bristol. 627. 665 
New York Edison Co,. The Electricity Supply 

Stations of. 984. 1038 
Salina Cruz and Coatzacoalcos. Elec. Cranes 

at. 827 
" Telconia " Telegraph Ship, 545 
Wetterhorn Electrically-operated Cableway 
(Dubois], 667, 727 

WoRRALL, C. W. : Earthing of the Neutral 
Point of Three-phase Generators, 392 

bright, A., Electrical Device for Evaluation 
Formulse and Solving Equations [Russell 
and Wright). 903 

Wright, A. : {see Russell. A.) 

Wright. Chas. H. : English Technical Educa- 
tion (C), 230 

Y, E. W. : RoUint? Mill Motors, 760 

Municipal, Foreign, and General Notes. 

Accrineton. 147. 683, 924 
Acton, 234, 3v6. 438. 563. 601 . 

806. 886. 1037 
Afghanistan. 105 
Aldershot, 439 
Aivaston. 725 
Amble. 763, 886. 924 
Argentina. 28. 234. 355, 479. 

601. 683. 849. 967. 1050 
Ashford. 521 
Aston, 147 

Ashton-under-Lyne, 274. 396 
Australia. 148. 806 
Australasia. 28. 63, 105. 190. 
234. 35b. 439. 470. 601. 
683. 724, 764. 849, 836, 924. 
967. 1008. 1051 
Austria. 68 

Austria-Hungary, 644. 924 
Bacup, 28. 601. 645. 849 
Bailieboro 'Ireland). 849 
Barking. 68, 314. 683. 1008 
Barnes, 68. 234, 726 
Bamsley. 190, 726 
Barnstaple, 397, 601 , 764 
Barrow-in-Furness. 563 
Bath. 28. 105 190. 397, 439. 

521, 563. 601.967 
Battersea. 105, 357, 563. 644 

Beckenham, 234, 397, 1051 
Bedford. 105. 274. 601 
Belfast. 29, 68. 480. 849, 886 
Bentley. 886 

Bermondsey, 68. 234, 967 
Bethnal Green. 234, 924, 1051 
Bexhill, 29, 190. 397. 439, 924 
Birmingham, 68. 190. 480, 

Bishop's Stortford, 726 
Blackburn. 147, 521 
Bodmin. 563. 683 
Bolivia, 854 

Bolton, 105 190, 886, %7 
Boston. 764 

Bournemouth, 147, 190, 1051 
Bradford, 357 
Bradford-on-Avon, 563 
Braunton (Devon), 105, 967 

Bray. 29. 274 601, 764, 836 

Brazil, 563, 764, 806, 967, 

Bridgend. 967 

Bridlington, 234, 314 1051 

Brighouse, 190, 849 

Brighton, 234. 357, 397, 480, 
644, 683. 1051 

Bnstol, 563, 806, 886 

Brumby and Frodingham,806, 

Buckfastleigh (Devon), 924 

Bulgaria, 1059 

Burnley. 190, 683. 806 

Burslem. 357. 644, 726, 849, 
886, 924, 1050 

Burton-on-Trent. 397, 849 

Bury (Lanes,), 190 

Bury St Edmunds, 967 

Buxton, 29 

Caldy. 726 

Canada. 683 

Cardiff. 68. 521 1008, 1051 

CarUsle. 105, 190,644,967 

Castleford, 644 

Ceylon, 924 

Chelmsford, 147 

Chelsea, 105 

Cheshunt, 315. 480 

Chichester. 29, 105, 357 

Chili, 234, 602, 764 

China, 105 397, 564, 726, 764, 

806, 924, 967 
Chippenham. 967 
Clacton. 234 
Cleckheaton. 397 
Cleethorpes, 190 
Clerkenwell. 1008 
Clevedon. 886 
Colchester. 29 
Colombia (Central America). 

Cookstown (Ireland). 274 
Coombe {see Maiden) 
Corea. 967 
Cork 147. 234 
Costa Rica. 764 
Coventry. 1051 
Cowdenbeath (N.B.). 521.564, 

806. 924 
Croydon. 315 
Cuba, 644 
Cullompton, 397 
Cumberiand, 886 
Damascus. 764 
Darlington, 357, 439, 521 , 564, 

Dartford, 480 
Darwen, 190,315,357 
Dawson City (Klondike), 806 
Derby. 521, 602 lOil 
Devonport, 68. 521 
Dewsbury, 274 
Doncaster. 564, 764 
Dover, 521, 1051 
Droylsden. 274, 480 
Dublin. 480 

Dudley. 190, 521, 807, 1051 
Dundee, 564, 726, 924, 967, 

Dunfermline, 564, 850 
Dunster, 68 
Ealing, 397 
Eastbourne, 357 
East Grinstead, 190 
East Ham. 564, 683 
East London, 764 
East Lothian, 29 
Eccles. 357, 521, 683 
Ecuador. 480. 764 
Edinburgh, 68, 147, 602, 644, 

Egham. 274 
Egypt, 1051 
Epsom. 29, 439, 521 , 602, 683, 

Erdington, 850 
Evesham. 887 
Falkirk, 887 
Famham, 480 

Farnworth. 887 

Felixstowe, 235 

Fife, 397 

Finchiey. 105. 190, 684, 1051 

Fleetwood. 1()5 

Fowey ((Cornwall). 967 

France. 726 

Fraser)Durgh. 967 

Frinton-on-Sea. 683 

Frodingham {see Brumby), 

Frome, 29 1806 

Fulham. 564. 644. 850. 967 

German East Africa, 397 

Germany, 726, 968, ]009.]052 

Gi))in6ham [Kent]. 275, 564. 

Glasgow, 29, 68, 924, 968 

Gloucester. 684 

Golborne, 397 

Gravesend, 764 

Grays Thurrock, 397 

Greystones (cci. Wicklow), 521 

Greec;. 315,397, 850 

Greenock. 69, 602, 968 

Grimsby, 69, 887 

Hackney, 235, 439, 565. 837 

Halilax, 235, 481. 684 

Hammersmith, 69, 190. 315, 
565. 968 

Hampstead, 206. 357 

Handsworth, 69, 521, 602 

Hanley. 29. 521 

Harrogate. 397 

Haslemere. 837 

Haslingden. 850. 1009 

Hastings. 275, 521, 807 

Hay, 807 

Hayti, 1009 

Heckmondwike, 602 

Hemel Hempstead. 397 

Hereford. 147. 275, 565 

Hesle, 315, 684 

Heston and, Isleworth, 69 

Helton, 105 

Hey wood. 565 

Hindhead. 69 

Hindley. 397, 968 

Holland. 105. 357, 644, 850 

Honduras, 726 

Hornsey, 29, 481 

Hounslow. 69, 1052 

Hove. 887 

Huddersfield. 147, 765, 1052 

Hull, 275, 684 

1 1 ford, 397, 1052 

Ilkeston, 807, 887 

India. 29. 105. 147, 235,357, 
397. 602. 684. 726. 850. 887, 
924. 1009. 1052 
[ Ipswich. 765 

Irvine (N.B.). 1052 
I Islington. 275. 684, 1052 
1 Italy, 105. 148. 315. 357. 439 
522, 602. 684. 807, 850, 887. 
968, 1009, 1052 

Japan. 315, 644,726, 807, 1052 
1 Kearsley, 765 

Keighley (Yorks,), 522 
I Kettering, 807 

Keynsham, 565 

Kilrea, 727 

Kingsbury (Middiesex), 1009 
King's Lynn, 684 
Kingston-on-Thames, 315,684 
Kirkcaldy, 29, 807 
Lancashire, 315 
Larne (Ireland), 522 
Launceston, 603 
L.CC. 148, 235, 275, 398, 

L,C.C, Tramways. 106. 148. 

190,235, 275.315.398, 481 

522, 565. 603. 645. 684, 808 

887. 924. 968. 1009, 1052 
Leeds. 106. 275. 357. 398. 439, 

481. 644. 850, 968 
Leek, 522 

Leic3ster. 106. 1009 
Leith, 148. 190, 522, 684 
Leyton, 148, 522. 684 
Littleborough, 439, 850 
Little Hulton, 398 
Liverpool. 69, 148 
Llandafl. 439 

Llandudno. 106,190.439.924 
Loch, 148 
London. 68. 1009 
London (Canada). 275 
Londonderry. 808 
Long Eaton. 925 
Longton. 358. 684. 887. 1009 
Loughborough, 358 
Lowestoft. 190. 565. 727, 925 
Lurean (Ireland). )06 
Luton. 727. 925 
Lytham. 522 
Macc)es(ie)d. 106 
Madeira, 727 
Maghera. 398 
Maidenhead. 29 
Maidstone, 315. 969 
Maidens and Coombe, 315, 

565. 765 
Manchester. 69. 105, 148, 398. 

522. 565, 850 
Mansfield, 808, 887, )009 
Market Harborough, 190,358, 

439, 481 
Marylebone, 148, 275, 440, 

481, 1052 
Melbourne (Derbyshire). 1009 
Mexborough, 969 
Mexico, 106, 358, 398. 520. 

565, 727, 887 
Middlesbrough. 29, 190, 235, 

358, 684. 727 
Middlesex. 315, 440, 482, 1052 
Middleton. 808 
Morecambe. 603, 808 
Mountain Ash, 69 
Nailsworth, 565 
Nelson, 106. 190, 440 
Neston (Yorks). 106 
Netherlands, 684 
New Brunswick, 106 
Newcastle (Ireland). 925 
Newcast)e-on-Tyne. 106. 888 
Newcastie-under-Lyme. 30 
Newton-in-Makerfield. 440 
Newton-le-Willows. 235 
Newport (Mon,), 30, 565, 76 

925, 1009 

Norway, 440, 565 

North Berwick, 565 

Northallerton, 565 

Northampton. 765, 888 

Nottingham, 148. 522 

Oban. 969 

Oldham, 358, 808 

Ontario, 808. 1009 

Oulton Broad, 315, 727 

Oxford, 69 

Paignton, 808 

Palestine, 523 

Paris. 969 

Peking. 727 

Penrith, 398 

Plymouth. 148, 191. 316. 398. 

440, 925, 1010 
Poland. 440 
Poplar, 482, 969, 1010 
Port Glasgow, 1010 
Portadown (Ireland), 191 
Portsmouth, 315, 969 
Portugal, 235 
Preston. 645 
Quebec (Canada). 925 
Radcliffe. 482 
Rawtenstall. 106, 235 
Reigate, 316, 969 
Rhyl. 727 
Rochdale. 69 
Rotherham. 969 
Roumania. 191,319,358 
Rugby. 523 
Runcorn. 566 
Russia. 69, 235, 685, 727, 889 

Saffron Walden. 69 
St. Anne's-on-the-Sea, 30, 
St, Helens, 566 
St, Mellons,685 

358, 482 

St, Pancras, 235. 399 

St, Petersburg, 236, 808 

Ralford, 359, 399, 969 

Salvador, 645 

Sandwich, 566 

Sao Paulo (Brazil), 316 

Saskatchewan, 191 

Seoul (Corea), 765 

Servia, 645, 1053 

Sevenoaks, 1053 

Sheffield. 191, 603, 727, 808, 

Shorcditch, 69 
Shrewsbury, 482 
Smallthorne, 645 
South Africa, 30. 191. 358, 

566, 645. 685, 727. 808. 889 

1010, 1053 
South Crosland (Yorks). 399 
Southampton. 30, 148, 236, 

482, 603, 685, 1010 
Southend, 106,359, 603, 1010 
Southgate, 106 
Southport, 765 
South Shields, 566, 969 
Southwark, 30, 148, 191, 236, 

359, 440, 523 

Spain, 148,316,359,850,925, 

Spalding, 1053 

Stepney, 566 

Stevenage, 316 

Stoke-on-'Trent. 148. 316 

Stourbridge. 1053 

Strand. 566 

Stretfoid. 399. 603. 727. 889 

Sunderland. 69, 359, 685 
Swansea, W. 566 
Sweden. 685. 889 
Swinton and Pendlebury. 889 
Switzerland. 107, 482,523,566, 

Taunton. 359. 808 
Tavistock. 889 
Tewkesbury. 523 
Tinsley. 440 
Tiverton. 566 
Tonbridge. 1053 
Toronto. 851, 925 
Torquay, 30. 523, 925 
Tottenham, 1010 
Tunbridge Wells. 149. 685 
Turkey. 191.399. 1053 
United States, 359. 566. 808 

Urueuay. 359, 482, 765 

Usworth (Durham), 839 
Venezue)a, ]91, 727, 969 
Victoria, 851 
Vladivostock. 316 
Walthamstow, 316, 482, 645, 

Wakefield. 359 
Walsall, 107. 523. 566. 727 
Walton-on-the-Naze, 523 
Warrington. 727, 889 
Watford. 30. 191. 275, 359. 

399, 604,926. 1011 
Wednesbury. 523 
West Bromv/ich, 149. 523 
West Ham. 70. 107, 191,316, 

440, 604. 1011 
West Hartlepool, 149 
West Houghton, 926, 2 75 
Westminster. 646 
Weymouth. 926 
Whitby, 1053 
Whitefield (Lanes,), 969 
Whitehaven. 70 
Whitwood (Lanes,). 399 
Widnes. 604, 765 
Wigan, 30 

Willesden, 316, 440, 523 
Wimbledon. 30. 149 
Winchester, 1053 
Woking. 30 
Wolverhampton, 70,399,604, 

889. 926 
Wood Green, 399, 523 
Woolwich,2 107, 236, 399, 

Worcester, 30. 70, 604, 926 
Worthing, 316. 889 
Wrexham, 30 
Yardley, 399 
Yarmouth. 926 
York, 30. 70. 149, 236, 316, 

524, 851 , 889 
Zeehan (N.2,), 604 

Supplement to " The Electrician,' 
October 22. 1909. 



Companies' (Joint-Stock) Meetings, Reports, Dividends, Statutory Returns, &c. 

Aberdeen Suburban Tramways, 812 
Alderley & Wilmslow Elec. Supply. 199 
American Telephone & Telegraph, 404, 610, 

American Transcontinental Telegraph, 652 
Anglo-American Telegraph, 74, 610, 651, 688, 

Anglo-Argentine Tramways. 35. 322. 403. 404, 

Anglo-Portuguese Telephone. 363. 403 
Armstrong (Sir W. G.l. Whitworth. 972 
Aron Electricity Meter, 280. 321. 363 
Ascot District Gas & Elec.. 812 
Auckland Elec. Tramways, 111. 153 
Auto-Claw. 112.200 
Babcock & Wilcox. 35. 1 1 1 , 1014 
Baker Street & Waterloo Railway. 689, 770 
Barnsley & District Elec. Traction. 241 
Bath Elec. Tramways. 35 
Bi-centric Insulating. 732 
Birmingham & Midland Tramways, 403, 445 
Birmine:ham Elec. Case. 652 
Blackpool & Fleetwood Tramroad, 689, 812 
Bogota Telephone. 530. 732 
Bombay Elec. Supply & Tramways, 445, 571, 

Bournemouth & Poole Elec. Supply. 446, 652 

Bray. Markham & Reiss. 1056 

Brisbane (City of). Elec. Light, 73 

Brisbane Elec. Tramways Inveetment. 36. HI. 

Bristol Tramways & Carriage. 652 
Brilish Aluminium. 36. 572. 610. 930 
British Columbia Elec. Railway. 74. 732. 892. 

British Elec. Traction. 154. 200. 487. 529 
British Insulated & Helsby Cables, 572, 812 
British Electromobile. 930 
British Empire Trust. 651 
British Prometheus. 242 
British Thomson-Houston. 892. 930 
British Tungsten Lamp. 364 
British Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg.. 241. 280, 

Bromley (Kent) Elec. Light & Power, 73, 930 
Bromoton & Kensington Elec Supply, 652 
Brown, Boveri, 892 
Brunner, Mond, 280 

Brush Elec. Engineering, 199, 241, 322, 364 
Burks (F.), 446 
Buluwayo Waterworks, 651 
Calcutta Elec. Supply, 74, 154. 241. 446. 690, 

854. 972, 1014 
Calcutta Tramways. 36. 73. 1056 
Callenders Cable & Construction. 241. 279 
Calmont, King. 404 

Canadian General Elec.. 36. 322, 892, 930 
Cascade (1906) Power. 74. 200 
Castner-Kellner Alkali. 242 
Centra! Elec. Supply. 200. 322 
Central London Railway. 609. 651. 731 
Chadburn's (Ship) Telegraph. 364. 404 
Charing Cross. Euston & Hampstead Railway. 

689. 770 
Charing Cross. West End & City Elec. Supply. 

Chatham & District Light Railway. 609 
Chelsea Elec. Supply. 322. 610 
Chili Telephone. 530. 571 
Chilian Elec. Tramway & Ught. 639 
Chiswick Elec. Supply Corpn.. Ill 
Church Stretton Elec. Supply. 930 
City & South London Railway. 571. 650 
City of Beunos Ayres Tramways. 1 12. 652 
City of Birmingham Tramways. 111. 198 
City of London Elec. Lighting. 364. 572. 690 
City of Santos Improvements. 74 
Clontarf & Hill-o'-Howth Tramroad. 530 
Clyde Valley Elec. Power. 153 
Colne & Trawden Light Railway, 770 
Colombo Elec. Tramways & Lighting. 112 
Compania de Electricidad Luz y Fuerza de 

Junin (Agrentina). 364 
Compania Industrial de Electricidad del Rio 

de la Plata. 364 
Campania Telegrafica. Telefonica del Plata, 74 
Ck)nsolidated Elec.. 731 
County of London Elec. Supply, 74, 652 
Cxiventry Elec. Tramways, 1 1 1 
Cowans, 242. 572 
Craigpark Elec. Cable. 73. 153 
Crompton & Co., 609. 651 

Cryselco. 770 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph, 35 

Davis Electrical. 1056 

Defries(J.) & Sons. 36 

Delhi Elec. Tramways & Lighting. 530, 571 

Deutsch- Allan tische Telegraphengesellschaft, 
Cologne. 73 

Dick. Kerr. 972. 1014 

Direct Spanish Telegraph. 770 

Direct United States Cable. 1 12, 572, 609, 649 

Direct West India Cable, 972 

Doulton, 199, 854 

Dublin & Lucan Elec. Railway. 651 

Dublin United Tramways. 530. 651 

Dudley. Stourbridge & District Elec. Traction, 
III. 154 

Dumbarton Burgh & County Tramways. 854, 

Dundee. Broughton Ferry & District Tram- 
way. 892 

Eastern St. South African Telegraph. 530 

Eastern Extension. Australasia & China Tele- 
graph. 112. 153. 197. 446. 530. 1014 

Eastern Telegraph. 112. 153. 196. 446. 10!4 

Edison & Swan United Elec. Light. 892 

Edmundsons' Electricity Corpn.. 530. 609 

Elec. & General Investment. 488. 529 

Elec. Batteries & Carbons. 530 

Elec. Construction. 530. 570 

Elec. Contracts & Maintenance, 364 

Elec. Landaulet. 446 

Elec. Supply of Victoria. 770. 1056 

Elec. Traction of Hong Kong. 280 

Electrolytic AlkaH. 892 

Electro-Mechanical Brake. 242. 322. 364. 610 

Elmore's G?rman & Austro-Hungarian Metal. 
199. 280 

Engineering Instruments. 200 

Escher. Wyss. 972 

Europe & Azores Telegraph. 732 

Evered & Co.. 36 

Evershed & Vignoles. 732 

Falkirk & Dist. Tramways. 199 

Fleming. Birkby & Goodall. 36 

Folkestone Electricity Supply. 972 

Forrest (W.) (Sheffield!. 572 

Fort William Elec. Light. 732 

Galloways. 280 

General Elec.. 199. 571, 609 

Globe Telegraph & Trust, 364, 404, 487, 854 

Glover (W. T.) & Co.. 242 

Gratze (Ltd.). 36 

Gravesend & Northfleet Elec. Trams. 242 

Great Northern & City Railway. 689 

Great Northern. Piccadilly & Brompton Rail- 
way. 689. 770 

Great Northern Railway. 731 

Great Northern Telegraph. 153. 446. 483 

Greenwood & Batlev. 483, 572 

Griffiths (Wm.), 1014 

Hadfield's Steel Foundry, 652 

Halifax & Bermudas Cable, 972 

Hamilton (Claud). 854 

Harper Elec. Piano. 200 ' 

Hastings & District Elec. Tramways. 322. 572 

Havana Elec. Railway. 36 

Headland's Patent Elec. Storage Battery. 930 

Henley's (W. T.) Telegraph Works, 112, 690 

Hobart Elec. Tramway. 483 

Hooper (H.). 572 

Hove Elec. Lighting. 972 

Howard Asphalt Troughing. 242 

Huggett & Worthington. 930 

Hutchins (F.). 530 

India Rubber. Gutta Percha & Telegraph 
Works. 364. 403 

Indian Elec. Supply & Traction. 445 

Indo-European Telegraph. 36 110 

Imperial Lamp Works. 812 

Imperial Tramways. 652 

Isle of Wight Central Railway. 812 

Isle of Wight Elec. Light & Power. 36 

Johnson & Phillips. 242. 321, 446 

Johnson-Lundell Elec, Traction. 972. 1014 

Kalgoorlie Elec. Power & Lighting Corpn . 199. 
322, 1014 

Kalgoorlie Elec. Tramways, 322, 364 

Keith & Blackman. 892 

Kensington & Knightsbridge Elec. Lighting. 

Kent Elec. Power. 854 

Keswick Elec. Light. 488 

Kilowatt Publishing. 74 

Kinetic-Swanton. 488. 812 

Lanarkshire Tramways. 732. 770 

Lancashire Dynamo & Motor. 652 

Lancashire Power Construction. 689 

Laurence. Scott. 404 

Le Radiant. 972 

Learriington & Warwick Elec.. 364 

Leicestershire & Warwickshire Elec. Power 

Synd.. 200 
Lepel Wireless Synd.. 982 
Lewes & District Elec. Supply. 153 
Lisbon Elec. Tramways. 154. 199. 1014 
Liverpool District Lighting. 652 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. 652. 690, 770 
Lodge-Muirhead Wireless & General Telegraph 

ing. 930 
London. Brighton & South Coast Railway, 651, 

London. Chatham & Dover Railway, 690 
London Electrobus. 732 
Lowden Elec. Lamp. 364 
London Elec. Supply. 154 
London Elec. Wire & Smiths. 572 
London General Omnibus. 73 
London Platino Brazilian Telegraph. 322 
London United Tramways. 530 
Mackay. 322. 812 
Madras Elec. Supply Corpn.. 609 
Marconi's Wireless Telegraph, 444, 487. 572 
Marples. Leach. 322 ♦ 

Marsh. Son & Co.. 404 
Martin IT. R.).930 
Mather&Platt. 446. 610 
Mawdsleys. 242 

Melbourne Elec. Supply. 74. III. 200.930 
Melton Mowbray Elec. Light. 242 
Memoranda. 36. 74. 112. 154. 200, 242, 280, 

322. 364. 404. 446. 488. 530. 572. 610. 652. 

690. 732. 770. 812. 854, 892. 930, 972, 1014, 

Mersey Railway, 770. 812 
Merthyr Elec. Traction & Lighting. 74. Ill 
Metropolitan District Railway. 652. 732 
Metropolitan Elec. Supply. 652 
Metropolitan Railway. 609. 652 
Mexican Light & Power. 609 
Mexico Tramways. 36. 200. 242. 609. 732. 930 
Midland Elec. Corpn. for Power Distribution. 

Mirlees. Bickerton & Day. 280 
Monte Video Telephone. 74 
Montreal Light. Heat & Power. 610 
Mountain & Gibson & Thornewill. 242. 280 
Musselburgh & District Elec. Light & Traction. 

National Boiler & General Insurance. 690 
National Elec. (^Dnstruction. 74. 154 
National Elec. Supply. 446 
National Telephone, 572, 607 
National Telewriter. 200. 610. 652. 732 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Elec. Supply. 610 
New General Traction. 530. 572 
New Ignition Synd.. 112. 154, 446. 652. 892 
New System Private Telephone, 242 
Nightingale (C. F. H.). 364 
Northallerton Elec. Light & Power. 112. 200 
Northampton Elec. Light & Power. 77() 
North Melbourne Elec. Tramways & Lighting, 

North Metropolitan Elec. Power. 530 
North of Scotland Elec. Light & Power. 1 1 1 
Netting Hill Elec. Lighting. 530 
Omega Elec. Lamp. 322 
Oriental Telephone & Elec. 74. Ill 
Oxford Elec. 112.652 
Para Elec. Railways & Lighting. 280, 1056 
Pearson Fire Alarm. 74. Ill 
Penrith Elec Supply. 1056 
Perth (W. Australia) Elec. Tramways. 280 
Pilot Arc Lamp Mfg., 572 
Poole & District Elec. Traction. 930 
Pope's Elec. Lamp. 200 
Pope. Richard. 112 
Potteries Elec. Traction. 199. 242. 732 
Power Plant. 200 
Primitiva Gas & Elec. Lighting Co. of Bueno: 

Ayres. 74 
Provincial Tramways. 446 
Puebla Tramway. Light & Power. I0I4 
Rangoon Elec. Tramway & Supply. 199. 242 
Raworth's Traction Patents. 404 

Repent Elec. 930 

Reuter's Telegram. 242, 280, 1014 

ReyroIle(A.I. 154 

Rhymney Valley & Oneral Elec. Supply, 488 

Richardsons. Westgarth. 154 

Rino Elec Stairways & Conveyors. 690 

Rio de Janeiro City Improvements, 74, 404 

Rio de Janeiro Tramway, Light & Power, 652. 

Robertson Elec, Lamps. 732 
Robinson (Lionel). 1056 
Robinson & Hands Elec, 74 
Rosario Elec. 930 
Royc;. 530 

Rubber Tanned Leather. 242 
St. James' & Pall Mall Elec Ught, 112, 610 
Sao Paulo Tramway. Light & Power, 364, 892, 

Scarborough Elec. Supply. 112 
Shawinigan Water & Power. 404, 930 
Siemens Bros.. 322 

Simplified Underground (inductor, 930 
Singapore Elec. "framways, 690 
Sitch. W.. 74 
Smith (Fred.). 322 

Smithfield Markets Elec. Supply, 154 
Societe Anonyme Westinghouse, 483 
Solium Elec, 572 

South American Light & Power. 690 
South London Elec. Supply. 404 
South Metropolitan Elec. Light St. Power. 200 
South Metropolitan Elec Tramways & Light- 
ing. 445. 690 
South Staffordshire Tramways (Lessee), HI 
Southern Elec. Free Wiring. 446 
Spanish Telephone. 732 
Stewarts & Lloyds. 1 12. 812 
Submarine Cables Trust. 154. 198 
Swansea Improvements & Tramways. 199 
Sylverlyte Elec. Lamp. 446 
Taunton Elec Traction. 364 
Telegraph Construction & Maintenance. 112. 

530. 610. 650 
Telephone Co. of Egypt. 36 
Thames Ironworks. Shipbuilding & Engineer- 
ing, 200. 242 
Toronto Railway. 930 
Traction & Power Securities. 364 
Tramways & General Works, 74. 154 

Tramways & Light Railways Estates. 2(30 

Turners & Manville. 112 

Tynemouth & Dist. Elec. Traction. 200 

Tyneside Tramways & Tramroads, 732 

"Typewriting Telegraph. 404 

Underground Elec. Railways Co. of London, 

854. 972 
United Alkali. 74 
United Elec. Car. 812. 892. 930 
United Elec. Tramways of Monte Video. 364. 
404. 530. 572 

United River Plate Telephone, 530. 572. 608 

Universal Telephone & Electrical. 112 

Urban Elec Supply. 112. 154. 930 
Veritys. 690 

Vickers. Sons & Maxim. 446. 610. 652 
Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power. 488 610 
Walters Elec. Mlg.. 732 

Waste Heat & Gas Elec. Generating Stations, 
36. 732 

Waygood (R.). 404 

Wemyss & District Tramways. 1 1 2 

West African Telegraph. 112. 154. 198 

West Coast of America Telegraph. 154. 198. 

West India & Panama Telegraph. 154. 200. 241 

Western Telegraph. 154. 197, 364, 530 

Western Union "Telegraph, 446, 972 

Westinghouse Elec & Mfg., 1014 

Westminster Elec. Supply. 652 

White (J. G.).446. 487. 732 

Willans & Robinson. 1014. 1056 

Wimshurst. Hollick & Co.. 732 

Windermere & District Elec. Supoly, 40* 

Winnipeg Elec. Railway. 404. 930 

Woking Elec Supply. 446 

Wolverhampton Dist. Elec. Trams. 74, 112 

Yorkshire Elec Power. 732, 972 

Yorkshire (West Riding) Elec Tramways. 200 

Yorkshire (Woollen District) Elec Tramways, 

• Z " Elec. Lamp Mfc. 488. 854. 892 

Companies, Joint-Stock (New Electrical, &c.). 


Adnie Elec. 530 

Agricultural Elec. Discharge, 112 

Alba Lamp Synd.. 690 

Automobile Elec. Lighting. 242 

Barbados Elec. Supply Corpn.. 690 

Bastian Elec. Heating, 280 

Beam (British Elec. & Mechanical). 446 

Boudjah Elec. Lighting. 972 

Bowers & Barr. 854 

Bowran IR.), 812 

Bridgwater (ik^nstruction, 322 

Bristol Electro-Chemical, 322 

British Radio-Telegraph & Telephone, 610 

British Vitrite Works (Swan's Patents), 446 

Browne Engineering, 36 

Bullivant's South African, 854 

Cardwell, Boorman. 154 

Charlestown Elec Light & Power, 446 

Chippenham Elec. Supply. 652 

Chorley & District Tramways. 154 

Cowper-Ck)Ies Engineering. 154 

Cunnington & Harris, 972 

Davey Elec. 200 

Dioptric Sign. 930 

Drews. Harris St. Sheldon. 483 

Dual Ignition. 200 

Dynamic Elec. 732 

Eaton Telephone Disinfector. 364 

Elec Engineer Institute of Correspondence 

Electric Ordnance. 488 [struction, 

Electrical Engineer. 690 

Electrical Trolley Head. 930 

E.M.F.. 854 

Esplen. Swainston & Wilson. 652 

Etna Lighting & Heating. 854 

Fairbanks. Morse. 446 

Fife Tramway. Light & Power. 610 

Filaments. 652 

Gavan Inrig. 572 

Geary. Adams. 770 

General Accessories. 770 

Good (Chas. E.). 693 

Grassington Elec. Supply. 404 

Halesowen Lighting St. Traction, 1056 

Hammerton. 812 

International Filaments, 930 

International Elec. Transport & Ent^ 

of Alsace-Lorraine. 854 
Laing. Wharton. 770 
Lechlade Elec. Light & Power. 322 
Lighting. 652 
Malcolm & Allan. 812 
Maxwell's (Dundee). 446 
Midland Elec Wire. 770 
Mills Bros.. 530 

Mountain & Gibson & Thornewill. 200 
National Electric Signs. 930 
National Lighting. 892 
National Telewriter. 203 
Palmer. 112 
Pirelli. 280 
Plutte. Scheele. 892 
Pollak Virag Rapid Telegraph. 200 
Polesworth Elec Appliances, 74 
Power Engineers. 36 
Power Transmission Synd . 446 
Premier Elec Institute, 572 
Premier Lighting & Engineering, 280 


Prockter & Kenyon. 200 

Radium Lamp. 154 

Redfern lE. M.). 572 

Robinson St. Carter. 200 

Salsburv Lamps. 74 

Samuel Mucklow. 812 

Scott (Walter) lEdinburghl. 572 

Sir John Jackson (South America). 36 

Small Power Dynamo & Motor. 322 

&M.F. Synd.. 322 

Sterry-Singleton. 812 

Strathpeffer & Dingwall Elec. 200 

Sylverlyte. 652 

Taylor's Patent Shunting Lever. 322 

Traction Supplies. 690 

Universal Transmission. 930 

Vaughan Engineering Installations. 404 

Walker Hanna Patent Bearings, 364 

Wardle Engineering. 154 

Watson. Archibald. 112 

Wilkinson (F. A.) & Partners, 364 

Wiseman (Alfred). 690 



[Supplement to " The Hectrlclan,' 
October 22, 1909. 

"Sljt (Bhtttidm" 


APRir., 1900, TO SEPTEMBER, 1909. 

Accumulators and Power Work, 134 

Blowers, '* Acme," 15 

Blowers. Roots'. 43 

Boring and Turning Mill. Motor-driven, 152 

British Elec. Calitrated Fuse Co., Works of, 91 

Cable Connector, " Alpha," 51 

Cables. Henley's, at Bahia BLinca. 64 

Circuit-breakers. Siemens. 32 

Circuit Breakers. Time Limit Device for, 79 

Coaltng Apparatus. A Simple. 94 

Cokinfi Stoker. Bennis Gritless. 116 

CDntact Gear, J. Sc P., 103 

Controller. A New. 88 

Controllers. B.T.-H.. 125 

Cookinr Apparatus, " Silundum." 127 

Crane Controllers, Siemens A.C. and D.C.. 126 

Cranes. Babcock's. 82 

Cranes. Heywood's. 93 

Cranes. Stothert & Pitt Elec. 20 

Daylight Saving Bill, An American View of 

the. 10 
Drive. Relative Advantages of Belt. Croup and 

Single. 131 
Dynamos and Motors. Oerlikon. for Small 

Outputs, 150 

Eclipse Fittinrs. 112 
Elec, Drive in Uun'tries, 119 
Elec. Drive in Railv.-.y Shops. 94. 96 
Elec. Drive on Shipboard. 1 
Electrical Energy from Peat. 118 
Electricity on the Farm. 130 
Electricity on the Land, 109. 1 14 
Eyquem Elec. Lighting Set. 136 

Fan Blades. The Design of. 10 

Fan. in the Boiler House. 11 

Fans. British Westinghouse Elec. 35 

Fans. Brush. 117 

Fans. Concerning Elec., 2 

Fans, Crompton, 22 

Fans, " Cyclone." 47 

Fans. Elec., on Sea and Land. 12 

Fans. Electrically-driven Propeller. 21 

Fans. " Fortiter." 14 

Fans. Johnson & Phillips, 7 

Fans, Keith, 3 

Fans, Pickhard Elec. Screw, 13 
Fane, Propeller. 130 
Fans, Siemens. 24 
Fans. Simplex. 26 

Fans. Some American and Continental. 49 
Fans, Stellite. 7 
Fans, " Sun." 23 
Fans, The Latest in Desk, 42 
Fans. " Ulster." 45 
Fans, Veritys. 37 
Fans, Waddle. 31 
Farm. Electricity on the. 130 
Fuse Boxes, Hope's Unit System for Ironclad, 

Gas Exhausters, Electrically-driven, 104 
" General Elec. " Progress, 72 
Generating Plants. Assisted Elec. 140 
Generating Business, Methods of, 154 

Hydraulic Riveter, Oerlikon Elec, 86 
Hydro-Elec. Disabilities, 68 

International Depression. A Condition of, 141 

Instruments. Evershed's. 72 

Instruments. Induction. 34 

Iron and Steel. The Electrical Production of. 

Lamps. J. & P. Enclosed, 99 

Lamps. " Metalik." 62 

Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., The Works 

of, 54 
Light Fittings, Shop. 41, 94 
Load Factor to Power Costs, The Relation of. 

Loads, Of Day, 128 


Magnet in War. The. 95 
Mines, Ventilation of Coal, 10 
Motor Cars. The Elec. Lighting of, 39 
Motor-driven Boring and Turning Mill, 152 
Motor-driven Installations, An Economical 

Factor in. 140 
Motor Load and Population. 118 
.Motor-starters (AC.) and Circuit-breakers, 110 
Motorum, De Omnibus. 85 
Motor, 2,000 h.p. Blovrer. 36 
Motors and a Day Load. 129 
Motors and Controllers. Crane, 137 
Motors, Fan. B.T.-H., 6 
Motors, Siemens Continuous-current Variable 

Speed. 153 
Motors, Single-Phase, for Industrial Work, 148 

Optimism or Pessimism ?, 118 
Organ Blowing, Electrical, 120 

Panels, B.T.-H. Oil Switch, 63 
Peat. Elec. Energy from, 118 
Power Supply, Tables of Electric, 66. 71. 142 

Pulley Block, Siemens Elec. 94, 101 

Railway Shops, Elec. Drive in, 94, 96 

Shipboard, Elec. Drive on. 1 

Speed Alarms on Motor Vehicles, 80 

Spring-on Switch Fuse, Hope's Patent. 121 

" Silundum " Cooking Apparatus, 127 

Starters. Liquid Motor. 123 

Starting Switches, " Fortiter " D.C., 65 

Stoker. Bennis Coking, 116 

Switch Contacts, The Advantages of Oil-In 

mersed. 38 
Svfltchgear (Ferranti) on Shipboard, 76 
Switchgear for Mines, Ferranti, 90 
Switches, Oil. 30 
Sun Switches and Fuses, 136 

Telephone Exchanges in Works and Ware- 
houses. 16 

Time-limit Device (The " Ordnance ") for 
Circuit-breakers. 79 

Traction, Accumulator, 29 

. Electrically-driv 
J Compound, 40 


India, An 

Wood-working Plant for Northe 
Electrically-driven, 46 

Wolf Locomobile, Some Notes on the, (C. 107, 

Works. Description of ; 

British Calibrated Fuse Co.. 91 
Lancashire Dynamo & Motor Co., 54 




ESTABLISHED, First Series f Weekly], 1861; Second Series (Weekly), 1878. 

No. 1,613. [vor-LxV,,.] 

FRIDAY, APRIL i6, 1909. 

Price Sixpence '"^S."]'*- 

AbToadid., or 18 emti, or 90e., or vifl. 



Arrangements for the Week 3 

Ttie Iii'lustrial ApjJication of 
the Electric Motor, aa lUus- 
tratwJ in the Gary Plant 
of the Indiana Steel Com- 
pany. By B. K. Shover . . 4 

Tlie ComfXjsition and Dura- 
bility of Cable Pa|;er». By 
Clayton Beaflle and Henry 
P. Stevens 5 

The Use of the Potentiometer 
on Alternate-current Cir- 
cuits. By Charles V. Urys- 
dale, D.Sc. Illustrated .. 8 

ElectricTraction on Railways. 
XIV. — Practical Considera- 
tion of Overhead Cond uctors. 
By Philip Dawson. Illus- 
trated. Continued 9 

Aluminium Welding. lUus. 11 

Non-inductive, Water Cooled 
Standard Resistance*) for 
Precision Alternating-cur- 
rent Measurements. ByC. 
C. Pateison and E. H. 
Rayner, M.A. lUustrrited 15 

A New Standard of Light. 
By W. A. Harwood ...... 17 

The Combined Efficiency of a 
Small Gas Engine and Pro- 
ducer Plant. By A. H. 
Gibson, M.Sc 17 


Al'PARATlS 18 

Reviews 19 

The Life Story of Sir 
Charles Tilston Bright, 
C.E. [Bright]. Reviewed 
by Geo. R. NeiLson. The 
Elementary Theory of 
Direct Current Dynamo 
Electric Machinery [Ash- 
ford and Kempson]. 
The E.M.F.s Induced in the 
Exciting Winding of Single- 
phase Alternators. By H. 

Briihn 20 

A New Electrical Hardening 
Furnace. Bv E. Saberskv 
and E.Adler." Illustrated.". 22 
The Lent?, Steam Engine. 

Illustrated 24 

Physical Society 25 

The Utilisation of Small 
Waterfalls. By H. .J. 8. 
Heather 27 


Municipal, Foreigu & General 

Notes 28 

Trade Notes and Notices . . 30 
Companies' Meetings antj 

Reports 35 

New Companies, &c 36 

City Notes 36 

Companies' Share List 37 

N^ O T S S. 

State Ownership of Telephones. 

Last month an in.structive debate took place in the 
Canadian House of Commons on the subject of telephone 
rates in Canada. A resolution was moved urging the 
Government to cany out measures to remove " long 
existing abuses," so as to give the people in Canada as 
cheap a service as that in other countries where a 
national telephone .service is maintained. This resolution 
was promjited by the popular idea that telephone rates on 
nationally owned telephone systems are lower than on 
systems operated by private, and was due prin- 
cipally to the fact that the Government of Manitoba had 
recently reduced telephone rates after working the tele- 
phones in Manitoba for rather les.g than a year in succession 
to a company. The mover of the resolution relied on tlie 
evidence of "an eminent expert," a Mr. DA(i<;Eit, who had 
given evidence to a Committee of the House to the effect that 
present rates in Canada could be " cut in two " and still 
leave a satisfactory profit on the working, state ovvnershiiJ 
being the natural and only way to demonstrate the truth 
of such an assertion. Of course many figures were given 
in support ef this idea, and from these it would seem 
at first sight that Canada is in a very unenviable position. 

In the discussion which ensued it was, however, pointed 
out that the question of depreciation, which is so often 
forgotten by advocates of low rates in dealing with these 
matters, had been entirely omitted, and that if a proper 
figure had been includsd the profit shown by the Manitoban 
Government would have been converted into a loss. A 
telephone bu.siness is pecnliarly susceptible to depreciation, 
and is probably more liable to " scrapping " than any 
other electrical basiness. Five per cent, per annum of the 
capital seems to be a minimum figure, and 10 per cent, is 
not unreasonable. What a large percentage of the revenue 
is swallowed up in this way is emphasised by the fact that 
the Bell Telephone Co. wrote off for depreciation between 
the years 1899 and 1905 percentages of revenue varying 
from .34 to 42 per annum. Moreover, comparative figures 
of telephone rates are more or less worthless. The tele- 
phone business is characterised by the unu.sual property 
that an increase of business does not necessarily lead to an 
increase of profit. An increase in the number of sub- 
.scribers means that more work is entailed for each sub- 
scriber and also a greater capital cost. Consequently, it is 
useless to compare a small system with one that is large. 
Moreover, the cost of staff must vary enormously with the 
locality ; for example, an operator at Stockholm receives 
£,'■% per annum as compared with £110 in Australia. Such 
points are not appreciated by the lay mind, which expects 
as cheap a service in London as in Finland, and in addition 
verv much "reater facilities. 

The Insulation of Cables. 

For low-tension lead-covered cables most central station 
engineers at the present time choose an insulation of paper 
impregnated with oil; in fact, such insulation lia.s been 
u.sed for probably 00 per cent, of the underground cables 
installed in this country during recent years. Although 
bitumenised fibre or jute is a more expensive material than 
paper, its use for tlie insulation of low-tension cables does 
not add appreciably to their cost ; for high-tensioB cables, 
however, where the insulation becomes a much more im- 
portant factor in the total cost of the cable, paper is almost 
universally used, the extra cost of bitumenised fibre being 
then rather prohibitive. Tlie reason for the marked prefer- 
ence in favour of paper insulation for low-tension cables, 
however, is a little difficult to explain, for the advantages 
of bitumenised fibre can by no means be disregarded, and, on 
tiie other hand, oils are not uniforrji in character. Thus, 
the oil used for impregnating a paper cable must be care- 
fully chosen, since it should not be too fluid, nor, on the 


other hand, too viscous, as the layers of paper will in the 
latter case not slide freely over one another, resulting in 
a likelihood of the insulation tearing or cracking whenever 
the cahle is bent. In fact, this cracking is always a more 
likely occurrence with paper than with bitumenised fibre. 

Agaix, the process of jointing is more ditlicult if the 
paper is well impregnated with oil, since cleanliness is not 
so easily secured ; and another point, also in favour of 
fibre, is that moisture can travel more easily along a paper 
insulated cable. The most important consideration, how- 
ever, is the life of the cable, and as this is not easily 
ascertained it must be largely a question of opinion. 
It cannot be too strongly emphasised, however, that 
only the ver}' best Manila paper obtainaltle should be 
used, and any saNang in the cost of the insulation 
of a cable is dearly purchased if obtained at the ex- 
pense of the life of the cable, for the latter is certainly 
largely determined by the durability of the insulation. 
Information upon this subject is, however, rather scarce, 
so that our readers will no doubt welcome the article by 
Messrs. Clayton Beadle and Henry P. Stevens, the first 
instalment of which appears in our present issue. In this 
article the composition and durability of the papers em- 
ployed in the manufacture of cables are discussed, mainly 
from the chemical point of view, and as the article is the 
result of wide e.\;perience,we do not doubt that the authors' 
conclusions will be of value to those concerned with this 
important branch of the industry. 

Personal. — It is announced that the Royal Academy of 
Sciences of Sweden has awarded a gold medal to Mr. T. A. 
Edison for hi.s invention.? in connection with the phonograph. 

Motor Omnibus Regulations. — We are informed by the 
London Elcctrobus Co. that the limit of 3^, tons proposed by 
the Commissioner of the Police for motor omnibuses does not 
include fuel, water or accumulators, so that such a regulation 
will not interfere with the present design of the electrobus. 

The Faraday Society. — The following nominations for the 
Officers and Council of this Society to be elected at the 
forthcoming annual general meeting were announced at the 
last ordinary meeting of the Society : I'leddent : Mr. J. 
Swinburne, F.K.S. Vice-Presidents: Mr. G. T. Beilby, P.R.S., 
Sir K. A. Hadfield, F.K.S., Prof. A. K. Huntington, Dr. Lud- 
wig Mond,, Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.Ii.S., Prof. A. 
Schuster, F.R.S., and Mr. E. Solvay. Treasurer: Dr. F. Mollwo 
Perkin. Council : Messrs. E. J. Bcvan, Bertram Blount, 
A. C. Claudet, W. R. Cooper, S. Z. de Ferranti, F. W. Hurbord, 
W. Murray Morrison, H. F. K. Picard, J. L. F. Vogel, and 
Dr. N. T. M. Wilsmore. 

Electric Power Supply in Bombay. — A very large hydro- 
electric scheme, whereby it will be possible to supply Bombay 
as well as a number of local mills and other power users, is 
now under consideration. It is proposed to erect three large 
reservoirs by constructing dams across the Sliirawta, Walwhan 
and Lanonla valleys, which will collect water from the Ghat 
mountains. From these reservoirs the water will be conveyed 
through a penstock to the power station near Khopoli, the 
total fall being 1,730 ft. Power will be transmitted at 45,000 
volts by overhead lines to Bombay, some 43 miles away. 
Here it will be stepped down to various pressures and dis- 
tributed to consumers. 

Cable Interruptions and Repairs. 

Date of Interruption. Dato of Repair. 

Pontianak— Saigon Sep. 16, 1908 ... — 

Tourane— Amoy Jan. 19, 1909 ... — 

Malta— Zante Apr. 6, 1909 ... Apr. 11, 1909 

Hong Kong— Macao Apr. 13, 1909 ... — 

German Bunsen Society. — The annual meeting of this 
society will be held at Aix-la-Chapelle from Ma}^ 23rd to 2Gth, 
immediateh' before the International Congress of Applied 
Chemistry in London. 

Institution of Colliery and Mining Electrical Engineers. — ■ 

We are informed that the Inaugural Meeting of this Institution 
will be held at the Grand Hotel, Manchester, on April 24th at 
5 p.m. The chair will be taken by Mr. Wm. Maurice, of the 
Hucknall Colliery Co. A cordial invitation is extended to all 
interested in electrical and mining matters. 

New Submarine Cable to South America. — The Western 
Telegraph Co. has submitted a proposal to the Argentine 
Government for the construction and laying of a new sub- 
marine cable directly connecting Argentina and Europe, and 
touching at Ascension Island. The chief officials of the Argen- 
tine Posts and 'I'elegraphs Department and the Ministrj' of the 
Interior have expressed themselves favourably towards the 
scheme, which is also well received in political and commercial 
circles in the Republic. 

Birmingham Section of the Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers. — The following list of officers to act on the council of 
this Section during the session 1909-10 has been prepared for 
circulation and presentation at the annual general meeting on 
May 5th ; Vhnirimin, Mr. R. Iv. Morcom. Paxt-chairmcii, 
Messrs. R. Threlfall, F.R.S., R. A. Chattock and Dr. G. Kapp. 
Vice-chairman, Mr. M. Railing. Ordinarrj members of committee 
{remaining in office), Messrs. V. Bornand, A. R. Everest, A. 
Lindsay Forster, J. P. Kemp, J. F. Lister, A. Pearson, A. M. 
Taylor, and J. C. Vaudrey. Ordinarii members of committee 
{new nominations), Messrs. J. H. Barker, M. Kloss, F. J. 
MofTett, and Dr. W'. E. Sumpner. Hon. secretary, Mr. H. B. 

Iron and Steel Institute. — We are informed that the annual 
meeting of this Institute will be held at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, Great George-street, Westminster, on Thursday 
and Friday, May 13th and 14th. Unfortunately the president- 
elect. Sir W. T. Lewis, may be prevented from occupying the 
chair, and in that event Sir Hugh Bell will preside. Among 
the Papers down for reading are the following: — "On the 
Production of Iron Sheet and Tubes in one Operation," by Mr. 
S. Cowper-Coles ; "On High-tension Steels," by Mr. P. Long- 
muir, and "On the Roechling-Rodenhauser Electric Furnace," 
bj' Mr. W. Ro<lenhauser. The annual dinner of the Institute 
will be held at the Hotel Cecil on the evening of May 14th. 
The autumn meeting will also be held in London, on Septem- 
ber 28th, 29th and 30th. 

Electric Traction in the Congo. — A correspondent to " The 
Times " states that Mr. Sandys, who is responsible for the 
construction of the well-known railway from Mataeli to 
Leopoldsville, has gone to Africa to examine the rapids 
and falls of the Lower Congo in order to decide whether 
it would be possible to obtain sufficient hydraulic power to 
operate the railway electrically. It is reported, concerning 
the line now under construction from the Upper Congo to 
the Great Lakes, for which an additional capital of a nuUion 
sterling has lately been raised, that the first section from 
Stanleyville to Ponthierville, 80 miles in length, has been com- 
pleted, and the temporary bridges have been replaced by perma- 
nent structures. The second section, extending to a length of 
210 miles, between Kindu and Kongolo has been fully sur- 
veyed and nearly laid out. About 12-5 miles of formation have 
been prepared, and the track is laid for a distance of 'JO miles. 
As soon as Kongolo is reached, the further portion of the 
navigable Upper Congo for a distance of 400 miles — that is to 
say, reaching from Kongolo right up to Congo through Lake 
Kisale, as far as the falls of Kalengwe, in Katanga — will 
become available for navigation by boats of 500 tons burden. 
It is iioped that all will bo ready by the end of lUlO. 

Electric Traction in Japan. — A railway which, when finished, 
will be the thinl longest in Japan, is now under construction 
and the f urthci- distinction that it will be electrically 
worked throughout. It will connect Kyoto, a large town 
with nearly half a million inliabitants, with Osaka, an in- 


dustrial centre, with a population of nearly one million. From 
an industrial point of view, therefore, the railwa}- should prove 
of great importance. The total length of the line, which will 
be double-track throughout, is 30 miles. Current for work- 
ing the line will be supplied from three 850 kw. three-phuse 
steam turbo-alternators, the transmission voltage being 2,."i00 
volts, Sub-stations are to be erected along the line, and will 
transform the three-phase current to continuous at "2, -500 volts 
for use at the trollej' wire. The equipment of the line is in 
the hands of English firms, among whom may be mentioned 
Messrs. Dick, Kerr & Co., Willans & Kobinson and Babcock & 

Electrically-Operated Fish Van. — An interesting application 
of electric traction to goods traffic is illustrated by the intro- 
duction of a combined parcel and fish van, which is now being 
employed on the electrified lines of the Xorth Eastern Railway 
in the neighljonrhood of Newcastle. The van has four com- 
partments arranged to give a driver's cab at each end, with 
divisions in the centre for luggage and fish respectively. 
The van is 55 ft. long over the head-stocks, and is carried on 
pressed steel bogies with wheels 3 ft. in diameter. The 
couplings and buffers are so arranged that the van can be 
coupled to either a steam or electric train without delay. 
Hand and air brakes are Iwth provided, the latter being sup- 
plied from an electrically-driven air compressor. The electrical 
equipment consists of four 125 H. P. B.T.-H. motors similar to 
those used on the North Eastern Kailwaj' Co.'s other electric 
trains. The Sprague system of miUtiple unit control is also 
fitted. Great care has been taken to make all the electrical 
equipment as safe as possible ; all the cables are asbestos 
covered and are run in soliil drawn steel conduits screwed 
into cast-iron connecting boxes. Where the cables leave the 
conduits the latter are bell-mouthed and are provided with 
rubber washers to render the whole air-tight. The van is 
lighted by six lamps connected in series, while duplicate sets 
of signal and route lamps are provided. 

Investigations on the Electrical State of the Upper Atmo- 
sphere. — A Paper on this subject was read on Tuesday, 
March 23rd, by Mr. AV. Makower, Miss Margaret White and 
Mr. E. ]\Iarsden before the Manchester Section of the Institu- 
tion of Electrical Engineers. It contained the results of investi- 
gations made during -July and August, 190S. These were chiefiy 
concerned with the measurement of the electric currents flowing 
from a kite down a wire by which it was attached to the wind- 
ing machine. In the first experiments different lengths of 
wire were let out with the kite, detached from the wind- 
ing machine, and the free end of the wire attached to an 
ebonite in.sulator fixed to the ground. The kite was then 
connected to earth through a sensitive dead-beat galvanometer 
and the current measured. In these experiments the currents 
at considerable heights were so large that it was found neces- 
sarj' to reduce the sensitiveness of the galvanometer by shunt- 
ing. The plan was therefore adopted in later experiments of 
using a portion of the kite wire when attached to the drum of 
the winding machine, which was earthed, as a shunt, and thus 
making use of the usual daily flights taking place at the 
Glossop Observatory. The mean currents obtained were as 
follows : — 

Height of kite above ground. Current in amperes. 

2,000ft. 5x10-"' 

4,000ft. ISxlO--' 

6,000ft. 23xl0-'> 

The current at anj' fixed height varied considerably from day 
to day. There seemed, however, to be a fairly close connection 
between the current and wind velocity, the currents being 
great when the wind was high. A few experiments were made 
on the potential of the air at dift'erent heights, but no very 
reliable results were obtained, on account of the ditticultj- of 
satisfactorily insulatiiig the apparatus owing to the high poten- 
tials to be measured. 

Electro Analysis of Mercury Compounds with a Gold 
Cathode. — At the meeting of the Faradaj' Society held on 
March 30th, Dr. F. Mollwo Pcrkin read a Paper on this subject, 
in which he first showed that the results obtained were always 
slightly high — from 05 to 1 per cent. This was at first attri- 

buted to occluded hydrogen ; but it was found that the gold 
electrode did not increase in weight when made the cathode in 
dilute sulphuric acid, the current being passed for G to 20 
hours. When the electrode coated with mercury was treated 
in a similar manner it also showed no increase in weight. The 
increase in weight could hardly be due to oxidation since the 
electrode was cathode, and when a platinum electrode was run 
in series with it the mepcury deposited upon the platinum was 
always slightly less than was theoretically required. The 
author was consequently unable to account for the re.sults, but 
pointed out that a gold electrode could not be satisfactorily 
used for analytical purposes. A rotating silver electrode 
showed similar results — viz., the weight of mercury was too 
high. Usually the time required to deposit the mercury was 
from five to six hours, but bj^ placing the cell and electrodes 
in a powerful magnetic field in such a way that the liquid was 
caused to swirl, the mercury was deposited in about 50 minutes. 
The results in this case, however, were again too high. The 
author also described two new quartz vessels which he had 
devised for depositing mercury or other metals upon a mercury 
cathode, one of them being fitted with a siphon side tube. In 
conclusion, the author said that undoubtedly the best electrode 
for depositing mercury upon was one of mercury, and that the 
deposition was extremely rapid if a rotating anode was em- 


SATURDAY, April 17th. 

Birmingham & District Electric Clcb. 
/' p.m. Meeting in the Battery Room, Summer-lane Power 
Station, Birmingham. Paper on "Electric Welding," by 
Mr. V. D. Green. 
TUESDAY, AprU 20th. 

Junior Institution of Engineers. 
7-30 p.m. Meeting at Royal United Service Institution, White- 
hall, S.W. Paper on " Systems of Electrical Power Distribu- 
tion," by Mr. C. H. Smith. 

The Institution of Ci\aL Engineers. 
,s' p.m. Meeting at Great George-street, Westminster, S.W. Paper 
on "The ' New York Times' Building," by Mr. C. T. Purdy. 
WEDNESDAY, April 21st. 

Birmingham Local Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
7:oO p.m. Meeting in the large Lecture Theatre, the University, 
Edmund-street. Papers on " Manipulation of Telephone Dry 
Core Cables," by Mr. F. G. C. Baldwin ; and on "Improve- 
ment of Power Factor in A.C. Systems," by Mr. Miles Walker. 
THURSDAY, April 22nd . 

The Institution of Electrical. Engineers. 
« p.m. Meeting at the Institution of Civil Engineers, Great 
George street, Westminster, S.W. Pajier on "The Electrical 
S\'stera of the London County Council Tramways," by Mr. 
J. H. Rider. Adjourned discussion. 
FRIDAY, April 23rd. 

Physical Society of London. 
'j p.m. Meeting at the Imperial College of Science, Imperial 
Institute-road, South Kensington. Agenda : (1) " On a 
Want of Svmmetrv Shown hv Secondary X-Rays," by Prof. 
W. H. Bragg, F.R.S. (2) transformations of X-Rays." by 
Mr. C. A. Sadler. (3) " Theory of the Alternate Current 
Generator," by Prof. T. R. Lyle. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 
Spin. Meeting at Storey's Gate, St. James Park, Westminster. 

S.W. Presidential address by Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall. 
Students' Section ok the Institution of Civil Exgixeebs. 
V p.M. Meeting at (Jreat George-street, Westminster, S.W. 
Paper on "The Development of Hydro- Electric Power 
Schemes : with Special Reference to Works at Kinlochleven," 
by Mr. J. M. S. Culbertson. 

RoTAL Institution of Gee.\t Britain. 
9p.m. Meeting at Albemarle-street, Piccadilly, W. Discourse 
on "Tantalum and its Industrial Applicatious," by Mr 
Alexander Siemens. 

Corps of Electrical Engineers (London Division). 
Commanding Otiicer, Col. R. E. B. Crompton, C.B. 
The following orders have been issuetl for the current week : — 
Monday, April 19th, ^j 
" A " Com pan}- 
Tuesday, April 20th, Infantry drill (Recruits), 6 p.m. to 7 p.m. 

" B " Company 


" C " Company 

Friday, April 23rd, 
" D" Company 

Technical drill, 7 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. 




i' :< .-a 

Summary. — A description is here given of the main features of the 
electrical installation for the largest steel-making plant in the world. 
Blast furnace gas is used for a large gas engine power station. One 
pf the most interesting features is the electrical equipment of the rail- 
mill, the roll-trains being direct coupled to the largest induction motors 
ever made, of 2,000 and 6,000 H.p. capacity. 

A brief historical resume of the application of electric power to the 
steel-mill industry is first given. While the United States has led 
in the application of electric drive to auxiliary machinery, Europe 
has pioneered the way in its use for driving roll trains. In the dif- 
ferent European steel plants there are to-day about 230 motors with 
a normal capacity of 19.000 h.p. and a maximum capacity of 
41,000 H.P. used for electric drive of non-reversing roll trains. In 
addition, one noteworthy installation is that of a 10,500 h.p. revers- 
ing outfit at the Hildegardehiitte mine. In June, 1907, the Illinois 
Steel Co. put in the first and only reversing-mUl drive that has been 
installed in America. 

The increasing demand for steel has led to the recent installation 
of the Gary plant. The site chosen is at the extreme south end of 
Lake^Micliigan, about 26 miles from the centre of Chicago. The 
advantages of this location consist of lake transportation, splendid 
railroad facilities and cheap land. The governing feature in the 
design of the plant was economy, and to this end the blast-furnace 
gas was utilised in gas engines, driving electric generators to furnish 
electric power. 

It was decided to stick to only well-tried apparatus, and the use 
of trolley wires for cranes, scale larries, &c., was abolished. For 
travelling apparatus up to and including travelling cranes of 50 tons' 
capacity a 2 in. by f in. steel strip is used for main conductors. Ap- 
paratus of larger capacity a 60 lb. rail, while the unloaders 
and bridges have 100 lb. rails, reinforced by heavy copper cable, so 
as to get carrying capacity sufficient to avoid excessive drop. In 
the part of the works now complete there are installed 110 electric 
travelling cranes with an aggregate lifting capacity of 3.812 tons. 
The capacity is 22.025 H.P. in direct current and 5.312 h.p. in 440 volt 
alternating current motor ; 27,000 h.p. in 6,600 volt alternating-current 
motors haa already been operated. About an equal aggregate 
number of horse-power will be required for the operation of that 
part of the plant now under construction, and still more for parts 
which are at present being designed. 

Electric Potver Station. — For this part of the plant it is intended 
to use the gas available from eight blast furnaces. On account of 
the large amount of current, the especially large number of circuits 
and units, and also to make the operation more reliable, this plant 
is divided into two sections, which are called ]iiiwer houses Xo. 2 and 
No. 3 respectively. The eight blast furnaces |iroducing 3,600 tons 
of pig iron per 24 hours will give a total of 22.45(1.(100 cubic ft. of gas 
per hour. Thirty per cent., or 6,750,000 cubic ft., of this gas is used 
for heating stoves; 7 5 per cent., or I,70t),000 cubic ft., are used 
under the boilers to furnish steam for spare steam engines, pumps and 
miscellaneous heating ; 2-5 per cent., or 600,000 cubic ft., are neces- 
sary for operating the gas washers; 12-5 per cent., or 2,800,000 
cubic ft., are used by the blast-furnace bhjwing engines; 2-5 percent., 
or 600,(XX) cubic ft., for auxiliary use in idnnictidn with these engines. 
The remaining 45 per cent., or 10,00(1,0(10 cubic ft. per hour, are 
available for i)owcr jiurposes. If estimated at 90 B.Th.U. per cubic 
foot and 10,(^)00 B.Th.U. per boiler horse-power, this gas is equal to 
110,000 boiler in gas engines. 

There are installed in No. 2 and No. 3 electric power stations a 
total of 17 gas engines, each rated at 3,000 i:.p., but capable of about 
.50 per cent, overload. It will, therefore, be seen that only approxi- 
mately 50 per cent, of the available power as calculated will be used 
in this station. The electrical equipment of jiower liouses No. 2 
and No. 3 comprises fifteen 2,(MJ0 kw. alternating-current units, two 
2,000 kw. direct-current units — all driven by gas engines — and also 
two 2,0fX) kw. alternating-current turbo units. 

Ga^ Engine-i. — The gas engines are horizontal twin tandem, double 
acting, running at 83J revs, per min. The cylinders arc 44 in. in 
diameter by 54 in. stroke. The floor space occupied by each engine 
and generator is 74 ft. by 39 ft., with total approximate weight of 
1,700,000 lb. The largest piece in the engine is the bed plate, which 
■weighs from 90 to 95 tons. The flywheel is 23 ft. in diameter and 
weighs^OO.fXK) lb. 

* Abstract of a Paper read before the American Institute of Electrical 

Turbines. — The two turbines are rated at 2.000 kw. each, and 
were installed primarily for use in the construction of the plant and 
to furnish power for starting up. It is also expected that they will 
assist materially in the regulation of the station by taking care, to a 
certain extent, of the sudden peak loads. 

Storage Battery. — The installation of the storage battery was for 
the purpose of minimising the fluctuation of load on the generating 
station. The storage battery consists of two separate batteries of 
125 cells, 73 plates per cell, each battery having a rating of 4,320 
amperes, with a momentary rating of from two to three times that 
amount. They are installed in a two-storey building located directly 
north of the power station, the connection between the two buildings 
being through a tunnel. 

The direct-current regulation is accomplished by means of two 
2.500 ampere 35 volt boosters. The motors and generators of this 
booster are of the interpole type, controlled by a carbonpile regulator 
acting through a motor-driven exciter. The alternating-current 
regulation is accomplished by means of special 2,000 kw. split-pole 
converters. The regulating current for this converter is supplied by 
a series transformer in the leg of each generator lead. In turn, these 
transformers are connected to a totalising transformer of the com- 
pensator type, which supplies current to a synchronous motor-driven 
special synchronous converter. From the direct-current side of this 
converter is taken the regulating current for the split-pole converter. 
A special 10,000 ampere remote-control switch short-circuits the 
starting resistance. 

The generator oil switches are arranged so that the regulating 
transformer of each generator is short-circuited when that gene- 
rator is not in service. Connections are also made so that when 
stations No. 2 and No. 3 are connected together the battery will 
regulate on both, but should either tie switch be thrown out, thua 
disconnecting the two stations, no regulation is possible on station 
No. 2, and the current transformer in the legs of the generators in 
that station are at the same time short-circuited. In respect to the 
average load on the station the regulation of both direct current and 
alternating current is by remote control. 

The transmission system is in duplicate, each section having 
sufficient capacity to carry the entire load in case of accident to the 
other sections. The lines are supported upon a steel tower con- 
struction made exceptionally heavy on account of the great height 
of the towers and heavy complement of feeders. 

Sub-stations. — Tliere are three sub-stations. Sub-station No. 1 
is located in the rail mill and consists of four 500 kw. motor-gene- 
rator sets. This sub-station normally supplies current for all the 
direct-current apparatus in the shop group, rail mill and billet mill. 
Sub-stations No. 2 and No. 3 each have two units, duplicates of those 
in sub-station No. I. They normally supply ctrrrent to the ore 
unloaders and bridges. The direct-current power furnished from 
the two 2.000 kw. gas engine driven units in the power station is 
used to supply the direct-current motors for the blast furnaces and 
open-hearth plants. When the mills are not in operation, and orJy 
the lights and a few cranes are needed, it will be possible to shut 
down the sub-station and furnish power direct from the power 
station. This method of operating will result in considerable saving 
in operating expense. A battery will probably be installed in the 
near future at this sub-station. 

There are located at various parts of the plant nine installations 
of transformers for supplj-ing 440 volt three-phase alternating cur- 
rent. In these stations there are a total of nine 800 kilovoU-amiJere 
oil-insulated water-cooled transformers and 27 100 kilovolt-amiiere 
oil-insulated self-cooling transformers. 

Electric Power Appuc.wions. 

Central Pumpiruj Station. — All of the water for the works is taken 
from the lake at one point. At present there are installed four cen- 
trifugal pumps, each of 25,000.000 gallons capacity per 24 hours, 
pumping against a head of 100 ft. These pumps are driven by 
three-phase 440 volt 500 revs, per min. induction motors. In order 
to make this installation as free as possible from interruptions due 
to electrical troubles, there is a main feeder from each power station. 
Each feeder has its own oil switch, feeding tliree 8(K) kilovolt-ampere 
transformers, and two of the motor-diiven pumps are operated from 
each set of transformers. The 'bus bars are provided with discon- 
necting switches, so that either set or both sets of transformers can 
be operated from either or both main feeders. 

Gas-ivashing Plant. — There is one such plant for every group of 
four blast furnaces. Each gas-washing plant consists of eight 
washers, driven by 150 h.p. 440 volt 375 revs, per min. induction 
motors. These motors are fed from one of the transformer installa- 
tions, but the secondaries of this transformer station can also be 
connected in parallel witli the transformers in the pumping station, 
running both as a unit. In case of the failure of one of the stations. 


a part of the pumps and the gas washers can be operated from the 
other station. 

Repair Shops. — A total motor capacity of 2,440 h.p. is installed 
for operating these shops. 

Ore Unloaders. — Located on the edge of the slip are five ore un- 
loaders of 10 tons capacity each. The total weight of each machine 
is 890,000 lb. The motor equipment of each unloader consists of 
six direct-current motors, totalling 435 H.P., the hoisting being done 
by a 150 h.p. compound-wound motor (60 per cent, shunt and 40 per 
cent, compound), and a 100 h.p. series-wound motor being used for 
car haulage and bridge motion. With the exception of the car 
haulage and bridge motion, all motions of the unloader are controlled 
through distant-controlled automatic magnetic torque-limit con- 
trollers. The master controllers for operating these motors are 
located in the leg of the unloader, so that the operator who rides with 
the bucket not only has a clear view of everything he is doing, but 
has absolute control of all motions of the machine. 

Ore Bridges. — The ore taken out of the boats is deposited in a 
huge concrete trough directly in the rear of the unloaders. From 
this point it is picked up by the ore bridges, of which there are five. 
These bridges are of the cantilever type, having a total over-all 
length of 459 ft. The lifting capacity of each bridge is 13 tons of 
ore, in addition to the weight of the bucket. The total weight of the 
bridge is 238,000 lb. The motor equipment of each bridge consists of 
14 direct-current motors, totalling 618 h.p., comprising four 80 h.p. 
series motors for hoisting, four 40 h.p. for the trolley and four 30 h.p. 
for the bridge. 

The ore picked from stock by the bridge is deposited in a transfer 
car of 100,000 lb. capacity, the electrical equipment of which consists 
of two 50 h.p. motors operated by means of an ordinary street-car 
controller, and an air compressor supplying air for opening and 
closing the doors and for air brakes. This car is used for transferring 
the ore from the bridge to the appropriate bin. Underneath the 
bins are the scale larries, driven by one 21 h.p. direct-current series 
motor, and carrying a similar motor for opening and closing the door 
of the bin. Tliis larry is used for transferring ore, coke and limestone 
from the various bins in the appropriate quantities and depositing 
it in the blast-furnace skip., driven by a 150 h.p. compound-wound 
motor. The control of this skip is absolutely automatic ; the 
operator simply starts it up, after which the accelerating, running, 
retarding and stopping is entirely automatic. The total travel of 
this skip is 163 ft. up an incline of 60 deg. to the horizontal. The 
time of making one trip is 60 seconds. The loads carried are ap- 
proximately as follows: Ore 7,0001b., coke 3,6001b. and limestone 
6,000 lb. 

Pig-casting Machine. — For taking care of the material from the 
blast furnaces on Sundays, when the open-hearth plant is not in 
operation, there is provided a pig-casting machine. Tliere is a main 
building in which are located two double-trolley ladle cranes ; the 
main hoist is 75 tons, and the auxiliary hoist 15 tons. There are six 
strings of moulds and conveyors for disposing of the cast material. 
The ladle is handled by a 5 ton electrically operated jib crane. The 
moulds are driven by 40 h.p. 750 revs, per min. induction motors. 
and conveyed by 30 h.p. 750 revs, per mi!i. induction motors. 

Open Hearths. — Each open-hearth plant consists of 14 60 ton 
fiu'naces. The molten metal from the blast furnaces is pom'ed into 
a 300 ton mixer by a 75 ton electric ladle crane of the same design 
as that in the pig-machine building. The metal is carried from the 
mixer to a point in front of the various furnaces by an electrically 
operated hot-metal car, whose equipment consists of two 25 h.p. 
250 volt 290 revs, per min. series motor, operated by a standard 
series parallel controller. The ladle from this car is handled and the 
contents poured directly into the open-hearth furnaces by another 
75 ton ladle crane. 

The cold scrap for charging the furnace is stored and handled in 
the stock yard, which is entirely covered by two 5 ton electric travel- 
ling cranes. The stock is handled by means of electromagnets, each 
one capable of handling from 1.000 lb. to 2,000 lb. of scrap, according 
to the character of the material, or of lifting 10,000 lb. in large pieces. 
After this scrap is loaded the charging boxes are shifted in front of 
the open-hearth furnaces and the contents put in by means of a low - 
type charging machine. The equipment consists of a main hoist 
with a 30 h.p. series motor ; bridge travel, two 30 h.p. series motors ; 
trolley, 20 h.p. series motor; tilting, 11 h.p. series motor; rotate, 
3-25 H.p. series motor 

The steel is handled in 60 ton ladles by three 125 ton ladle cranes. 
The electric equipment is as follows: JIain hoist, 110 h.p. ; first 
auxiliary hoist. 50 h.p. ; second auxiliary hoist, 30 H.r. ; main trolley 
30 H.p. ; auxiliary trolley. 11 h.p. : bridge travel, two 50 h.p. 
motors. The controllers for this apparatus, except that for the main 
hoist on all ladle cranes (which is automatic magnetic control) are 
of the ordinary hand-operated lever tjpe. 

The electric equipment of the coal-handling apparatus in connec- 
tion with the gas producers for these furnaces consists of a coal 
crusher driven by a 25 h.p. direct-current motor : a double-skip coal 
elevator driven by a motor similar to that on the coal crusher ; and 
four hopper cranes, each driven by 75 h.p. .series motors. The 
hopper cranes are used for distributing crushed coal in overhead bins 
directly into the producers. 

The control of the skip is entirely automatic in its action. As 
the descending car approaches the bottom point of its travel it opens 
the door of the coal bin ; in stopping it rests on a counterweighted 
lever. When the skip is nearly filled with coal the counterweight 
on this lever is overbalanced, the skip dropjiing down about 3 in. 
more. This actuates the switch which starts the skip on its upward 
travel, its first action being to close the door of the coal bin. The 
operation is repeated by the second skip, and continues, unless 
stopped, until the coal bin is entirely empty. 

As part of the open-hearth plant there are two stripper buildings. 
One of these buildings contains one, and the other two. 20fl ton 
electrically operated stripper cranes. These cranes are equipped 
with 100 H.p. 375 revs, per min. series motors on the main hoist ; a 
duplicate to the above on the stripping hoist ; 30 h.p. .500 revs, per 
min. trolley, and one .50 h.p. 480 revs, per min. on the bridge. 

In the soaking pits are three 75 ton soaking-pit or ingot cranes. 
Each of these cranes has a 5 ton high-speed auxiliary hoist on the 
trolley for repairing the pits. The electrical equipment is as follows : 
Main hoist, 50 h.p. ; auxiliary hoist, 30 h.p. : trolley, 75 h.p. ; 
bridge, two 50 h.p. ; tongs turning and opening. 5 h.p. 

For delivering the ingots fiom the pit to the first table in the 
rolling mill two ingot buggies are used, for which a special control 
has been designed. Each buggy is intended to take care of six rows 
of four pits, which are located respectively north and south of the 
table. To prevent the two buggies colliding, should both happen 
to be coming toward the table at the same time, the trolley bars 
through which the current is transmitted to the motors on the 
buggies are in tlu-ee sections, one section in front of the table and one 
long section on each end of that. Each controller has six jioints 
corresponding to the six rows of pits, one point corresponding to the 
table and one to the off position. The operator can throw his con- 
troller to the point representing the row of pits to which he desires 
to run, and when the buggy reaches this point it is automatically 
stopped. Return motion with controller on the table position will 
bring the buggy up to the table — where, however, on account of the 
great accuracy of the stop, the buggy is not stopped automatically,, 
but at the will of the operator. When one buggy is at the table it is 
impossible for the other one to reach that point, as the two con- 
trollers are so interlocked as to prevent this occm'rence. 

(To be continued.) 



Summary. — Information at present available upon the desirable pro- 
perties of paper from the insulating point of view is very meagre. The 
authors attempt to fill this gap by giving the results of their experience 
in dealing with such papers from the chemical point of view. The com- 
position of mauila and other papers is brieflj' discussed. Tests to which 
papers should be subjected are considered, and a number of tables of 
results are given. The effect of moisture is dealt witli at some length, and 
the authors finally express their opinions on changes taking place when 
papers are in contact with the atmosphere and when they are protected 
from it. 

Manila papers have been used for cable insulation for 20 
years and upwards and have stood the test of time : conse- 
quently cable manufacturers specify that paper used for cable 
insulation should be composed of '• nuvnila liomp of good quality." 
Whether the users of cables or their enginoors are right in their 
choice as against all other available materials is another ques- 
tion. There are other materials tluit may be as durable or 
even more durable than manila and perhaps equally service- 
able, except perhaps on the score of price. 

We are frequently called upon to examine papers on behalf 
of cable manufacturers, as well as paper stripped from cables 
themselves on behalf of the users, in addition to which we arc 
asked at times to assist the paper manufacturers in their 
endeavour to suit the. requirements of the cable manufac- 

We wisli it to be understood that we arc not electrician* bu* 



chemists who have devoted considerable attention to the 
subject of paper, and the chief object of this communication 
is to discuss the phvsical rather than the electrical qualities of 
paper used for the pmpose. We think such a discussion may 
prove of some service both to the cable manufacturer and user 
as well as to the paper maker. 

The maker of the paper is frequently uot altogether ac- 
quainted with the requirements of the maker of the cable, as 
will be hereafter seen from papers submitted for the purpose, the 
greater number of which, to say the least of it. are quite 
unsuitable. On the other hand, the cable maiiufactmer being 
whoUv unacquainted with the technicalities of paper making, 
cannot give full expression to his requirements, and conse- 
quentlv'the paper maker is not wholly to blame because he 
submits unsuitable paper. 

Granted for the time being that paper for cable insulation. 
or that most in favour, is to be a manila paper, we must point 
out to the cable manufacturer what must be comprised under 
the term manila paper. Manila, properly speaking, refers to 
the miisa tertilis. a fibre very largely grown in the Phillipine 
Islands for the purpose of rope making : and the chief source 
of manila fibre for paper making is from old ropes, butt ends 
and spinning waste, but such old ropes and their sources of 
supplv do uot consist only of manila. they include various 
aloe fibres, sisal, &c.. and phoniun tenax, a rope-making fibre 
which comes from New Zealand. The original fibres of musa 
are about 6 mm. in length and have a diameter of 0024 mm., 
showing a ratio of 250. The fibres when bleached are white 
and lustrous, the walls are uniform, and when seen in section 
thev are round or polvgonal with fusiform ends. The fibre as 
used in manila paper is only partially bleached and. of course, 
is materially reduced in length during the process of beating. 

It is impossible to demonstrate in this article in what respect 
the manila fibre proper is to be distinguished from other fibres 
with which it is classed, as it requires a great deal of experience 
to distinguish between them. We wish merely to emphasise 
the fact that manila must be used in a generic sense to describe 
not onlv manila proper but other fibres, such as above men- 
tioned. Furthermore, it is an anomaly to talk of manila hemp, 
— manila is not hemp at all — hemp belongs to a very different 
class of fibres — hemp fibre is the cannabis sativa. The ultimate 
fibres have a length of 22 mm. and a diameter of 0-022 mm., 
showing a ratio of LOW. They are absolutely difierent micro- 
scopically from the manila fibre, the fibres show striae and 
fissures and often fibrillse. The ends of the fibres are large 
and flattened ; in section they appear as concentric zones of 
irregular outlines. The sources to the papermaker are scutch- 
ing refuse, spinning waste, threads, cuttings, and rope ends. 
If we were to speak of a paper consisting of real hemp we 
should signifv the above fibre. Inasmuch as the rope ends 
and other sources of supply of manila to the paper maker may 
frequently contain hempen ropes, &c. (the more the better), 
manila papers may (juite unintentionally contain hemp as 
well as the above-mentioned fibres so frequently associated 
with manila. 

When fully bleached, and especially when it is beaten for 
the manufacture of paper, hemp fibre is difficult to distinguish 
from flax ; in fact, the leading authorities declare that they are 
often unable to distinguish flax from hemp under the micro- 
scope. This fibre in its unbleached state, as well as the above 
fibres classed with manila, are found ir manila papers as used 
for cables, and we think it would be quite fastidious of any 
cable manufacturer to reject the paper constituted of any of 
these fibres, including hemp proper, on the score that they 
are not real manila. The fact is that real manila or musa 
textilis is not superior to real hemp or cannabis sativa, in fact, 
we should prefer to see a paper made of real hemp rather than 
of real manila. 

The microscope is useful as showing the condition of the 
fibres and the extent to which they are beaten, &c., but to 
form an adequate opinion of a paper it is advisable to make 
certain physical and chemical tests. The best cable manu- 
facturers now fully realise that the care displayed in making 
the paper is as important as its fibrous composition. 

We have had instances in which we have given the composi- 
tion of papers to cable manufacturers, and they have told us 
that the paper specified is manila hemp. We have carefully 
examined the paper microscopically and we have reported a 
certain proportion of '' hemp stock." We are purposely avoided 
giving in our certificates so much " manUa hemp ; " we call it 
" hempstock " or "' rope stock." We have to bear in mind the 
condition of the raw materials as they reach the paper maker, 
and that it is practically impossible for him to procure raw 
material consisting only of cannabis satira unless he is paid a 
higher price for his paper than the cable manufacturer could 

Furthermore, it must be borne in mind that there are other 
fibres which, as far as possible, should be excluded in the 
manufacture of manila paper, the chief of which is jut?. The 
great source of this material is " bagging," but in the material 
used in the manufacture of cable papers the most scrupulously 
careful and conscientious papermaker is not always able to 
exclude jute entirely, therefore, a few jute fibres here and there 
may not be intentionally added, and provided that they are 
only present in small quantities we do not consider that they 
detract from the value of the paper, but the quantity should 
be small. Jute, however, balongs to what is known as liguo- 
celluloses, and in the condition in which it is used for paper 
making, i.e., an unbleached or only partially bleached condi- 
tion, it contains a lot of lignin, and cannot be regarded as a 
permanent fibre. Many papers which we have examined for 
the cable manufacturers, however, contain notable quantities 
of jute, enough at least to warrant us in believing that the jute 
has been independently added. The jute fibre has a length of 
only 2 mm. ; diameter 0'022 ; ratio 90. They exist in com- 
pact bundles of smooth fibres. It is available in three forms, 
threads, " butts " and bagging. 

In America there is a class of paper known as " bogus 
manila." and many mills are scheduled as makers of this class 
of paper. " Bogus manila " does not contain manila at all 
but usually consists of mixtures of chemical wood and jute in 
varying proportions ; such paper would be entirely unsuitable 
for the purpose of cables, and is largely used for strong bags, 
wrapping papers and large envelopes. It owes its strength to 
the presence of chemical wood and its yellow qualities to pre- 
sence of jute. Jute has practically no strength-giving quah- 
ties. To cable manufacturers we say beware of " bogus 
manila." Some cable manufacturers use a considerable 
quantity of chemical wood pulp paper in place of manila for 
what may be called their second-class cables. It has one point 
of advantage over manila paper, although it has not been 
proved to possess the same duirability — it can be made of 
greater uniformity of te.xture. One can perhaps appreciate 
the excellent wearing qualities of Manila papers on bearing in 
mind that the bags as ordinarily used are largely composed of 
Manila, and noting the great amount of handling that they 
stand and the force required to tear them. 

The general mode of treatment of fibres for the manufac- 
ture of cable papers is very briefly as follows : The fibres, 
whether manila, hemp, &c.,'if in the form of rope, are cut up 
into short lengths, opened; up, placed in a C3'lindrical boiler 
together with lime or caustic soda, boiled under a pressure of 
30 lb. to 50 lb. for from 5 to 10 hours, emptied out, washed 
free of alkali, put into a breaker, a machine consisting of an 
oblong trough provided with a roll with sharp knives, where 
the fibres are partially disintegrated, and at the same time 
washed with a continuous flow of water. If need be, the 
fibres are partially bleached with a chloride of lime solution, 
after which they are cleansed from the liquor by thoroughly 
washing and draining. The material is now put into the 
beater, where it is reduced to the condition necessary for the 
paper machine, and emptied into the chest. After the material 
is suitably dilute it is passed over sand tables, where gritty 
matter is deposited, and then through strainers, where any 
coarse particles are retained ; it passes in a continuous flow 
on to the endless wire of the Fourdriniar machine, where the 
fibres are deposited in the form of a sheet, then through the 
couch rolls and the press rolls, where the water is squeezed 



out, after which it passes over a series of steam drying cylin- 
ders, from whence it emerges dry, and is reeled. It is sup- 
plied in the form of rolls to the cable manufacturer, who re- 
quires to slit it into narrower widths suitable for lapping round 
the conductor. Such in the briefest outline arc the processes 
to which these raw materials are subjected for their conver- 
sion into cable paper. 

In giving some details of physical tests done by us on cable 
papers we will first refer to the tensile strength in the two 

All paper made on the Fourdrinier machine is greater in 
strength in the machine than in the cross direction in conse- 
quence of the fibres lying mostly in the machine direction, 
consequently it is easier to tear a sheet of paper along the 
direction of the web than across it. This gives the advantage 
required by the cable manufacturer ; it is most important to 
him that the strength should be the greatest in the direction 
of the web. 

The mode of testing paper for physical qualities depends 
upon the jjurpose to which the paper is to be put as well as its 
quality and mode of manufacture. Thus, in testing paper 
for physical strength, for fine qualities it is the custom to take 
a width of | in., which is specified in many of the Stationery 
Office contracts ; whereas with papers of coarse t/Cxture, even 
although of the best quality, such as coarse wrapping papers, 
a width of 2 in. is taken. For the testing of cable papers we 
have -adopted a 1 in. width as being, in our opinion, the most 
suitable. But whatever width we take, for the purposes of 
comparison we reduce the figure to pounds per inch width. 
With the papers of fine texture that are required to be free 
from any local variations of thickness, &c., a width of f in. will 
show any local weakness which would not be shown up on a 
width of 2 in. On the other hand, a paper used for wrapping 
purposes, but of necessity of a coarse texture, would show 
irregular tests on a width of | in., because a thin place might 
extend to this distance, but at the same time it would be of no 
practical consequence. This is the object, therefore, in choos- 
ing different widths of strips for different kinds of paper. 

Cable papers are of a more or less coarse texture, but at the 
same time they require to be fairly uniform in thickness. 
One important consideration is the freedom from gritty metallic 
and other particles, which would break down the insulation. 
Of course this is guarded against by the numerous thicknesses 
of paper overlapping one another, or the simple spiral wind- 
ing, which causes an overlapping of thicknesses, nullifying 
any irregularity which would be found in one thickness alone 
of the sheet. When only a small sample of the paper is avail- 
able for the tests, lengths of only 50 mm. between the clamps 
of the testing machine are taken ; but it is better where possible 
to employ 100 mm., in which case the elongation at break read off 
in millimetres gives the percentage stretch without calculation. 
The length of the strip taken for the tensile strength is prac- 
tically immaterial as regards the figure obtained, although the 
greater the length the greater the chance of meeting with a 
weak place, and, consequently, the lower the figure. With a 
good paper the increased length, however, shows verv little 
difference on the figure. It is, therefore a point in favour of a 
paper if the same breaking strain is obtained for dift'crent 
lengths, as indicating its uniformity of texture. 

The bursting strain of a paper may from time to time be 
employed for the purpose of rough comparison, but we do not 
make use of it in our certificates, as it does not give an abso- 
lute figure. For this test there are one or two standard ma- 
chines. These are generally provided with a rubber dia- 
phragm, which is made to expand with a pressure due to liquid 
glycerine against a clamped piece of paper, the pressure being 
indicated on a gauge. This we do not recommend for the 
testing of cable papers, except in a rough way. 

Another and frequsnt test is the " folding test," which can 
be roughly performed by noting the number of times a paper 
can be folded backwards and forwards before it is worn out or 
breaks. The folding must be done in a regular manner. We 
do not think this has sufficient bearing upon the qualities of I 
cable papers, as they are not subjected to this kind of wear. • 

A further test is the crumbling test, which can be done bv hand 
in a rough way, or by means of a machine which automatically 
crumples a paper until it wears holes in it. This, like the 
above mentioned, is of little moment to the cable manufac- 
turer. Later we give some figures which show how high good 
cable papers stand on these tests. 

The last physical test to which we wish to refer is the deter- 
mination of " stretch." This is done simultaneouslv with the 
determination of the tensile strength at the moment of break. 
This figure is generally taken as representing the " stretch at 
break," and is expressed as a percentage on the initial length. 
The stretching qualities of a paper are of considerable conse- 
quence to the cable manufacturer, as will be hereafter seen. 
On examining the tests hereinafter given (Table A) it will be 
noticed that the strength is greatest in the machine direction 
{i.e., the direction of the web or reel), and least in the cross 
direction {i.e., at right angles to the machine direction), and 
that the stretch varies inversely as the strength . being greatest 
in the cross direction and least in the machine direction. The 
importance of a good stretch to a strong paper cannot be over 
estimated, particularly for such purposes as cable manufac- 
ture. A paper may have a high tensile strength, but be of 
little utility because it may be lacking in stretch — in other 
words, it would be a brittle paper. A brittle paper is a thing 
to be avoided. The stretch of a paper as well as the strength 
depends upon its texture — that is, the mode of its manufac- 
ture — as well as the direction of the fibres. The strength is 
greatest if the paper is pulled in the prevailing direction in 
which the fibres are placed, and least in the direction at right 
angles to that in which the fibres are placed. At other angles 
to these two directions the paper shows intermediate qualities, 
which qualities have been very carefully investigated by one 
of us * and recorded for different kinds of papers, both ma- 
chine and hand made, in the form of diagrams, which diagrams 
show very interesting relationships. This question is well 
worth the study of those who wish to go closer into the subject. 
However, we are not here concerned with these matters, and 
only wish to record results on "" strength " and '" stretch " in 
the two directions at right angles to one another. 

When the paper is made in the first instance, in the course 
of drying it undergoes contraction as a whole — that is, it oc- 
cupies less volume and covers less superficial area. As a pull 
is put upon it in the direction of its web the contraction may 
be nil in this direction, or it even may result in an elongation, 
the greater the pull put upon the paper in the machine direc- 
tion in the course of drying the greater the tendency to con- 
tract in the opposite direction. This affects the stretch of the 
paper when tested for strength. If a paper is lapped round 
a cable a pull is put upon it ; this pull may be sufficient to 
stretch it somewhat, although not to the hmits of its elas- 
ticity. To wrap a paper round an object so as to fit compactly 
it is important that the paper should be able to stretch without 
fear of breaking, and if the wrap is to be tight there is a slight 
permanent pull which holds the paper tightly in its position. 

There is a considerable difference, however, in the qualities 
of paper when the paper is used per se in comparison with that 
of paper that is impregnated with hydro-carbons or other 
dielectrics. Thus, with paper as used for certain kinds of 
insulation, the paper itself has to be an insulating material. 
But when the paper is impregnated it acts rather as a medium 
for the dielectric rather than the dielectric itself. As is well 
known, bone-dry paper stands very highas an insulating material, 
and is greatly reduced in insulation, as it takes up moisture, 
a point which has to be guarded against in electric mains. 
This point is briefly referred to here, as the condition of paper 
to moisture determines to a large extent its physical qualities. 
Now, if one records the conductivity of paper under dif- 
ferent atmospheric conditions it will bo noticed how rapidly 
the conductivity rises with tlie slight absorption of atmospheric 
moisture ; consequently, with paper used per se, we have to 
consider not only its physical qualities in its normal condition 
—i.e., as supplied by the pape r maker to the cable manu fac- 
* Beadle, " Technics " (George Newnes, Ltd.) Vol. II., pp. 64, 25-i, 
348, 586. 


turers — but its physical qualities iu its bone-dry condition — 
i.e., after it lias been subjected to warm treatment iu vacuo. 
The strength, as well as the stretch, are moditied. and remain 
so until the moisture and temperature are restored to the 
original. The effect of heat per se on paper makes a consider- 
able difference on its physical qualities ; one cannot apply 
heat to paper without depriving it of moisture, but. by the use 
of vacuum drying the moisture can be removed with only a 
moderate application of heat. Reels of paper subjected to 
vacuum drying imdergo a certain amount of shrinkage. If 
the paper is to be impregnated with hydro-carbons, &c., it is 
first of all necessary to have it bone-dry, so that a proper 
penetration of hydro-carbons may be insured, and at a suffi- 
cient temperature to ensure proper penetration. In fact, the 
moisture iu the paper should be, if possible, reduced to nil or 
within i per cent. 

The absorption of ordinary papers is generally judged iu 
. their relation to moisture, but an impregnated cable paper has 
to be judged from quite a different standpoint — namely, that 
of absorption of greasy materials. It has to be just the oppo- 
site to a grease proof, for it requires to be a grease absorbent. 

In our physical tests, among other things, we have insti- 
tuted a system of determining the volume percentage of the 
ingredients. Thus, we can tell the amount of air space as well 
as the amount of space occupied b}- the fibres, and we have 
demonstrated that the grease absorbent qualities of a paper 
are directly proportional to the air space. It is the custom to 
"■ size " most papers. The commoner writing papers, as well 
as printing papers, are sized with rosin (precipitated from 
resinate of soda by means of alum), this rosin rendering the 
paper resistant to moisture and to ink. A great many papers 
would have very little strength if there were no rosin added 
to them ; but although such jiapers are said to be sized and 
shine resistance they mop up grease as freely as blotting 
paper mops up ink. 

The question has been raised with us by one or two cable 
manufacturers whether the paper should be sized with a 
moderate amount of rosin or not. The amount of rosin is 
generally 1 or 2 per cent, on the weight of the paper. The 
presence of the rosin need not detract from the insulating 
quabties of the paper, provided that only just sufficient chemi- 
cals are used for its precipitation. Furthermore, it usually adds 
adds to the difficulties of the paper maker if he is called upon to 
supply paper containing no rosin ; and, lastly, we have no proof 
whatever that a certain amoimt of rosin size detracts from 
the hydro-carbon absorbent qualities, therefore we pronounce 
rather in favour of a certain amount of sizing. At any rate, 
we should not consider it a matter of any consequence or a 
reason for rejection if a paper contains a small amount of size. 
It was formerly thought that the hydroscopic moisture of 
paper is diminished by rosin sizing. Recent researches have 
rather disproved this theory. It would appear, therefore, 
that in papers as used for Post Office insulation the liability to 
take up moisture from the atmosphere is not diminished by 
rosin sizing, consequently unless there is any other reason 
against it such papers might just as well be waterleaf papers. 
{To be continued.) 



Summary. — After discussing the application of the potentiometer 
principle to alternate-current measurements, the use of the authors pliase- 
shifting transformer with a potentiometer is described. A universal 
potentiometer has been designed on this principle, which serves both for 
direct and alternate current measurements, and for testing P.D., current, 
phase, pjwer, inductance, capacity, &c. 

Owing to the small range of instruments for the direct measure- 
ment of alternate currents or P.D.s, since these operate on the square 
law, there is nee d for an instrument capable of measuring P.D.s and 

• Abstract of a Paper read before the Physical Society. A brief 
account of the discussion following the reading of thjs Paper appeared in 
The Eu;cteicia:<, Feb. 19, p. 724. 

currents of any range with acctu-acy, and also, if possible, of indi- 
cating the phase. 

In attempting to apply the potentiometer principle to alternate 
current measurements, two processes seem to be possible — (a) the 
balancing of the alternate ciu-rent P.D. against an equal direct- 
current P.D. by the employment of some differential balancing 
device preferably of an electrostatic character, or (6) tlie balancing 
of two alternate-ciurent P.D.s against one another. Previous pro- 
positions have always been based on tlie former idea. An obvious 
device being that shown in Fig. 1. in which the P.D. to be measured 
is applied between the needle and one pair of quadrants, while that 
derived from the potentiometer is connected between the needle and 
the other pair of quadrants, and through a considerable resistance. 
The .sole difficulty lies in the electrometer. 

In view of such difficulty the author has turned his atten- 
tion to the second method, i.e., of balancing the alternate cutrrent 
P.D. to be measured against a known alternate-current P.D., by the 
interposition of a sensitive alternate current detector, such as a 
telephone or vibration galvanometer. This, of course, implies that 
the two voltages under comparison must have the same magnitude, 
frequency, and phase, and, approximately, the same w'ave-form.* 

The equality of frequency is of course secutred by deriving the test 
and comparison voltages from the same source of supply, but some 
special device is needed for bringing the phases into coincidence. 
In some experiments recently made with the wTiter's phase-shifting 
transformer.^ however, the accuracy of the phase variation was 
found to be so good that it was thought worth while to introduce it 
into potentiometer work ; and Fig. 2 shows the diagram of the con- 
nections which have been employed. The phase-shifter is here 


Standard CeU L.C RB V, 

Fig. 1. 

Low Resistance Load 

Fit;. 2. 

shown supplied with single-phase current through a phase-spUtting 
device, which can be built up with it so that it merely requires con- 
necting straight on to the mains. The current derived from the 
secondary of this transformer traverses the rheostat coils, and slide- 
wire of an ordinary potentiometer, such as the Crompton form ; and 
also some form of dynamometer current measuring de^^ce. The 
writer has found a Weston alternating-current voltmeter excellent for 
this purpose, as it gives a very good reading with the current (O-Oo 
ampere) employed with the Crompton potentiometer. The remain- 
der of the potentiometer is connected up precisely as for ordinary 
direct current working, except that a vibration galvanometer is 
substituted for the ordinary form. By having an auxiliary battery 
B and tlu-ow-over switch S, the arrangement is always ready for 
either direct -current or alternate-ciurent comparisons. 

The procedure is as follows : — The throw-over switch is first 
arranged to supply direct current from the battery B, and the 
rheostat altered until the standard cell is balanced at its nominal 
value, as in ordinary direct-current working. The dynamometer 
reading is then carefully noted, or a fiducial mark is made, which 
always represents the exact 005 ampere. On now tlirowing over to 
alternate current, the rheostat is altered to reproduce the same 
R.M.S. current as indicated by the dynamometer D ; and the posi- 
tion of the potentiometer contact is shifted and the phase-shifter 

* Since this was written the writer has been informed that Dr. Sumpner 
has somewhere suggested that an alternating-current potentiometer 
could be made, if any means were arailable for bringing the phase of the 
current in the shde-wire into coincidence with that of the P.D. to be 

t The Elbctbiciait, Dec. 11, 1908. 

THE ELECTfliCiA_N, APKiL 16. 1909. 

turned, until the vibration galvanometer shows no vibration. The 
adjustment is very similar to that of the two resistances in an 
Anderson's bridge, and presents no difficulties. The voltage and 
phase are then read oS on the potentiometer and phase-shifter 
respectively. In the illustration a low resistance is connected in 
series with the load, and a volt-box in parallel with it, and the current 
and P.D. can be determined directly in the ordinary way. Of course, 
the phase-shifting transformer must always be connected to the 
same source of supply as the load. 

Instead of the vibration galvanometer, a dynamometer or electro- 
meter in which one pair of terminals is connected to the supply so as 
to be " separately excited," and the other to the ordinary galvano- 
meter terminals, has been employed with good results. The deflec- 
tions are then to left or to right, as in an ordinary galvanometer. 
But it must not be forgotten in this case that balance will be obtained 
not only when the vectors of the two P.D.s compared are coincident, 
but also when their vector difference is in quadrature with the P.D. 
of the supply. For this purpose, if such an instrument is used it 
must have its " exciting terminals " changed over from one phase 
to the other, and balance secured in both cases. 

It is obvious that this device does not indicate the effective or 
R.M.S. value of the P.D., except when the supply and tested wave- 
forms are both sinusoidal or of identical form. When a vibration 
galvanometer is employed, its sensitiveness to the fundamental 
wave is so great in comparison with that to the harmonics, that we 
shall be practically correct in assuming that it is the fundamental 
wave only which is measured, and the comparison is really between 
the mean and not the R.M.S. values. On the other hand, if there is 
any serious difference of wave-form, the sensitiveness to the upper 
harmonics should be sufficient to prevent an exact balance being 
secured, and this warns us when great accuracy is not to be expected. 
The author shows that if care "is taken to have a supply of fairly 
sinusoidal wave-form, the measurements may be considered suffi- 
ciently accurate for the majority of purposes. 

Fig. 3. 

Measurements. — The results of two experiments are given to show 
the possibilities of the method. There seems no reason to doubt 
that 0-0002 volt can be easily detected, or that a drop of 0-1 volt 
could be measured to an accuracy of 0-2 per cent, or closer. The 
readings of the phase angle repeated themselves constantly to within 
0-1 deg. 

The author has designed a potentiometer in which a small phase- 
shifting transformer and dynamometer are included in the case, 
with a throw-over switch, permitting the instrument to be used as 
either a direct or alternate-current potentiometer. Fig. 3 shows the 
connections, which need little explanation. The main circuit of the 
potentiometer, consisting of the rheostats Ri and B,.,, the two dials 
Di and D,, the slide-wire W, and the dynamometer D, is connected 
to two of the blocks of the change-over switch C, which is similar in 
form to the well-known selector switch used in the Crompton poten- 
tiometer. The derived P.D. from the Dial D^ and slide-wire contact 
is led by the key K and the selector switch S to two more of the 
contacts on C. The remaining eight contacts on C are connected in 
pairs to the phase-shifting transformer P, the battery terminals 
D C, the ordinary galvanometer terminals G, and the vibration 
galvanometer terminals V G. The phase-shifter primary is excited 
from the terminals A C, which are here shown, four in number, for 
two-phase or split-phase. A single motion of the switch C to right 
or left connects the main circuit of the potentiometer on to the 
battery or secondary of the transformer, and simultaneously con- 
nects the sliding contacts through the selector switch to the appro- 
priate galvanometer. The key K being provided with a holding- 
down cam, leaves the hands free to move the potentiometer contacts 
and rotate the phase-shifter simultaneously. A frequency meter F 
of the vibrating reed type may be fixed on the base if desired, in 
which case the instrument is arailable for inductance and capacity 
measurements. The dynamometer I) is not provided with a scale, I 

but with a fiducial mark which can be slightly adjusted to suit the 
standard cell check. It will also be made astatic to avoid risk of 
error from stray fields. 

The results already obtained appear to justify the belief that this 
method is capable of being used with considerable accuracy and 
convenience for all P.D., current and phase measurements. One of 
the most valuable applications is to search coil work with alternate 
currents, whereby the distribution of main and leakage fluxes in 
cores, and the propagation of magnetic impulses can be studied. 
The variation of current and P.D. along a cable fed with alternate 
currents could also be obtained. 




{Continued from page 925.) 

Summary. — In this article the author first considers the many 
objections which have been raised against the use of the third rail for 
main line railway electrification, and then proceeds to discuss the use 
of overhead conductors, dividing the latter system into where 
two overhead conductors per track are necessary and those where only 
one conductor per track is required. The construction of the over- 
head work is also considered in detail. 


In a previous section of this work, when deaUng with 
the third rail conductor, it was pointed out that, whilst 
third rails had originally been used with electric traction 
in the very early days, this system was soon dropped in 
favour of the overhead conductor, as soon as the satis- 
factory system of overhead contact shoe, collector or 
trolley had been devised. The only early heavy electric 
locomotives in America such as those constructed for the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railway were equipped at first with the 
overhead system, although the difficulties connected with 
collecting very large currents in this way were found so 
great that eventually the overhead system had to be 
dropped and the third rail again resorted to. 

The American railway engmeers had fully realised at 
this time that for ordinary main line operation the over- 
head system was preferable, as many troubles were to be 
anticipated by the use of the third rail. This, of course, is 
not the case with purely local lines, such as tube, elevated 
or branch lines of main line railways over which little, if any, 
goods traffic and few steam hauled trains have to circulate. 
Thus the City & South London and the Liverpool Over- 
head Railway adopted the third rail from their inception ; 
but these two lines evidently form part of the last category 
and not of the first. 

Before going into any detail regarding the methods of 
overhead construction adopted in connection with railway 
work, it may be of interest to consider some of the many 
objections which have been raised by British and foreign 
railway engineers against the use of the third rail for general 
main line railway electrification. The following objections 
to the third rail system are extracted from a report made 
after most careful investigation by the chief engineer of 
one of our important railways : — 

In the event of the derailment of the train the third rail 
would almost certainly be disturbed and thus add to the 
consequent dislocation of traffic. 

The line could not properly be packed and maintained 
without great risk to the platelayers ; or, as an alternative, 
this work would have to be done during the short time at 
night when the passenger trains had ceased running and 
the current cut off, but this could not be done on most of 
our railways if goods were also worked by electricity, as the 
largest portion of our goods traffic is worked at night. 
• Copjrigiit. All rights of reproduction reserved. 



' Damage would be certain to arise with consequent dis- 
location of traffic in unloading materials at niglit for repairs 
and renewals. 

'* The third rail caimot be fixed m station 3-ards and for 
through crossings without being foul of gauge, but if so 
fixed it would be a source of great danger to the staff 
engaged m shunting and marshalling operations. 

In case of a hea\y fall of snow considerable interruption 
of traffic would probably ensue. 

In many cases structural alterations to and probable 
reconstructions of station platforms would become neces- 
sary to allow of a third rail being kept clear of gauge. 

Considerable expenditure would become necessary in 

tools out of the way, and can never be absolutely suspended. 
On a one or two-track road, with infrequent trams, this is 
one thing ; on a four- track line with 700 or 800 train move- 
ments or more a day, the problem is not a simple one. 

The operation of a line dealing with all classes of traffic 
and handling hundreds of trains a day is a vastly different 
problem from that met in the handlmg of a dense traffic of 
a single class, as on the elevated or underground lines of 
large cities. In the application of electric traction to 
an existing railway designed for steam operation, there 

Fig. 11.— Contact Line Ordi- 
SABT Section. Bdkgdorf-Thun 
Theee- Phase Llse. 

Fig. 12. — Contact Line on Em- 
Thun Three-Phase Line. 

Fig. 14. — Contact Line Arrangement Over Single^ Switch. 
Burgdorf-Thttn Three-Phase Line. 

alterations to and diversions of point roddmg and signal 
connections, and on the viaducts this would apply to water 
and gas mains. 

In the case of joint lines, where the company only have 
running powers, it would be difficult to get the necessary 
sanction to lay down the third rail. 

Mr. A. D. Williams, an American engineer, has very 
clearly stated the case in connection with the form of con- 
ductor to be chosen when general railway electrification is 
imder consideration, and some of the points he makes are 
condensed in the following paragraphs : — 

For goods yards and sidings it is essential that the 
electric conductor should add as little as possible to the 

are many obstacles to overcome. The electric equipment 
itself may not cost as much as the alterations necessary to 
permit the use of electricity. The steam lines were laid 
out many years ago, and the gradual growth in the size of 
rolling stock and locomotives has encroached on the origi- 
nally ample clearances, until to-day there are many lines 
that are unable to admit extra heavy goods wagons or 
large saloon or dining cars to certain portions of their 
system ; the clearance between tracks has been shaved to 
the limit and equipment is frequently damaged at tight 

In the location of the electric conductor several things 
must be considered, particularly clearances. The clear- 

The Tension Wire is 19 ms. 
higher than the Cross Suspension 

Fig. 13.^.\kriai. Switches. Plan of Single Tirx-out. ' Burgdorf-Thun Three-Phase Line 

ordinary complications and dangers inseparable from 
present methods of working. In such places trains must 
be made up and handled frequently with urgent haste by 
night as well as by day, and an electrical conductor so 
placed that it interferes with or increases the hazard of 
operations is not admissible. 

The track must be continually lined in and levelled up. 
This work must be carried on under traffic conditions which 
must be slowed up or stopped for a gang of men to get their 

ance question is one of the most difficult problems the rail- 
way engineer is called upon to solve. Clearances which 
were ample for the equipment of fifty years ago are uiade- 
quate for the equipment of to-day, and on most English 
lines the maximum loading gauge is so close to existing 
structures that further encroachment, by additions to 
either structures or equipment, is practically impossible. 

The maximum loading gauge line is supposed to repre- 
sent the composite cross-section of the largest locomotive. 



the largest freight car, the largest passenger coach, the 
largest wrecking crane, in running condition ; this cross- 
section being increased by a sufficient amount to cover the 
side sway and lopsidedness due to a broken spring, eccen- 
tric loading bringing the car down on its side bearings, 
journal play and wear. The effect of curvature of the line 
must also be considered. Necessarily, any conductor con- 
veying current to a locomotive or car must be outside of 
this line by an amount sufficient to provide a working 
clearance. The current collectors must be capable of reach- 
ing this conductor and of being housed within the maximum 
loading gauge. 

In connection with maintenance of way, the third rail 
adds not a little to the tro\i))le of keeping the track in line, 
as it obstructs one side. In addition it reduces the effi- 
ciency of the track gangs and adds to the expense, and the 
incidental fireworks it furnishes demoralise the labour gangs. 

From an operating standpoint, the third rail is a menace 
and a constant source of danger to the railway staff, par- 
ticularly at night. Circumstances often require tliat a 
guard should go back with a red light to protect the rear of 

on a double-track line. Any attempt to run a track round 
the wreck would be handicapped by the necessary third-rail 
construction ; it would not be impossible, but it would re- 
quire so much time that it would not be feasible. During 
the entire time the wreck was being cleared up current would 
have to be kept off that section of the road, as it would be 
impracticable to run the risk of stampeding the large labour 
gangs required by any spectacular electrical displays. 

In dealing with the gaps at switches it has been fi equently 
necessary to use an overhead conductor. When this is of 
the low-tension variety, and the supports have to span several 
tracks, supporting a conductor over each of them, it is ex- 
tremely difficult to devise such a support as will not obstruct 
all views of signals. These overhead conductors must overlap 
the third rail at each end of the gap in order to guard against 
all possible chances of a train becoming stalled at such a 
point, for, though the ordinary operating speeds at such 
switches and cross-overs may be ample to carry a train over 
the gaps, there is always the possibility of an emergency 
arising when trains must be under absolute control. In rail- 
wav parlance this means the ability to stop immediately and 

Fig. 5. — Buegdokf-Thun Three-Phase Line, .showing OvERHE.iD Construction* .\t a Railway Station. 

his train. Without the third rail there was a certain amount 
of risk ; with it there is a positive danger, and this danger 
is a vivid reality to all experienced railway men who have 
had the opportunity to observe working conditions on a 
third-rail line. 

In connection with wrecking operations the third rail 
presents considerable difficulty. The first result of an 
accident is a short-circuit cutting off all current in that 
block until the third rail has been cleared or re-established. 
This is a good point, but it makes it absolutely necessary to 
depend upon steam for handhng the wrecking equipment. 
In addition, extra plant must be got out to handle the 
third rail. The third rail weighs from 60 lb. to 100 lb. per 
yard, and camiot be put in until the track has been placed. 
Brackets and insulators are required about every 10 ft., and 
it takes considerable time to line the third rail in and get it 
covered. In the meantime traffic will have to be towed past 
the gap by steam locomotives, which will mean keeping a 
nmnber of such machines on hand for emergency use. It 
may be necessary to handle all passing traffic on one track ; 
this would be troublesome on a four-track road and worse 

I to start from such a stop, as well as the ability to increase 
i the speed. The necessity of the overhead conductor has 
been recognised in the largest installation of third rail hand- 
ling standard railway equipment. 

A feature not heretofore mentioned is the fact that at cer- 
tain points it is necessary to locate derails and dwarf signals ; 
the latter are rendered nearly invisible by the third rail. 
The derail cannot be done away with, as it is an absolute 
necessity at many points, and should it be over-run it will 
naturally result in a tearing out of a third rail. 

In connection with bridge work the third rail will cut many 
of the floor beams and bracket, plates particularly on through 
plate girder bridges, and the further it is located fi-om the 
gauge line of the track the further into these brackets it will 
cut. This causes considerable trouble in the design of new 
structures, and necessitates extensive remodelling in existing 
structures. Wliere cross-overs occur on cm'ves considerable 
care must be used in order to prevent the contact shoes 
coming into contact with a running rail in passing from one 
track to another. The mechanism boxes for signals and 
points and derails, fogging machines. &c., must also be very 



carofullv placed in order to avoid all danger of their being 
touched bv these shoes. These troubles are aggravated by 
the fact that the under-running shoe is held in position by a 
spring, and the failure of this spring is liable to let the shoe 
drop sufficiently to gi-ound on any metal object close to the 
running rail. 

A consideration of the foregoing disadvantages will cer- 
tainly indicate that the third rail, either over or under con- 
tact, leaves much to be desired in regard to its assistance 
in the introduction of electric traction for ordinary main- 
line railway work. 

- These and other considerations have resulted in the de- 
velopment of systems using such high pressures as 3,(X)0 to 
20.000 volts, so as to enable the maximum energy required 
to be collected from a comparatively small overhead con- 
ductor. For the purposes of this article we can divide them 
into two groups — namely, those systems requiring, beside 
the rail return, two overhead conductors insulated from 
each other, as well as earth, as is necessary when three-phase 
traction is used, and those requiring one conductor per 
track, such as the high-tension direct current and the single- 
phase methods of traction. 


ovER Roads. Valtellina Rah.way. 

OvEKHEAD Conductors Generally C'on.sidered. 

The first overhead conductor for main-line railway work 
was that at adopted in the Baltimore & Ohio Railway, 
now superseded by the third rail. 

For overhead work involving the use of very high pressvues 
up to 20,000 volts or so great care has to be taken as re- 
gards insulation and safety devices, so as to obviate possible 
loss of life through a broken wire. The form of construction 
to be adopted will depend upon the class of service to be 
undertaken. Thus, on a line runniuf^ but a few trains in 
each direction every day a much simplei- and cheaper con- 
struction can be provided tlian will become necessary if a 
line is equij)ped, say, into a terminal station dealing with 
700 or 800 or more trains a day. In the former case, a large 
amount of time is available for inspection and maintenance 
repairs, whereas in the latter practically no time can be 
spared for this purpose, except possibly an hour or two every 
night, and then only at gi-eat inconvenience to the traffic. 
It will also be evident that the form of suspension adopted 
will depend also upon whether low or high speeds will have 
to be dealt with. 

It will also be apparent that the form of collector adopted 
will depend upon the intensity of the traffic, and the speed 
as well as weight of train to be propelled. Thus, for long 
country lines with infrequent trains and not excessive 
speeds, and running single motor cars with possibly one 
trailer, the ordinary trolley and wheel, similar to that in 
general use with electric tramways, can be used with advan- 
tage, although the size of trolley wheel and similar details 
may have to be slightly different from usual tramway prac- 
tice. If trolleys of this description are adopted, it is possible 
to utilise an overhead construction of the simplest form, the 
only difference between such a construction and the ordinary 
tramway overhead construction consisting in the use of 
insulators capable of dealing with the high pressure involved, 

Fio. 7. — Diagram of C'onxections at Station, Valtellina Three- 
Phase Line. 

and the safeguarding of the railway employes and passen- 
gers in the case of a bieakage of a wire. It is a problem of 
this nature which presented itself for solution in Sweden, 
where it is intended to electrify long-distance country lines 
having very infrequent service, and on which very high 
rates of speed need not be attained. 

As regards the section adopted for the conductor wire, 
this varies to a very large extent both as regards the area 
and the form of the section. The wires, adopting the clas- 
sification for round wires, vary from 1/0 L.S.W.G. to 
7/0 L.S.W.G. The choice of section depends on many 
factors, such as frequency of feeding points and mechanical 
strength, although it is, as a rule, the latter factor which 

Fio. 8. — Trolley Lines at Level Crossing, Safety Device. 
Vai.tbllina-Lecco-Sondrio (Ganz) Three-Phase Railway. 

carries the greatest weight in the final decision. As a rule, 
copper is used for the contact wire, although in the case of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway steel wire 
has now been adopted for this purpose. Single wires sup- 
ported only at long intervals, either from cross structures 
or bracket arms, have also been used in connection with the 
two three-phase railways, the Burgdorf-Thun line and the 
Valtellina system, both being long-distance country lines. 
In the case of the Burgdorf-Thun line, the contact line con- 
sists of two hard-drawn copper wires, 8 ram. (0-31 in.) in 
diameter, suspended from transverse steel wires ; the latter 



are fitted to wood posts (Figs. 1 and 2) placed on each side 
of the railway line. In the main stations the posts are of 
iron. The trolley line is divided by section insulators into 
15 independent sections, as a means of safety and to facili- 
tate the detection of defects in the insulation. The trans- 

hand front and left-hand rear contact bows on the — wire 
and the right-hand rear single contact bow on the -{-wire. 
Thus there is never any inteiTuption of current. As soon 
as the front double contact has crossed the transverse sup- 
port B its two parts come again in contact with the cor- 

verse suspension wires are generally 115 ft. apart, but this ! responding wire, and the rear bow, which then rises between 
distance is reduced where the railway crosses main roads, [ A and B, can, in its turn, leave one of the -{-contact wires. 

at curves and in sta- 
tions. At the points 
of suspension the 
height of the contact 
wires above the rails 
is 17 ft. H in-, the 
deflection never ex- 
ceeding 13| in. The 
lowest part of the 
contact line is 4' 850 
metres (15 ft. lOJin.) 
above the rails. 
Fig. 3 shows the 
arrangement of the 
contact lines at a 
three-track interme- 
diate station. In 
tunnels, the height 
available being limi- 
ted, the deflection 
has been reduced by 

placing the suspension wires closer. Taking current in 
passing the points is effected as follows : When a car is 
coming from the left of the point (shown in Fig. 3) to con- 
tinue its journey in a straight line, the current is first taken 
by the four contact bows at a time ; then the first double- 
contact bow gets engaged in the space contained between 

-.SlMI'l ON 'J I NNM 

Fio. 10. — SiMPLON Tunnel Theee-Phase Construction (Brown, 
BOVERI & Co.) 

the carrying wires A and B and the right-hand single bow 
in front, leaving the contact wire, marked -f , and sliding on 
to the auxiliary tension wires, shown in dotted lines, and 
which are isolated from the other wires. The rear contact 
bow has not yet reached the transverse wire A ; the current 
is, therefore, taken by three single bows, which are the left- 

In order to prevent 
an interruption in 
the current it is only 
necessary that the 
distance measured 
on the centre line of 
the car between the 
two double bows be 
slightly greater than 
that between the two 
suspension points A 
and B. 

The auxiliary ten- 
sion wires have a 
double action ; they 
first guide the bow, 
when out of contact 
between A and B, 
and they relieve the 
transverse wire B by 
helping the tension 
of the contact wires. Crossing is effected noi-selessly and 
without sparking. There is no difficulty in stopping the 
car or in changing the direction of travel under a switch. 
Fig. 4 shows a set of points in perspective and Fig. 5 the 
overhead construction at a station. 

A similar form of construction was adopted in'the case of 

(Bro\\\ Bo\fri & Co) 

Fio. II.— Sniri.os Tunnel, showino Construction of Polks used 
(Brown, Boveri & Co.) 

the Valtellina line. The jn-essure between the two overhead 
wires used in this case is 3,0tX» volts, which, in consequence 
of insulation difficulties, both of the collector and'of the two 
wires themselves at points and crossings, is the highest 
pressure hitherto used or recommended to be adopted for 
three-phase work. 



The number of wires at points and crossings is double, 
thus making four overhead wires per single track, as shown 
in Fig. (J. For points the two corresponding wires of one 
phase are held 6G0 mm. apart (26 in.) until the fro" is 
reached, after which they diverge gradually with the tracks. 
At crossings one phase is insulated for about (i metres 
{19 ft. 8 in.) by means of the creosoted wooden insulators 
whilst the other phase carries the current. 

At level crossings safety devices, to act in case of broken 
trolley wire, are provided, as shown in Fig. 8, which is self- 
explanatory, the wire if broken being immediatelv connected 
to earth, as shown. At all the stations signals are inter- 
locked with the line switches. 

At both ends of a station there is an insulated section of 
overhead line 300 metres long, as showni in Fig. 7. This 
section can only be switched on if the signal is lowered for 
the train to proceed. A through cable or by-pass is carried 
round the station, thus enabling the whole overhead system, 
excepting the station, to be interconnected, as shown in 
the diagram Fig. 7. 

Figs. 9. 10 and 11 show the very light form of overhead 
construction adopted in the case of the three-phase in.stalla- 
tion of the Simplon tunnel, equipped by Messrs. Brown & 
Boveri, and are so clear that they require no detailed 

With this we will conclude the consideration of what mav 
be called the plain trolley wire construction of the tramwav 
type, the only difference being that, in consequence of the 
high pressures used, experience has shown that porcelain is 
practically, for the present at least, the only insulation avail- 
able. This being the case, and before we proceed to con- 
sider more closely the construction of single-phase lines or 
any high-tension overhead construction requiring onlv one 
working conductor per track, involving more complicated 
forms of construction, which have been resorted to for 
reason of safety and otherwise, we will briefiv examine the 
question of insulation. 

(To be continued.) 


The reduced cost of aluminium lias contributed greatly to the 
rapidly increasing use of this metal in competition with copper for 
electrical purposes. One of the greatest obstacles to its extended 
use has been the difficulty of obtaining a .sound mechanical joint 


In the United States, metal sleeves have been used to hold together 
the cable ends, but they do not give a sound electrical joint owmg to 
the oxidation of the aluminium surface wnere in contact with the 
metal sleeve. Attempts have been made to weld aluminium elec- 
trically, but the weld when made was found to he brittle and the 
strength of metal considerably reduced, in some cases as much as 
10 per cent. 

As is well known the difficulty — if not impossibility — ot soldering 
aluminium is due to the formation of an imperceptible, but very 
persistent, film of o.xide on the surface of the metal. This film of 
oxide cannot be reduced by the use of fiu.\. nor can it be inecliani- 
cally removed, for, however rapid the removal, a fresh film is instan- 
taneously formed on the new surface which prevents the i)ermancnt 
adhesion of the .solder. 

ilr. Sherard Cowper-Coles has made a large number of cxixri- 
ments on the welding of aluminium, extending over eight or nine 

years, and has now perfected a compact welding machine, making 
use of the fact that aluminium readily becomes coated with a film 
of oxide. 

The principle underlj-ing the process is as follows ;— The ends of 
the rod to be jointed are butted, after facing square, and heat from 
a gas blowpipe or benzine lamp is aiiplied at the joint, which rapidly 
produces an oxide skin, and the fused metal is retained within this 
skm of oxide. When the ends of the rods are molten, they are brought 
rapidly together by releasing a spring calch ; the oxide skin, biust- 
uig at the point of contact, is driven out by the pressme of the 
sprmg and the clean molten metal unites and makes a perfect joint. 

Fig. 2. — View showing Skin of Oxide. 

Fig. 2 shows clearly the skin of oxide containing the molten 
aluminium, tlie weight of which causes the flexible skin of oxide to 
sag, the skin when pierced allows the molten metal to run out leaving 
a loose skin as shown in the illustration. Fig. 1 shows a joint after 
welding ; the ring of the metal which has been squeezed out is 
largely composed of aluminium oxide. It is necessary to remove 
the collar only when it is desired to obtain .a iinifnrm diameter. 

Fine oxKK 

Fig. 3. — for Alu.mi.xiu.\i Weldlso. 

The machine illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 is operated by a blowpipe 
from coal gas. The adjustable spring jaws. A, are lined with a refractoi7 
holder, so as to insulate the aluminium. The compressed spring and 
spring release B can be clearly seen ; the adjustable stop C regulates 
the movement of the spindle. The blow]iipe D is fitted with a 
spring universal joint E, and can be adjusted in position along the 
rods F. These rods are detachable, so that the machine packs up 
very closely. The flame j)lays on the gi-ooved firebrick G which is 




supported on an adjustable inclined piano K, thus regulating the 
height to a nicety, by means of the screw. 

The macliine can be supplied with coal gas or Dowson producer 
gas blowpipe (made of uon), or with benzoline lamp for field work, 
in which case it can be packed in a box 18 in. by 7 in. by 7 in., 
weighing only 19 lb. ; the complete outfit costs from £10 upwards, 
according to the size of the welds to be made. 

Tests for tensile .strength on 12 consecutive welds (not picked 
specimens) made by this \^■elding machine showed that the fractures 
occurred at a considerable distance from the weld, indicating therc- 


fore that the metal had not deteriorated during the process of weld- 
ing. The extension, on 4 in., in the 12 tests referred to varied from 
8-0 to 140 per cent., the elastic limit from about 4 to 7 tons per 
square inch, and the maximum stress from 63 to 10-85 tons per 
square inch, none of the specimens breaking in th-j welded portion. 


BY C. C. PATERSON .\ND E. H. E.\YNER, M..\. 

Summary. — The authors show that by applying a potential aheath lead 
in close proximity to the outside of a tube of resistance alloy, standard 
resistances of low value and uj) to any current capacity can be ci in- 
structed, whose effective self-induction is as low as two or three tlmu- 
sandths of a microhenry. 

In the measurement of power in alternating-current networks when 
tjic highest accuracy is dcsued, it is difficult to obtain standard re- 
sistances in which the time constant (the inductance divided by the 
resistance) is sufficiently low to render the effect of inductance 
negligible, and at the same time the resistance of which does not vary 
with the temperature or the frequency. This is especially the case 
when large currents are to be dealt with, for in this instance llie com- 
paratively large amo\mt of energy to be dissipated rendcis it almost 
impossible to get rid of the heat by natural radiation sufficiently 
rapidly to prevent a rise in temperature beyond the limit at which 
even the best material will maintain its resistance sufficiently con- 
stant. In dealing with the question of alternating-current measure- 
ment at the National Physical Laboratory, we have had to aim at an 
.accuracy considerably higher than 1 part in 1,0(10, and not the least 
difficult part of tliis problem has been to construct a series of re- 
sistances ranging from 0-04 to O-OOI ohm. and capable of operating 
at from .50 to upwards of 2.000 amperes. 

It is generally recognised that fur laboralnry purposes it is not 
desirable to try to limit the amount of power nsocl in the measuring 
apparatus (provided the heat can be effectually dissipated) if extra 
torque and increased accuracy and reliability can be secured in the 

* Abstract of an original communication to the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers, accepted by the Council for publication in the Journal. 

standard instruments. In the resistances in question we have been 
able, without difficulty, to use a drop of 2 volts and more, across the 
potential points, for standard resistances up to 2,000 amiieres. and 
we have adopted this figure as a basis for alternating current and 
power measurements. 

It will be readily appreciated that the only practicable method 
of dealing with this amount of power (4 kw. in the 2,000 amfjere 
resistance) is by some artificial method of cooling. The device 
adopted by Messrs. Ci'ompton many years ago, of tubular resistances 
cooled by water constantly flowing through them, suggests itself at 
once as the most convenient form for the purpose.* 
Attempts were first made to di-aw Eureka tubes, and 
the London Electric Wire Co. went to considerable 
trouble in an endeavour to make some seamless tubes 
of this material ; but the attempt had eventually to 
be abandoned in favour of manganin. This alloy, 
although more troublesome tta account of the neces- 
sity of hard soldering all joints, appears to lend it.self 
better to the drawing of seamless and uniform 
tubes. The tubes used have been obtained from 
Messrs. Goliasch, of Berlin, and have proved most 
satisfactory in every way. 

In order to be able to obtain high wattmeter read- 
ings at low power factors it is desirable to be able 
to use each resistance at a current considerably in 
excess of that for which it is normally rated, and 
the maximum value is such that a greater change 
than 2 parts in lOvOOO does not take place in the 
value of the resistance due to rise of temperature. 
Thus, the maximum current for the 0-040 ohm resis- 
tance is 11,5 amperes, for the 0-002 ohm 260 amperes, 
for the 0-010 ohm 450 amperes, for the 0-002 ohm 
1,300 amperes, and for the 0-001 ohm 2,500 amperes, 
the normal drop of 2 volts being, in consequence, 
increased in each case. It is possible, of course, by 
a|)plying a correction to use the tubes for higher cur- 
rents than these. A flow of cooling water equal to 
15 litres per minute was u.sed, but the exact amount is 
of little consequence. A smaller amount could be used 
if arrangements were made for churning the water. 
The watts (per square centimetre) which are dissipated in these 
tubes under the " maximum " load conditions vary from 7J to 12. 
An upper limit of 10 watts may be taken as an average value for the 
design of manganin tubes up to 1-5 mm. thickness of wall. This 
corresponds to a current density of about 25 amperes per square 
millimetre (16,<MX) amperes per square inch) in tubes 0-3 mm. thick. 
From considerations of self-induction, a thin-walled tube of large 
diameter, working at a high cmrent density, has great advantages. 

An experiment with tap water in the 0002 ohm tube showed that 
the resistance of the column of water was about 40,000 ohms, and its 
shunting effect, therefore, negligible. 

Fig. 1 illustrates the change in resistance of the O-OOI ohm man- 
ganin tube as the current increases from to 4.000 am])eres. The 
shape of this curve may be taken as typical of the curves obtained 
by experiment on all the standards, which exhibit the well-known 
characteristic of manganin alloy for variation of the temjicraturc 
coefficient. In good manganin there is a total rise in the resistance 
of about 2/10,000 from 8°C. to 35 or 40''t'., after -nhich. as the tem- 
perature increases, the resistance tends to fall with greater rapidity 
than the original rate of increase. 

Conatnirtion. — The cross-section of each tube is proportioned so 
that a length of about 40 cm. (I5i in.) has the desired resistance. 
Five sizes have been made up to the present, and three resistances 
of each size except of the largest. The approximate dimensions of 
the tubes are given in the Paper. These tubes are silver soldered 
into iK-avy cojiper ends, which form the potential points, and which 
serve to lead the current into the tube. Each copper end has a hole 
through it equal to the bore of the tube, so that a stream of cooling 
water can pass continuously through the tube. 

Fig. 2 shows one of the comi>lite resistances (0-002 ohm for 1.000 
amperes). It will be seen (hat the cm-rent is led in from the two 
terminal posts in a way which maintains a well-closed circuit, and 
thus avoids giving rise to lields which may affect other apparatus 
in the neighbourhood. The narrow ring soldered to the centre of 
the tube forms the common point for the volt and current eireuiti* 
in wattmeter mea.suremcnts with the quadrant electrometer. The 
manganin tubes are .seamless, and thelirst treatment is to anneal them 
thoroughly at a red heat, in order, as far as possible, to secure sub- 
sequent constancy in their resistance. The heavy copper cylindrical 
ends and centre rings arc then sweated on with silver soldej\care 

* See " The Potentiometer and its Ad;unctf," by Clark Fisher, p. 77 ; 
also The Electricu-n, Vol. XXXMII., p. 22. 



being taken to ensure that the resistances are a few per cent, lower 
than the vahies which are Hnally required. It is then necessary, 
especially with the very thin walled tubes, to wash over all the inner 
surfaces with acid, so as to remove the scale. If this i.s not done the 
tubes will have a comparatively large temperatin'c coeflficient. After 
removing all traces of acid, the inner surface is coated with enamel, 
which is hardened in the usual way by stoving. This prevents 
subsequent oxidation of the surface. The tubes are then ready for 
closer resistance adjustment, which is best done by sand jjapering 
their outer surfaces in a lathe. When the resistance is within i per 
cent, of the final value the tube is soft soldered into the brass or 
copper end castings and mounted up. The final adjustment is then 
made and the outer surface lacquered to jircvent oxidation. 

Svlf-induclion. — The metliod usually adopted for rendering a low 
sheet resistance as non-inductive as possible is to double the sheet 
back upon itself. Dr. Orlich (of the Reichsanstalt) has recently 




Fki. 1. 


0,rn-t,l (.myre.). 

-C'OCl Ohm Stakdaed Rbsistakce. C'trve of Change of 
Kksistakce with Cukeknt. 

constructed a set of oil-cooled standards on this principle, with very 
active mechanical stirring of the oil. In order to bring the volt drop 
across the terminals of the water tube standards into phase with 
the currents passing through them, a device has been adopted which 
was suggested by Mr. Albert Campbell,* in connection with non- 
inductive resistances. It consists in leading the potential wires 
back along the resistances in such a way that the magnetic flux, 
which causes the back E.M.F. of self-induction in the resistance. 
will also give rise to a practically equal back E.M.F. in the lead of 
the potential circuit, and so neutralise the induction effect. In 
order to make this elimination more complete, and also to render 
the calculation of the inductance possible, it is necessary that the 
potential lead shall take the form of a closely fitting cylindrical 
sheath running the whole length of the tube and insulated from it 
at all points except at one end. In the tubes in question liic thick- 
ness of this insulation is 0-2 mm. 

The cross-section of one of the 
tubes with its sheath clamp is shown 
in the top right-hand of Fig. 2. 
Underneath this is shown a section 
(to a very much magnified scale) of 
a small part of the tube, insulation, 
and sheath, in order to illustrate 
their relative proportions. On 
account of its closeness to the tube 
it has not been po.ssible to draw 
ihc .sheatii in the elevation, only its 
clamp being .shown. The magnified 
section, as reproduced, is 20 times 
the scale of the remainder (jf the 

The only flux which can cause a 
self-inductive ctlect which is not 
eliminated by the .sheath is that 
which cuts the manganin tube while 
it docs not cut the sheath. Oi thc.'c 
linkages those outside the sheath arc 
completely eliminated by it, and 
those inside it can be divided into two cla.'ises — namely, the linkases 
of the flux in the insulating material with the whole current, and the 
linkagesof the flux in the tube itself with part of the current. It will 
be seen how the concentration of all the current in a very thin tube 
of large radius assists the non-inductive quality of the resistance as 
compared with the in which it is distributed over a solid conductor. 

A table in the Paper gives the values of the effective inductances 
and time constants of the various, the value of the time 
constants varies from I-6xl0~" for the 0-040 ohm resistance to 
30-0x10-' for the 0001 ohm resistance. Fig. 3 has been drawn 
from the calculated values in order to indicate graphically the 
relative effect of the two linkages. With the data and experience 
* The Ei.ii:cTEif,iA5, Vol. LXI.. pp. lOOO-lOUl, 

gained with the tubes already constructed, the authors are now 
designing standards to work with 5,000 and ltt,000 amperes in 
which the inductances will be even more favourable. 

The necessity of reducing the value of the inductances of low resis- 
tances to the lowest po.ssible limit is illustrated by a diagram. This 
shows that for standards uj3 to 2,000 or 3.000 amperes, at 50 fre- 
quency, although the inductances may be as low as three thousandths 
of a microhenry, the low value of the resistance and consequent high 
time constant makes it necessary to use a correction, if a elo.ser ac- 
curacy than 1 jirr cent, is desired at power factors of 01. With 

> A 

J 6 -^zr^"'^^ 

= 5 7^ 

5 / > 

I 3 1 ^- 

r 2 ^<^ 

ii rL 

0-01 0-02 0-03 

Itaistance of Tubes (o/.m.>). 
11 of the imtuctance which i 
m. Curve B gi 

lo a thickiies-^ of iii^nliitioii 

the total i 

Fig. 3. — Diaoeam showing the Relative Pboportion of the Self- 
Induction of Tube Resistances caused by the Thickness of Iksi'lation 
BETWEEN Tube and Sheath. 

resistances for 200 and 300 amperes the correction is only 01 per 
cent, at 01 power factor. 

For calculating the effect of a variation of frequency on the re- 
sistance of the tubes the authors used Dr. Heaviside's formula. It 
was found that owing to the thinness of the tubes and tlie high 
volume resistivity of manganin the variation of resistance with fre- 
quencies of 100 or less only affected the hundredth thousandth place, 
and was absolutely negligible. 

The authors are not aware of any method of measuring the low 
values of effective inductance of such resistances as these to anything 
approaching the accuracy with which they can be calculated. The 
following experiment embodies a method which has been ftund of 

Fig. 2. — Workino Dkawinu of C02 Oini 
(1,000 AMI".) Resistance. 



great value in measuring small differences of phase in current trans- 
formers and similar apparatus. It is similar in principle to that 
which has been utilised and described by E. and W. H. Wilson in 
connection with some interesting tests on commercial shunts.* 

R and R,. Fig. 4, are two .similar water-tube resistances supplied 
with current by one of two alternators coupled together. The 
quadrants of a .sensitive electrometer are connected across one of 
the resistances, while the needle is connected to the other alternator 
whose voltage is displaced 90 deg. with relation to the phase of the 
machine which supplies the current. The phase difference is ad- 
justed till the deflection of the electrometer is zero, the quadrants 
bein^ connected to one of the resis tances. It these are now changed 
* The Elecieician, Vol. L\T., p. 404. 



over to the otiier one. any deflection will be proportional to the sine 
of the phase angle botween the E.M.F.s on the two resistances. 

In the tests two similar standards were used, one with its sheath 
and the other without, and it is possible thus to test the difference of 
effective inductances of the two tubes and to illustrate the screening 
action of the sheaths. Measured in this way, the change of phase 
angle of the 0-002 ohm resistance with and without its sheath was 
0-67 dejr. at 50 aj per second. It will thus be seen that the sheath 
corrects for over 90 per cent, of the inductance of this tube. 

Comparison with other Apparatus. — It is interesting to compare 
the relative advantages of the authors' tube type of non-inductive 
resistance with the more usual strip type. A comparison cannot be 
made on the basis of inductance alone, since the capacity of the tube 
resistances to dissipate energy may be said to be roughly 300 times 
that of air-cooled standards. This gives them a great advantage 
from the points of view of overload capacity and constancy of re- 
sistance at all loads. The authors are of opinion that the water- 
tube type of resistance must compare very favourably with any 
otlier similar standards from the points of view of cooling efficiency, 
compactness, general convenience and low self-inductance. 

The following data are given for the purpose of indicating the 
magnitude of the inductances found in commercial apparatus. 
Messrs. E. and H. Wilson {ref. cit.) give the value of a commercial 
corrugated straight manganin shunt for use with a hot wire ammeter 
as 160 cms. Its value was 00045 ohm. being constructed for 
200 amperes. The phase displacement of this shunt at 50 oi is of 
the ord»r of 0-6 deg. Messrs. Siemens & Halsko publish the results 

Fig. 4. — Diagram of Connections for Test to Demonstrate the 
ScBEENiNG Action of the Potential Sheath =. 

of phase disijlacement tests between the primary and secondary 
of one of their high-grade current transformers, ratio 1,200 15. .50 a. 
These tests show phase displacements varying from 0-5 dep. at 
one-t«nth load to 0-2 deg. at full load. Our own measurements on 
the phase differences in current transformers also give values of 
this order. 



The ideal qualities of a standard of light — viz., absolute constancy, 
exact reproducibility, simplicity and utility under any ordinary con- 
ditions are found in practice to be antagonistic. For instance, the 
Violle molten platinum standard is satisfactory so far as constancy 
and reproducibility are concerned, but it is too expensive and com- 
plicated for everyday use, and on the other hand, the simple self- 
ci>ntained and portable flame standards are subject to considerable 
irregularities duo to varying atmospheric conditions. 

The difficulty has been in great part overcome by adopting three 
types of standards — viz., standards for ultimate reference, inter- 
mediate standards and working standards, known respectively as 
"primary," "secondary" and "working" standards. The Violle 
standard has been shown to fulfil satisfactorily the reiiuirements of 
a " primary " standard. The Fleming ICdiswan large bulb glow 
lamps fulfil most of the conditions of a ".secondary" .standard. 
Flame standards possess decided advantages in their simplicity and 
portability, and in the fact that they are self-contained fur use as 
working standards outside the region of electric lighting. 

The most serious objection to the Fleming Ediswan glow lamp is 
the possi ble considerable cumulative error introduced by multiplying 

* Abstract of a Lecture delivered before the Manchester Local 
Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

the number of photometer readings. The proposed new r;tandard 
is intended as a " secondary " standard, which may be stamped 
once and for all with a given candle-power and will retain it.s value 
for an indefinite period, thus obviating the necessity of more than 
two sets of photometer readings. 

The new standard consists of the light emitted by a fixed area of 
an incandescent metal strip heated electrically. Of various metals 
tried pure platinum has proved most suitable for the purpose. The 
method of adjustment depends on the different absorbing qualitie.s 
of black fluorspar and water for wave.i of heat and light. Of the 
total radiation emitted by a heated platinum strip, the percentage 
which is absorbed by black fluorspar is found to increase as the tem- 
perature of the strip is raised, while the percentage absorbed by water 
diminishes. At one particular temperature of the strip these two per- 
centages are equal and their equality fixes the C(jnditions of the strip 
uniquely. In the actual apparatus two parts of the radiation from 
the strip pass through a plate of black fluorspar and a layer of 
water respectively, and fall on two sensitive thermopiles which arc 
connected in opposition through a galvanometer. The adjustment 
consists in regulating the current so that the galvanometer deflec- 
tion is zero. ) . 

Up to the present the strip has been photometered against an in- 
candescent lamp run at constant voltage, with vtry satisfactory 



A series of experiments have recently been carried out on a suc- 
tion gas producer coupled to a gas engine in the Engineering Labora- 
tories of the Manchester University. The plant, which was supplied 
by the National Gas Engine Co., is capable of developing approxi- 
mately 24 B.ii.P., and was run at approximately full load over the 
whole series of experiments. Tlie object of the latter was to 
determine the eiHciency of producer and engine under different con- 
ditions of working. The fuel used throughout was gas coke contain- 
ing 81 75 per cent, of carbon, and 119 per cent, of hydrogen, and 
had a net calorific value of 12,635 B.Th.U. per pound dry. The 
general conclusions to which the experiments led are as follows ; — 

The compo.sition and calorific value of the gas varies greatly 
with the quantity of water vapour supplied to the vaporiser, as does 
the thermal efficiency of the producer, the latter attaining its 
maximum value — viz., 786 per cent, when the gas produced has 
its highest calorific value — viz., 1271 B.Th.U. per cubic feet at32"F. 
under a pressure of 29921 in. of mercury. The efficiency of the 
engine, however, falls off as the gas becomes richer, the reduction of 
thermal efficiency being accompanied by a reduction in the per- 
centage of heat rejected to the jackets, and in an increase in the 
percentage rejected in the exhaust gases. The engine has a maximum 
thermal efficiency of 26 9 per cent, and a minimum efiSciency of 
22S per cent., measured on the brake horse-power. 

The overall thermal efficiency of the plant has a maximum value 
of 18'16 per cent., measured on the brake horse-power, this occurring 
with a slightly greater vapour supply than that (0-4 lb. per pound of 
dry fuel ) giving the maximum producer efficiency. This value coincides 
very fairly with that obtained by Drs. Bone and Wheeler in a series 
of trials on a large pressure producer developing approximately 
,3,000 u.P. and burning bituminous coal as fuel. 

Under conditions of maximum efficiency in the small producer the 
consumption of dry fuel amounted to 111 lb. per briiUc horse-|>owcr 
per hour. 


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' A bstract of a lecture delivered before the Manchester Local Section 
of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

E 2 




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Ab the present time the expansion of domestic power 
supply is such an impoi'tant question that no apology is 
necessary for the frequent reference to the subject in our 
columns. In fact, we believe that the future welfare of 
many electricity supply undertakiuos where a motor load 
is practically unobtainable is largely bound up in the de- 
velopment of the use of electricity foi household purposes. 
In the majority of houses the greatest possibility of such 
development lies in the use of electricity for heating and 
cooking, and in order to popularise this branch it is 
necessary, lir.stly, that suitable and well-designed apparatus 
at a leasoiiable price should be on the market; secondly, 
that the apparatus should be brought to the notice of the 
pulilic by means of well-equipped showrooms ; thirdly, 
that electric supply undertakers should be in a posi- 
tion to let apparatus on hire lo would-be consumers ; 
and lastly, that a suitable tariff should be ofi'ered. In 
regard to the last item, much has already been -written, 
and in this connection it is only necessary to draw 
attention to recent Papers read before the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers, in the present session by llr. W. E. 
Cooi'EU, and last year by Messrs. Handcocic and Dykes, 
and to the discussions which ensued. These showed the 
diftieulties which have to be faced in the way of tariff's. An 
inspection of our annual Electric Supply Tables will show 
that in man}' cases current is offered at a low rate — at 
about Id. per unit— for heating and cooking, so that the 



slow progress made in the sale of current for these pur- 
poses cannot be solely attributed to the present scales of 
charges, though the accompanying stipulations may be at 

In regard to the other requirements, the question of the 
design of suitable apparatus and also the unsatisfactory 
organisation of existing showrooms (which, unfortunately, 
are not numerous) Iiave been discussed quite recently in 
these columns, so that further reference is here unneces- 
sary. The fact should not be overlooked, however, that 
the third requirement mentioned above — the letting on 
hire of apparatus — is very closely connected with the 
organisation of the showroom, and much can be learnt by 
careful study of the systems adopted by the gas companies. 
In this connection it is interesting to notice that within the 
last few weeks many electricity undertakings have decided 
to make arrangements for obtaining and equipping show- 
rooms, so that the need for greater publicity is evidently 
being more appreciated. 

In the eyes of the general public, electrical appliances are 
surrounded with mystery ; and since the cause of any failure 
of such apparatus is frequently not apparent, except to a 
technical person, tlie consumer is inclined to attribute all 
failures to faulty apparatus, although in many instances 
they may be due to unskilful or careless handling. The 
possibility of such failures, however, can be reduced to a 
minimum ; but, nevertheless, the average consumer natur- 
ally shows a good deal of hesitation before purchasing 
what he regards as experimental apparatus. There is, 
however, little ditticulty in interesting such consumers in 
the subject of electric cooking, for the advantages of elec- 
trical appliances, particularly as regards cleanliness, appeal 
to the minds of all except gas enthusiasts ; and the distri- 
bution of instructive pamphlets, with an invitation to call 
at the showrooms where the apparatus will be shown in 
use, will usually result in many inquiries. If the best 
results are to be olitained from the latter, it is essential 
that, where necessary, inquirers should have the opportunity 
of obtaining any apparatus on hire or hire-purchase. 

Hitherto electric supply undertakings have been rather 
reluctant to take up the letting on hire of electrical cooking 
and heating appliances, although much has been done in 
the way of letting motors on hire, but that some such 
arrangement is essential for the satisfactory development 
of the electric supply industry there is little doubt. The 
public has become so accustomed to the hiring of gas ovens 
and gas fires that they naturally expect the same facilities 
to be placed at their disposal in the case of electrical 
apparatus, and in the latter case tlie necessity is consider- 
ably greater^ owing to the higher price of electrical ajjpli- 
ances, the fact that its capabilities are largely unknown, 
and the desirability of competing with gas apparatus on 
equal terms. 

During the past year much more attention has been paid 
to this subject, and as recently as January the Blackpool 
Corporation decided to adopt an experimental scheme for 
hiring out electric heaters, cookers, &c. The rental has 
been fixed at 10 per cent, on the cost of the apparatus, 
and as the charge for energy is only Id. per unit we 
shall await the result of this experiment with no little in- 
terest. In the meantime we desire to draw the attention 

of other central station engineers to what is being done, 
and we hope that some of them may be encouraged to 
adopt schemes of a similar character. Although the rental 
mentioned above may prove to be insufficient to cover 
maintenance and depreciation for the time being, it is de- 
sirable that the consumer should not be called upon to pay 
a large sum for the hire of apparatus, which later on, it may 
be noted, is likely to be much reduced in price when a con- 
siderably increased demand has been brought about. With 
an increased demand competition will be stimulated, the 
efficiency and design of the apparatus improved, and the 
percentage charge may be increased without raising the 
actual sum for rental. 

It will be remembered that some years ago the Local 
Government Board were opposed to the raising of loans 
by municipal aulhorities for the purpose of purchasing 
electrical apparatus for hiring without special statutory 
authority. This attitude restricted to some extent the 
growth of the business, as the promotion of a special bill 
is a costly method of procedure. 

Moreover, many Councils encountered considerable oppo- 
sition from wiring contractors and the electrical trade by 
their desire to undertake, not only the hiring of the appa- 
ratus, but also the complete equipment of the necessary 
installation. The point should not be overlooked that 
the letting on hire or hire-purchase can be, and should be, 
distinct from the ordinary business carried on by elec- 
trical contractors, who would usually be unwilling to 
undertake business on hire-purchase terms. The electric 
supply undertakers have been authorised to supply elec- 
tricity, and it is only fair that they should be allowed to 
encourage its use by all possible means. In fact, it is not 
only desirable, but imperative, that in this respect they 
should be placed on an equality with the gas undertakers, so 
that they may bring electrical apparatus more pmrninently 
to the notice of likely consumers. 

In this connection it will be remembered that the 
Electric Lighting Acts (Amendment) Bill, which is now 
being considered by Parliament, contains a clause giving 
powers to all electric supply authorities to undertake, 
under certain conditions, the letting on hire of electrical 
apparatus. Such a clause would greatly facilitate mattei-s 
if the Bill became law. Even now, many large undertakings 
already possess the necessary statutory powers, and tliose 
who are not so fortunately placed might well consider the 
possibility of utilising reserve funds for purchasing appara- 
tus to let on hire, as has been done at Blackpool. 


(Copies of the undermeutioned works can be had from TVie Etfciriaan Office, poet frc«, 
on receipt of published price, adding 3d. for books published under &. Add 10 per 
cent, for abroad or for foreign books.) 

The Life Story of Sir Charles Tilston Bright, CE. By CH.vRLf:.s 
BiuoiiT, F.R.S.E. (London : A. Constable & to.) Pp. xiv.— 478. 
12s. 6(1. net. 

Tins book is so full of interest that it requires no effort to 
read, and it is well that it shmdd he published in revised and 
abridged form, because tlioro is. perhaps, some danger of the 
valuable work done by 8ir Charles Briglit, in the earliest days 
of long-distance submarine telegraphy, being overlooked by 
later generations. 

One, of course, hardly expects a nice sense of historical 
perspective in a biography by a son, and if the part "played by 
its subject in reiiard to the introduction of many^electrical 



advancos doos not lose in the telling, allowance will be made 
for filial partiality. Even to those who are not without know- 
ledge of the history and literature of the subject, the strenuous 
work and undaunted spirit of Sir Charles come with a 
sense of freshness, and revive admiration for the qualities dis- 
played by him at a relatively very early age. In reviewing 
Bright's life, however, it seems clear that he spread even his 
abundant energies and great jjersistence over too wide a field, 
and that he would have accomplished more enduring work in 
his later years if he had circumscribed his engineering interests. 
There is here, perhaps, a lesson for our own day. 

That he was at least one of the first to grasp the essential 
factors in submarine cable work, both from the engineering and 
electrical points of y'u'w. is abundantly manifest. And it 
would have been well had his advice been followed in im- 
portant particulars, such as the weight of copper and gutta- 
percha in the first Atlantic cable, and the battery power used in 
working it. He was, perhaps, not always sufficiently critical 
in regard to enterprises submitted for his advice. For instance, 
the approval he gave to the " North Atlantic Telegraph 
Project." involving cables via Iceland and Greenland, has not 
been borne out by history and experience. The slow speed of 
the early long cables has been greatly improved 1)V other 
means than dividing the route up into short sections. 

In any case. Sir Charles Bright has left his impress on cable 
and land telegraphy, and there is inspiration in his courageous 
dealing with new conditions and great untried engineering 
and electrical jsroblems, involving huge risks. His is the 
credit of proving the possibility of laying long cables in deep 
water, as to Sir James Anderson belongs that of making these 
cables a property by showing that they could be picked up 
from great depths and repaired. 

Mr. Charles Bright is to be congratulated on his latest 
publication. The subject of the biography, and the book 
itself, are well presented, and the illustrations are excellent and 
well chosen. Some judicious pruning and editing might be an 
improvement ; while the too frequent use of footnotes, many of 
which could very properly be incorporated in the text, is irritat- 
ing to the reader. But the work is illuminative, and possesses 
distinct value in an ago of biographies in its outstanding repre- 
sentation of a vigorous and able personality, whose life work 
was and still is of high importance in the world's progress. 

Geo. R. Neilson. 

The Elementary Theory of Direct Current Dynamo Electric 

Machinery. By C. E. Asukokh and E. W. E. Kkmpson. (Cam- 
bridge : University Press.) Pp. viii. — 120. 3s. net. 

This little book discusses the direct current dynamo and 
motor from an elementary point of view, and the beginner will 
find the main principles involved explained in a very simple 
and clear manner. The authors follow generally accepted 
lines and so the treatment calls for little comment, yet there are 
a few points that may be criticised. No reason is given, lujr 
does one actually exist, for the warning that shunt motors 
should be allowed to reach full speed before load is put on ; 
furthermore, exception may be taken to the statement that the 
armature field of dynamos is always small in comparison with 
the field produced by the magnets, as the number of ampere- 
turns per pole on the armature and field is very often about the 
same. In the formula given for the E.M.F. of an armature it 
would be preferable to let '' b " represent the number of 
parallel circuits in the armature rather than the number of, as the formula will give incorrect results 
for .series windings, in which the number of jiiirallel circuits is 
not necessarily equal to the numbei' of brushes. 

The sentence " There are no lost volts in th<' field circuit" 
appears in the discussion of the characteristic curves of the 
shunt dynamo ; this statement is not intelligible and as it has 
no apparent connection with the context, in which it occurs, its 
omission in a future edition wovdd be desirable. 

The development of the calculation of magnetic circuits is 
perhaps the best feature of the book, but it is uimsual to define 
permeability as the ratio of B to H as obtained from points on a 
hysteresis loop. The result of such a definition is, as is pointed 
out in the text, to give negative values of the perrcieability for 

points on certain parts of the loop. The reviewer would point 
out that this method of defining permeability will lead to in- 
finite and zero values for those points of the curve at which 
the magnetising force and the magnetisation are zero and also 
two values for the permeability for each value of the induction 

It would be an improvement if the armature of figure 37 were 
shown laminated, and if the directions of the currents and 
fJiLxes were indicated in figures 69 and 70, and if the letters N 
and S used in these figures for the neutral axis, and the axis of 
symmetry were replaced by other letters, as they give rise to 
confusion if they are taken in their ordinary meaning to denote 
North and South ])olcs. 

Throughout the book " D.P." is used for difference of poten- 
tial in place of the almost universally adopted abbreviation 
" P.D.," and this change seems undesirable in the interest of 
uniformity of notation. 

Notwithstanding the presence of such slight inaccuracies as 
have been indicated above this book may be recommended for 
the use of elementary students owing to its conciseness and 
freedom from mathematical difficulties. A. J. M. 


BY U. BRlillN. 

Siimmai-i/.— The autlior examines the reaction of the stator current 
on the rotor winding in a single-phase generator, and shows how the 
E.M.F. induced in the several turns depends on their position, which 
becomes of importance in machines having cylindrical rotors with 
distributed windings. The result of the investigation shows that, in 
addition to the E.M.F. which appears at the slip-rings, other E.M.F.s 
exist inside the winding. Although these latter pressures neutralise 
one another, and therefore set up no pulsating currents in the excit- 
ing circuit, yet owing to their possible magnitude, they may become 
dangerous to the insulation. 

In the present article the E.M.F.s set up in the rotor (or exciter) 
circuits of single-phase alternating current generators will be inves- 
tigated, and their shape and distribution examined. For the sake 
of simplicity a two-pole alternator will be assumed with a cylin- 
drical rotor carrying a uniformly distributed drum winding. The 
number of slots is '2k, and the winding pitch is taken equal to the 
pole pitch. There are 2 k turns on the rotor, and the latter is 
opened at the two opposite ends of a diameter, whilst the two 
halves are joined in series, consequently the flux due to the exciting 
current will be triangle-shaped, with its axis of symmetry along the 
diameter where the winding is opened. We will denote the turn 
connected immediately to slip-ring I as the first turn of the rotor 
winding, and this is the turn which lies in the peak of the field. 
Further, the pressure between the two points of the winding lying in 
the neutral zone of the field we shall call the pressure perpendicular 
to the slip rings. 

First, we shall only investigate the action of the fictitious stator 
flux and for the time being neglect the fictitious rotor field — i.e., 
the field produced by the exciting ampere-turns — since the latter 
field does not alter its strength and consequently cannot induce 
anything in the rotor turns with which it is interlinked and rela- 
tively at rest. The exciting winding, therefore, is assumed open, 
and only the stator is traversed by an alternating current of fre- 
quency ^ ■ This current, /,, can be expressed as a function of the 

time / — 

i, = ai sin u/ -i-«-i sin liaV 4 a , sin r>w/ -(-... 
= S|„a„, sin niul, 
where m is an odd number and (/,, «,. &c., arc constants. 

If we further assume that 1 lie slaliir tlux is sinusoidally distri- 
buted over the circumference, then the radial component of the 
induction J? in the gap at the position j- and instant / is 

B — i-njO,,, sin mw? x A sin .1: 
where A is the constant expressing the relation between the stator 
current and the field and .r is the distance, measured along the 
periphery, of the point considered from the middle of the stator 
coil side. The flux i)assing through an area of the rotor of axial 
length 1 and breadth d.r is d<t' = Bdx. The flux interlinked with the 
first rotor turn, when occupying any particular ])ositi<m .r = a, is 

Abstracted from " Elektrotechuik und Maschinenbau." 



found by integrating the expression for B with respect to *• between 
the limits a and a + ir. Thus 

*a = 2,„a,„ sin mat I A sin x-dx 

' f A sir 

= ^,„a,„ sin mul v 2A cos a. 

Remembering now that the frequency of the stator current is 
equal to the number of revolutions per second of the rotor, we can 
WTite '( + uf for the angle a, where 7 is a constant angle giving the 
position of the first rotor turn at the instant / = 0. At short-circuit, 
or with a pure wattless load, the first rotor turn will lie in the plane 
of the centre of the stator coil side at the moment 1=0 (i.e., stator 
current =0), thus « = 0, and therefore 7=0 also. With a non-in- 
ductive load the first rotor turn has its plane at right angles to that 
of the stator coil, so that when / = 0, a = 7=jr/2. If the generator is 
working on a load of power factor cos 0, the corresponding value 
of 7 = Jr/2— 0. 

Coming now from the first turn to the (re+ l)th, which is displaced 
from the first tiun Ijy an angle, nr. where c denotes the angular 
distance between two adjacent turns, then we must write a=7 + <u< 
+ n?, and the flux embraced by the (?i + l)th turn is 
*n-)-l=2AS„,a,„ sin mat cos{y-f»5 + u/j- 

= A2„,a,„{sin [(ot + I)u< -1-7-l-nc] + sin [{m - I)w/ - 7 - 7!f j], 
since sin w cos !'= J sin (w-l-r) + 4 sin (w— r). 

By cUfferentiating this expression with respect to the time / we 
get the pressure induced in the (« -f l)th turn of the rotor winding 

di'n + l 



-'= -Ao,i,i.a,„\{m + \)cos\{m + l)<^l + '-l + n(] 

+ (m — 1) CDS [(m— l)w' -7 — «^]} 
= — Aai:;„,o,„(m -l-l)[oos (m + l)i»t . cos(y + ni5) 

-sin {m + l)atsin{'/-{-nS)y 
— Aa~,ua,„{m -l)[cos (m- l)w< cos('y + jif.) 

+ sin{OT- l)<i'l sia (y + ni)] ; 
or c,|,|.i= - AwSu.a,,, {(w + 1) cos {m-f- 1)<>'^+ (m -1) cos (m — l)ai/| 
cos {y+ n^) + A'->-mal,\(m+l) sin (m-f l)u(- (m- 1) 
sin (to — 1 ) oit] sin (y + nc). 
This expression gives us an insight into the E.M.F.s induced in 
the several turns and in the whole winding. In the first place we 
see that the pressures set up in the several rotor turns are repre- 
sented by the algebraic summation of a series of cosines and a series 
of sines, which combine in a certain ratio, determined by sin 
iy + nS) and cos (y + nc), and is different for the several turns. In 
the first turn, where re = only cosine pulsations occur when 7 = — 
i.e., on short-circuit, for in this case the second term equals zero. 
On the other hand, only sine pulsations are set up in a coil lying 
in the neutral zone (nf = n 2), for now the first term becomes zero. 
Thus the pressures in the different turns have different phase rela- 
tions. With non-inductive loads the converse of the above occurs. 
Of course, by short-circuit, &c., we assume the rotor to occupy these 
positions with respect to the stator field, although in the above the 
rotor winding is taken to be open. 

If the above expression for e„-i-i is evaluated for a few positions 
for a given wave-shape of stator current, it wiil be found that the 
E.M.F.'s induced in the turns lying in the peak of the fictitious 
rotor field (i.e., nS = and )i6=7!-) deviate mostly from a sine wave. 
Further, the expression for c+i shows that this deviation increases 
the more the stator current differs from a sine wave. For a purely 
sinusoidal stator current, the rotor pressures will also be sine waves 
— i.e., putting to=1, we get 

e„^j= — 2Awa, cos 2"? cos (y + tu') 

-f 2Am^, sin 2M/sin(7-l-«f ) ^^ 

= - 2Awoi cos {2u< + (y + »«)], 
which is a sinusoidal pressure with twice the frequency of the 
stator current. 

In order to find the pressure between the ends of tlie rotor \\ ind- 
ing — i.e., between the slip-rings I. and II. — we take the sum 
of all the pressures from 7i=0 to n=2k—\. Since the turns 2 to k 
have the same E.M.F.s induced in them as the turns 2k to k + 2, the 
slip -ring pressure is obtained by subtracting from twice the pressure 
induced in the halt winding; »! = (» to n — k — \ the pressure induced 
in the first turn and adding the pressure induced in the (A- l-l)th 
turn. For the sake of simplicity we will denote the sine and Cosine 
aeries by R,io and Rp„, respectively, so that the pressure in the 
{n + 1 )th turn is 

e„+l = - -^wRoi.!. cos (7 -( no) i- .AwR,,,! sin (y -( nl). 
The pressures in the first and (jfc-h l)th turns are 
e,= - AtuR^, .^ cos y + AujR^ju sin y, 
c^.j.i=AwRp„5 cosy — AuRjii, sin y. 

The pressure es,- at (he slip rings is then 

e„= -2A«R,,, 2,,^-' cos (y+nc) 
+ 2AuR,i„ S,,'- -' sin (y+rU) 
+2AaiRj,„cos y— 2AwR,i„ sin y. 
Summing up the above from the relation 

V-' sin(a4-n2/3)= -^sin(af [ifc-l]6). 
sm/3 ^ ■'' 

and substituting «= ir/fc, we get 

e» = 2Aw cot J^ { Rco8 sin 7 + Rs^ cos 7 1 . 

In a precisely sunilar manner, the pressure Cj. at right angles to 
the slip rings is given by the expression 

ej.= — AuR<j„s{(sin7-f cos yjcot" - sin y\ 
2k ' 

-t-AwR,i„{{cos y -sin y) cotiT -f cos 7}, 

Comparing the two last expressions with one another, it is seen 
that for the case of short-circuit (7 = 0), the cosine series vanishes 
from the slip ring pressure, whilst it remains in the second equation. 
Similarly with non-inductive load (7=n-;2). 

This remarkable circumstance can only be explained by the fact 
that inside the winding pressures are opposed to one ano;her. That 
this actually is the case can be more clearlj' seen when — starting 
from one slipring — we consider the effective pressures of the several 
turns along the winding. This is found in the usual way 



1 p, 1 r 

11+1 = ^, 1 e-„ + irf(= A-u2cos2(7 + nrj^f Rv„ ( 
■'11 ■'•-0 

-f A-w2 sin- ( y + n c ) W R%i„ dt 

I I'T 

-2A^w- cos (y -1-71C) sin (7 + ne)jj R,,„, R,j„ dt. 

Since in this expression sin(y + H^) and cos (7 + ?if) can be re- 
garded as constants, in the first two terms we get the squares of 
the effective values of the cosine and the sine series, which can be 
denoted by E-cos and E-s,,,. The third term is zero, since the mean 
value of a sine or cosine curve over a whole period is zero. We 
then get 

E'„+i = AV{E\.«cos- {y + n£)-i-E\i^&in- {r + nc)\. 

If we insert in this equation various values of n = Oto n — k-l. 
for the case of the short-circuited generator (y = 0), we get the effective 
pressure of the several turns as the hypotenuse of right angled tri- 
angles whose other sides depend on cos nc and sin nr. Since nS has 
all values from 0° to 180', the side representing E^j„ sin ne will always 
be positive, but the other side, for «^>90 becomes negative — i.e., 
it changes its direction. This can be shown still more clearly when 
Esi„ sin ne and E„js cos «(5 are plotted as functions of «f, whence it 
will be at once seen that in the case of the cosine curve the values 
nS=0 to nj = 90° are equal and opposite to those of n^=180^ to 
7^e = 90°, whilst for all values of nc the sine terms have the same 
direction. The same happens in the second half of the winding, 
since the {k 1 -/)th and the (i'-(-l -(-/)th turns have the same 

The sum of all the pressures induced in the 2k turns — i.e., the 
effective slip-ring pressure — is 

E„2=AV{E-eos [2V-'cos«f-2jHEvu[2V-' sin«^-}. 

But the sum of all the cosines, as seen above, is zero, whence 

E„=2AiuEsiu cot 7r,2k. 
That is, at short-circuit only the sum of the sine pressures occur at 
the slip rings. 

A similar relation holds for the other limiting case 7=^7/2 — i.e., 
non-inductive load — for then 

E'„ + i = A-w-]E-;. ^sin^n^+E-, .'--•-■^'. 
whence Ejr = 2A<oE,,„, cot ,,^.. 

The pressure distribution throughout the « iiuliiiLi lia.^ the same 
character as before, for only the amplitudes of the several indi- 
vidual pressures have altered. At the slip-rings only the sum of 
the sine terms appears, although its magnitude and shaiie are different 
than before. 

If the stator current 1ms a phase displacement 0. then 7 a.ssumes 
some value between iTand 9(t ,and in addition to the sine pit\ssures. 
cosine pressures will also eceiu'. 

It now remains to consider how the above conditions are affected 
when the rotor winding is short-circuited through the exciter, as 
actually happens in practice. Taking first the case ol the short- 



circuited generator, it is obvious that the sine pressures (Csi,,) at the 
slip rings will be consumed by sending a current lagging practically 
90' tlirough the rotor circuit, so that the tictitious rotor field — 
which we have hitherto neglected as constant — will be transfiirmed 
into a pulsating field. The reaction of these flux pulsations on the 
stator current gives the latter a p?aked shape. Thus, whilst the 
sine pressures in the exciting winding are consumed, the ojiposing 
cosine pressures are not affected by the closed circuit, but their 
maximum value will be further increased owing to the deformation 
of the stator current caused by the pulsating current set up by the 
sine pressures. 

A similar state of things exists when the stator current has any 
other phase relation — one part of the induced pressures will always 
be consumed and one part, composed of the pressures which 
oppose one another, still exist. These latter pressui'es are by no 
means to be neglected, ior in certain cas?s they may well assume 
dangerous proportions. As shown by Rezelmann, the same sinu- 
soidal [iressure is induoetl in the rotor as in the stator when the 
number of turns is the same in each. When the stator wave shape 
is strongly distorted, the maximum value of the rotor pressure can 
be considerably increased. 



Summary. — A description is here given of a new furnace heated by 
electricity and mainly intended for hardening steel«. Particulars are 
also given of the comparative cost of hardening with the elertric furnace 
and with a gas furnace. 

The illustrati(jn herewith shows a vertical section the fur- 
nace. A bath is formed by metal salts, or mixtures of same, con- 
tained in a fireclay crucible. The best composition of the bath 
depends mainly on the temperature to be attained for industrial 
purposes. It usually consLi^ts of a mixture of Kat'l and BaCL, and 
current is transmitted to the bath by two electrodes made of Swedish 
ingot iron, which is characterised by a ])artioularly low ))crccntage 
of carbon, possessing a melting point of 1.500 to 1,6(K)"C. These 
electrodes end in iron terminals sweated in turn to eopjier con- 
ductors. The crucible is surrounded by asbestos and a layer of 
insulating lagging, the whole being contained in a cast-iron case. 
This construction greatly reduces the radiation losses, in fact, after 
10 hours' operation of the furnace at about 1,350°C., the cast-iron 
case ha.s a temperature of 30to40dcg. only. Over the bath a sheet- 
iron hood is ])laced, fitted with chimney and damper. 

Like the filament of the Nernst lamp, the salts are conductors of 
the second class ; theii- conductivity at normal temperature is there- 
fore very small, while at high temperatures they offer to the electric 
current a comparatively low resistance. Assuming that the mix- 
ture is sufficiently hot, the bath forms vutually an electric con- 
ductor, the of which is determined by the breadth of 
the iron electrodes and the level of the liquid, while its length is fixed 
by the distance between the electrodes. Thus each part of the bath 
produces its own heat. This feature distinguishes the furnace from 
all others. 

The heating of the salts |)rior to their becoming conductive is done 
by means of an auxiliary electrode. A piece of arc lamp carbon is 
pressed against one main electrode, when it soon reaches a white 
glow and melts the salts in its immediate vicinity. The auxiliary 
electr(xle. which consists of an iron stick fitted with wooden handle, 
is then drawn towards the other main elcctrt)dc. the molten salt 
trailing behind it until a bridge is established between the two elec- 
trodes, wliioh in itself is a conductor. The current which now 
passes continues to raise the temiierature of the bath until the 
desired limit is eventually attained. Tiie articles to be heated are 
then dipped into the bath, suspended from thin iron wires or held 
with tongs. They are allowed to remain in the bath until they are 
uniformly heated throughout and have attained the same tempera- 
ture as the bath itself — that is, until they show its colour. 

The most striking feature of this furnace compared with others is 
the uniformity of the temperature throughout the whole bath. This 
is mainly due to the fact that the heat is produced in each part of 
the bath, and that the radiation losses are not only very low but are 
nearly equal for each unit of outside ."surface except the iiiijicr. 
Careful measurements with a pyrometer of the theuino-couple type 
over the whole surface and immersed to different depths have shown 
that the temperature in the bath varies only by 2 to 3°C'., except in 
an upper layer of 10 to 15 mm., in which, due to radiation, the tem- 
perature is 10 to 20^0. lower. 

* Abstract of a Paper read before the Faraday Society. 

Electrolytic influences must be prevented, and, therefore, alter- 
nating and not continuous current should be used. All frequencies 
between 25 and. say, 60 cycles may be applied ; with less than 25 
cycles electrolytic phenomena would appear. For tliree-phase 
systems a special type of furnace has been constructed, which has 
four electrodes. A stationary transformer converts the three-phase 
supply into two-phase, and to each phase one pah- of electrodes 

When the salts have become melted the voltage necessary for 
maintaining the temperature is about 5 to 30 volts, while the heating- 
up voltage reaches about 70 volts. Such low voltages are not avaU- 
able from ordinary supply systems, and consequently a transformer 
has to be usecL 

The heat developed, and thus the temperature of the bath, are 
dependent on the voltage impressed on tlie furnace ; if it is desired 
to alter the temperature, this can therefore be done by a variation 
of the voltage, which is easily done with a transformer. 

An important part of the hardening installation is the pyiometer. 
For the tcmperatirres in question the thermo-couple type of pyro- 
meter seems tQ give the most reliable results, but it also had to be 
assimilated to the trying influence of the salt bath. In its latest 
shape it forms an angle', the upper limb of which carries the ter- 
minals, these being thus outside the destructive influence of the 
heat. The thermo-couple used is platinum — platinum-rhodium 
protected by different protecting sheaths of Marquardt composition 
and steel. 

The characteristics of the hardening process are then discussed, 
and from these the following are put forward as the featiires an 
ideal hardening furnace should possess: (1) It should be possible 
to obtain all hardening temperaturesrcquired in industrial practice — 

Vertical Section of Electrical Haudeninq Fdrnace. 

that is. the range between 750 and 1,350' C. (2) It should be 
possible to heat the steel to the required hardening temperature 
simply, easily and rapidly. (3) The temperature of the steel should 
be easily ascertainable, kept constant with a margin of, say, +30 deg. 
and well under control. (4) The steel must be equally heated all 
over, notwithstanding the dift'ercnt cross-sections the tool may 
possess, thus preventing the overheating and burning of edges and 
points. The realisation of this condition also prevents the redis- 
tribution stresses due to unequal temperatures. (5) During the 
heating process foreign matter must not come into contact with the 
steel, otherwise its carbon percentage will be altered or it may be 
affected in other respects. ((5) It should be possible to place the 
cooling tank close to the furnace in order to minimise the loss of heat 
diu'ing the transfer and to avoid the oxidising influence of the air. 
(7) The furnace should not give off obnoxious or poisonous vapours 
(lead, potassium, cyanide, &c.). (8) The total operating cost inci- 
dental to the hardening process should be low. 

It is then shown how far these conditions have been fulfilled by 
the electric furnace described, a comparison being made with the 
non-electric furnaces on the market. The resistance type f.f electric 
furnace, consisting of a muffle fitted with a ])latinum resistance, is 
in its working principle and performance more or less similar to 
other muffle furnaces — for instance, gas-fired ones. It pos.scsses some 
advantages and has successfully been applied for heating small 
articles, but is of inconsiderable industrial importance and will 
therefore not be further discussed. (1) and (2) A great advantage 
of the electric furnace is that it is possible to cover a wide range of 
temperatures w ith one equipment by changing only the composition 
of the bath. Also the steel is heated by dipping it into a bath, which 
is certainly the simplest operation possible. The temperature of the 



batli is adjusted to the exact value of hardening temperature desired, 
unlike other heating processes, where the bath is heated up to a 
higher temperature, and the tools must be removed before it has 
assumed the temperature of its surroundings. By dipping the cold 
steel into the heating chamber, the temperature of the latter must 
drop. In the electric furnace, when the tool is dipped into the salt 
the level rises, the resistance of the bath drops, and current and heat 
increase automatically. 

In all types of furnaces, except the electric, the thermal conduc- 
tivity of tiie heating medium plays an important part. This medium 
fills the space between the tool and the heat producer, and has to 
transmit the heat from producer to tool. In the electric furnace 
the heat is produced in the salt, not only conducted by it, and by 
increasing the voltage more heat can be produced than the steel can 
take up. The speed with which the heating process can be per- 
formed is, therefore, not limited by the thermal conductivity of the 
heating medium, and is in actual practice 6 to 10 times higher than 
obtainable with other types of furnaces. 

(3) The number of hardening plants in which pyrometers are to be 
found is surprisingly small. From inquiries made it appears that 
this is due less to the cost of such apparatus, or the skill necessary in 
handling it, than to the alleged unreliability of these instruments. 
The reason for this prejudice is apparently the fact that in all exist- 
ing furnaces, be they of the muffle or bath type, the temperature is 
unevenly distributed, and in general is much higher near the walls 
than in the centre — that is, the position where the pyrometer is 

(4) In the electric furnace the smaller cross-sections of the tool will 
also heat up more quickly than the larger ones, but will not over- 
heat, because they cannot assume a higher temperature than that of 
the bath itself. The bath equalises all difference in temperature 
and in a very short time heats the whole mass up uniformly. This 
point, together with others already referred to, explains the very 
small percentage of waste in electric furnace plants compared with 

(5) While the tool is in the bath, air is, of course, prevented from 
coming into contact with it, but a thin coating of salt protects it still 
further on its way from the furnace to the cooling tank, and falls 
away only when placed in the cooling liquid. This is a great advan- 
tage over all types of open fires or muffles, but it is common to all 
bath-type furnaces. Jletal salts, however, offer the additional 
advantage that they do not give off poisonous gases, and that, unlike 
lead, they can be obtained comparatively pure at reasonable cost. 
Furthermore, a salt coating breaks up entirely in the cooling liquid, 
while with lead, sometimes small particles stick to the steel, leaving 
soft points underneath them. 

(7) During the heating-up period, or when a certain temperature 
is exceeded, the metal salts give off a small amount of vapour, and 
therefore hood and chimney are provided. During the normal 
operation there is scarcely any vapour at all produced. The hood 
offers the further advantage that the radiation of the bath surface 
is somewhat diminished, and can be made use of for preheating the 
articles to be hardened. For this purpose a grate is fixed in the 
hood, on which the articles are placed prior to their being dipped 
into the bath. An interesting case, in which the freedom of the 
electric furnace from smoke or vapour has been found valuable, is 
the hardening of rock drills in a South African mine. Here the fur- 
nace is placed in a working, the drills are sharpened and rehardened 
underground.'and a considerable saving effected all round. 

(8) Before discussing the question of operating costs in detail, we 
wish to emphasise that it is only fair to compare costs for different 
systems on the basis of the performance of a given hardening opera- 
tion, but not on the cost of operating a furnace per hour, irrespective 
of its production, as has been suggested in some cases. The operat- 
ing expenses of the electric furnace are made up of the following 
items : Cost of current (the current consumption of different sizes 
of furnace are given in the Paper), maintenance, salt, labour and 
preheating (coke oven, or the like). 

The parts subject to wear arc crucible and electrodes. The 
crucible has been found to havcalifeof l,2<M)to 1,8(K( hoursatatcm- 
perature of 1,30U^C., and up tt) 3.000 hours at lower temperat\ires. 
This is much longer than with muffle furnaces, which is probably 
due to the absence of the destructive influence of the gases of com- 
bustion and to the fact that the crucible does not transmit the heat. 
The most sensitive part of the electrodes is that which projects over 
the level, which is protected by exehange.ible tips. These tijis have 
a life of about 400 to 800 hours, and the cost of their replacement is as 
low as the renewal of the fireclay. 

The cost of the salt is comparatively low. and the amount lost by 
evaporation and wastage need onlj' be allowed for. This amoiuits. 
for instance, in a furnace, length 200 mm., breadth 200 mm. and 
depth 270 mm., under ordinary working conditions to little more 

than I lb. for 10 hours' continuous operation. As to labour, it i.-j 
claimed that the ease with which the electric furnace can be handled 
makes it possible to use cheaper labour than that employed in plant.s 
where the success of the work is dependent on the skill of the opera- 
tor. On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that the speed at 
which the process is performed is m>ich greater, and that therefore a 
larger number of pieces can be handled. 

Some actual figures, showing the outiiut of which the electric 
furnace is capable, are given in an appendix. A comparison of the 
operating costs between an electric and gas furnace, obtained from 
a test made in a large tool factory, is also given in an apperidix, and 
bears out some of the remarks just made. 

The scope of application for this furnace is a very wide one ; it is 
mostly used for hardening tools, drills, cutters, millers, &c., and also 
dies, printing rollers, or similar devices. Another important field is 
the manufacture of small articles produced in large numbers, like 
needles, pens, sword blades, cutlery, surgical instrtments, chains, 
projectiles, &c. The furnace is also considerably used for work of a 
more scientific character, as. for instance, for metallography, for 
melting .small quantities of metal in a muffle placed in the bath or 
in connection with the testing of engineering material. The great 
value of the furnace for scientific work lies, in the aiithors' opinion, 
mainly in the possibility of making reliable tests and of reproducing 
a given set of conditions. In some eases the furnace with a special 
bath has been successfully used for tempering, and it may be of 
interest in this connection to mention that tempering colours duly 
appear in the electric furnace, although they do not show in an oil 
bath of equal temperature. The electric furnace here described is 
the invention of Mr. H. Krautsehneider. and is manufactured by the 
Allgemeine Elektricitiits-Gesellscliaft of Berlin, while the British 
rights are in the possession of the Electrical Co. Since it has been 
placed on the market (about three years ago) about 200 installations 
have been executed in various factories. 

Comparison of Operating Costs for Hardenixo Flrnaces. 
Material to be hardened : 100 millers ; weight of each, 5-25 kg. 
Process : (a) Preheating period, from atmospheric temperature to 400°C. 
(b) Main heating period, 400 to 1,150-C. (c) Cooling. 

Gas Furnace itime required 50 hours). 
12,300 cubic ft. of gas at 3s. 63. per 1,000 cubic ft. ... £2 3 3 

Motive power for air-blast 5 

Labour, 50 hours at 8W 1 15 5 

Total £4 3 8 

Electric Furnace {lime required 10 houm). 

200kw.-hours at l-2d £10 

Coke for preheating 10 

Salt ti 

Labour, 10 hours at 8id 7 

Total £1 8 (i 


Mr. W. C. Prebble remarked on the danger of suddenly heating com- 
plicated tools. 

Dr. J. A. Barker thought that the amount of energy consumed m the 
furnace could be greatly reduced by improved lagging. The method of 
heating up the bath initially with a carbon rod seemed liable to difficid- 
ties. He asked if fused fluoride salts had been actually used. 

Dr. C. H. Desch considered that the furnace did away with the old 
difficulty of judging hardening by means of skill acquired with the eye. 
A pyrometer was of no use in an ordinary muffle. 

Mr. C. Weiss thought that the authors had somewhat pcualised ui 
their estimates of cost. , , ■ u 

The Chairman (Dr. H. Boms) said the amount of electrolysis would 
depend on the form of the current wave. It might be advantageous in 
some cases. 

Mr. F. W. H.VKBORD (communicated) described some of his expe.-ieuces 
with the furnace in heating a large number of steel bars fr.uii 81X)C. to 
1.230°C., and keeping them at a high and fairly constant temperature 
for some time ; this he was able to do without difficulty. If a furnace 
could be designed to compote with.the present larsco hcatmg furnaces, its 
possibilities should be very groat. ,,,•,, 

Mr. W. RosENHAlN (oommiinicated) thought the furnace liad de.ided 
advantages for the hardeuing and tcmi.criug of tool steels. He thought 
some care would be required in the selection of the fused salts : n't>'««^S 
for example, would have an oxidising etfect on steel. Too rapid heating 
of a piece of metal of uneven cross-section might be undesirable, as 
expansion stresses would be set up. The uniformity of temperature 
ai tained wa^ probablv larccly due tn lagging. He hoped the use of 
llic fnnince w.Mild thVow light on such questions as whether heating to 
whil are cxcc'^sivc tcmpi'raturcs when the metal is exposed to furnace 
■itmospliorcs is d<n injurious when the metal is submerged in fused salts. 

Mr C R D \m IN.: (c™>'>"""i"«*«''') '"''"'**''• ''"^ ""''"^"^ *'""'^^"'' 
costs of working, in works hi which producer gas w.-vs available for the 
.ras furnace the tinancial superiority of the electric furnace would dis- 



appear. He suggested the use of an optical pjTometer for temperatures 
above 1.100°C. 

Mr. T. Vaughas Htghes (communicated) considered that the electric 
furnace had many drawbacks compared with producer gas-tired equip- 
ments, sucli as too sudden lieating, the troulilc in dcahng with fused 
..salts, and the difficulties of handlmg large quantiliis of goods. He was 
uf opinion, too. that its efficiency was low compared with existing fur- 
naces, especially for maintaining comparatively low temperatures. He 
added some particulai-s of such gas-heated furnaces, which, he stated, 
easily realised the advantages claimed for the electric furnace. The latter, 
excepting for very precise and scientific investigations, could not com- 
j>ete ^vith a properly designed producer gas-fired fiirnace. 

Mr. E. Apler replied to the various points raised. The rate of heat- 
ing depended on the voltage and was under control. No action of the 
fused salts on steel had been observed. Mr. Hughes admitted the scien- 
tific value of the furnace, but appeared to consider that scientific accu- 
racy was unnecessary for scientific work. Of course, much larger 
furnaces than those now made could be built, and their efficiencies would 
increase accordingly. Optical pryometers might perhaps be used above 
1,400°C. : for ordinary purposes thermo-couples were preferable. There 
was no difficulty in starting the furnace, which took some 15 to 20 minutes 
Fluoride salts had only been used experimentally. 


Although the steam turbine has come largely into favour in this 
country for driving electric generators, it must not be supposed that 
the reciprocating steam engine is imdergoing no further development. 
There are many engineers at the present day who would prefer the 
older type if prime cost could be overlooked. 

An engine which has achieved an excellent reputation on the 
Continent is that known as the " Lentz," the features of which 
are low steam eou.sumption, the stability of its construction and 
(he small number of parts subject to wear. Owing to the high 
speed at which these engines run, tlicy are particularly suitable for 
direct coupling to electric generators. In this country INIessrs. 
Davey, Paxman & Co. have the sole right to manufacture these 
engines, which are due to Herr Lentz, and they have already many 
engines of this type on order, whilst several have been supplied. 

Fig. 1 shows a section through a compound horizontal con- 
densing engine with circulating and air pump, and also a cross- 
section through the cylinder in which the valve gear is plainly indi- 
cated. The latter, which is probably the most interesting part of 
the engine, is actuated by eccentrics on a side shaft, driven by bevel 

spindle bears on a curved lever actuated by the eccentric rod. This 
curved lever in its motion lifts and closes the valve rapidly and 
silently, hammering being impossible, since the roller is kept in close 
connection with tlie cam by a spring during the motion of the 

Fig. 2.— Admission Valvk. 

valve. While the valve is closed, the cam moves clear of the roller 
The action will be more evident from Fig. 2, which shows an 
admission valve. 

Cross-sectiou thrunL,''i Cylii 

Fii.. 1.— Section THiiotGa a Horizontal "Lentz" Engine. 

wheels from the main shafts. For this purpose friction cones are 
used, pressed hard together, but to prevent slip shallow teeth are 
provided, the points being also turned off. A feature of the gear is 
its quiet and smooth running. A roller at the end of each valve 

To each cylinder there are two steam and two exhaust valves, 
which are lifted and closed by four independent eccentrics and rods. 
The valves are double seated, and the steam valves are so arranged 
as to be free to lift easily to- any pressure coming from the inside of 


the cylinder ; water shock is thus safely avoided, and cylinder reli(^f 
valves are not required. The valve spindles are grooved and work 
in cast-iron sleeves, and by means of the " Lentz " system of drain- 
ing the valves, stuffing boxes are rendered unnecessary. This, of 
course, reduces friction to a minimum, and allows the governor to 
be extremely sensitive while having great stability. 

The cut-ofY obtained with these valves is sharp, as is shown by 
indicator diagrams taken from the engines, and it is interesting to 
note that the valves open and close rapidly without wire-drawing. 

enters tlie second chamber and tliere expands. A portion «ill, per- 
haps, escape to the third chamber, undergoing a further expansion, 
and so on. It will be found, however, that the last ring does not 
show the slightest signs of leakage of steam. 

Messrs. Davey, Paxman & Co. have suppUed us with the follow- 
ing particulars of tests on a 360 i.h.p. tandem compound horizontal 

60 SO 40 30 20 10 60 50 40 30 20 10^ 

Lentz Valves. Onlinaiv Valvra. 

Fii:. 3. — Valve Openini: Diagram. 

there being no dash-pots to retard the motion of the valves. The 
diagram, Fig. 3, shows the amount of lift of Lentz valves, as com- 
pared with ordinary drop valves. 

The governor is of the inertia type and is placed on the side shaft. 
It is directly connected to the two high-pressure steam eccentrics by 
two pins. These eccentrics are movable on a slide block keyed to 
the shaft; thus the governor can alter their eccentricity, and conse- 

FiG, 4. — Governor of "Lentz" E.vgine. 

quently the cut-offs. Sectional views of the governor are given in 
Fig. 4, and it will be seen to consist of two weights A pivoted on a 
carrier. E, keyed to the side shaft ; these two weights and the 
carrier are attached to an outer ring C, the carrier by a spring and 
the weights by a knee joint formed by D and B. This ring C 
performs the action of a flywheel. When the least change of load, 
and consequently of speed, takes place, the inertia of the outer 
ring, which tends to keep its speed constant, causes it to move 
relatively to the carrier, and by moving the eccentrics, the cut-ofl' 
is altered to suit the change of load. With the new speed, the 
weights are balanced by the spring in the new position, and so 
maintain the new cut-ofif. A hand wheel is provided at the end 
of the shaft to enable the driver to change the sjieed of the engine 
by altering the tension of the governor spring while the engine is 
running. The governor is quick in action and the momentary change 
in speed, due to alteration of the load, is only slightly greater than 
tlie permanent change. 

The packing of the piston-rod stuffing boxes is of interest, as it 
consists merely of a series of cast-iron rings (see Fig. 5). which lit 
over the rod and are held in cast-iron boxes, allowing t hem to follow 
any irregular motion of the rod. Owing to the absence of springs 
friction losses are very small. There is no gland bush and steam 
has direct access to the packing, but it returns to the cylinder during 
the period of expansion instead of leaking through the packing. -Vs 
seen from Fig. 5. the rings form a series of chambers, which are 
efficiently drained ; any steam escaping from the front chamber 

Fig. 5— Stuffing Box. 

"Lentz" engine. With saturated steam and a boiler pressure of 
1701b., the steam consumption was 12 '3 lb. per indicated horse- 
power-hour, the vacuum being 26 in. ; whilst with a superheat of 
150°F. the consumption recorded was only 10-4 lb. In the case of 
another " Lentz " engine which had been working continuously for 

10 months in a flour mill, 
the steam consumption, 
when tested at the end of 
that period, worked out 
at 10'35 lb. per indicated 
horse - power • hour, the 
superheat being loCF. 
and the vacuum 27 in. 

From what has been 
said, it will be seen that 
the Lentz engine has been 
designed with a view to 
the use of superheated 
We have so far confined our remarks mainly to engines of the 
horizontal type, but attention should be drawn to the fact that 
these " Lentz " engines are also made in the vertical type, in which 
case they run at a higher speed than the horizontal engines, and 
are particularly adapted for coupling to electric generators. In this 
connection we may mention that a vertical compound •' Lentz "' 
engine, developing 2,050 i.h.p. and coupled to t«t) dynamos, is in 
use in the power station of the City & South London Railway Co. 


At the meeting held on Marcli 2(itli. at llu- Ini]).rial ColKge of 
Science, Dr. C. Chreb. F.R.S., iircsidcni. in ilic chair, a Taper by 
Dr. J. A. Flemino and Mr. G. B. Dyke on 

•' The Production of Steady Electrical Oscillalions in Closed Circuits 
and a Method of Testing Radiotelegraphic Receivers " 

W!is read by the authors. Il was )Hiinlcd out that at the prestiit 
time a very large number of o.scillation deleotors have been inventefl 
for use as receivers in radio-lelegraiihy ; but that there is great 
difficulty in obtaining quantitative and ijualitative test.< of these 
in actual radio-telegraphic stations, jiarlly on aecount of difliculty 
of access and partly on account of the varying conditions incidental 
to practical radio-telegraphic work which are unfavourable to quan- 
titative tests. Availing themselves, however, of the small radiative 
property of closed circuits, the authors pointed out that, by the use 
of two such nearly closed oscillatory circuits, one being employed as 
a transmitting station and the other as a receiving station, these 




b?ing placed at a distance of a few hundred yards from each otlier, 
what is practically equivalent to radio-telegraphic stations with open 
oscillators at very large distances can be constructed. Jlethods were 
then described for producing in one of the closed circ\iits extremelj- 
constant damped oscillations by me^ns of an induction coil or trans- 
former, a spark-gai) on which a steady jet of air is allowed to impinge, 
and a suitable mercury break, Means were described for ascer- 
taining when the current in this transmitting circuit is constant. The 
receiving circuit consists of a square circuit of insulated wire which 
is pivoted in such a manner that it can be turned in any direction, 
the angular deviations being measurable on scales. This circuit 
is joined in series with a condenser of variable capacity and with the 
oscillator detector to be tested. If the oscillation detector is of the 
current-actuated type, it is placed in series with the condenser, if 
of the potential-actuated type it is placed across the terminals of the 
condenser, being associated with a shimted cell and telephone if 
necessary, or with a telei)hone simply, if a magnetic detector. It is 
then possible to set tliis receiving circuit in such a position that it 
has no current induced in it by the oscillations in the transmitting 
circuit ; but on turning it through a certain angle sounds are heard 
in the telephone indicating the production of oscillations in the 
secondary circuit. The angle through which it is to be turned is a 
measure or indication of the .sensibility of the detector. Instances 
were given of the ease with which detectors of various types, such as a. 
magnetic detector, electrolytic detector, crystal detector and ioni.sed 
gas detector could be compared for relative sensibility. The instru- 
ment has been found to be of great in investigations on ionised 
gas detectors now being conducted at the Pender Electrical Labora- 
tory. It was also pointed out that such an arrangement permits the 
effect of various types of oscillations to be investigated, as the trans- 
mitting circuit can be made the seat of damped oscillations of various 
degrees of damping or of undamped oscillations. This method of 
testing with closed circuits has the advantage that it can be conducted 
entirely within a large building and by one person. A self-acting 
apparatus was also exhibited for sending messages or signals by a 
punched tape. 

A Paper was also read by Dr. J. A. Fleming and Mr. H. W. 


' The Effect of an Air Blast upon the Spark Discharge of a Condenser 
charged by an Induction Coil or Transformer. " 

When an oscillatory discharge of a condenser takes place across the 
.spark-gap in the usual manner by charging the condenser by an 
induction coil or transformer, the intermittent spark which takes 
place is a complex effect. It consists partly of a true condenser 
discharge and partly of an alternating-current arc due to current 
coming directly out of the induction coil or transformer. This arc 
discharge is a source of difficulty in making accurate quantitative 
measurements with electrical o.scillations. and to produce a uniform 
oscillatory discharge this true arc discharge must be prevented or 
arrested. It was shown in the I'aper that this can be done by a 
regulated air blast produced in any convenient manner, thrown 
upon the spark-gaj), provided that the spark-gap is small. As a 
proof of the advantages to be obtained from this arrangement a 
number of measurements were given of the decrement and spark-gap 
resistances of various circuits measured with the Fleming cymometer 
both with and without the air blast upon the spark-gap. It was 
shown that the ob.servations were more regular and the resonance 
more accurately delineated when the spark-gap was so treated with 
an air blast. 

The Paper also described ex])eriments made to investigate the effect 
of breaking up the spark-gap into smaller .spark-gaps in series, both 
when the gaps were subjected to an air blast and also without the 
air blast. It was .shown, up to a certain length of gap, about 2 mm. 
in the of this experiment, that the air blast had a very decided 
effect in increasing the mean square value of the discharge current, 
and also that a similar effect was produced by dividing up the spark- 
gap into .smaller .spark-gaps in .series, provided that the total spark- 
gap was not increased beyond a certain limit. This increase appears 
to be due to the .supjjression of the arc discharge, as shown by the 
appearance of the image of the spark in a revolving mirror. With 
regard to multiple s])ark-gaps, the general result, however, appears 
to be that beyond a small limit in length, about I! mm., nothing is 
gained by breaking up the spark-gap into spnrk-ga])S in series or by 
subjecting the spark-gap to an air blast. 

Mr. W. DrDDKLt. congratulated the authors and remarked that the 
Papers contained a great deal of useful material. The use of the earth 
inductor for testing receivers was a feature of the first Paper. He asked 
Dr. Fleming to what extent the effects obtained in the receiving circuit 
were due to true radiation, and why they had used coal-gas instead of 
alcohol in their intennpter. Referring' to the authors' method of 
determining the current in the transmitter, he asked if there was any 

objection to putting an ammeter in the circuit and reading the current 
directly. He should also like some more information about the cases in 
which it was found impossible to obtain a position of the earth inductor 
giving silence in the telephone. Was it because the distance apart was 
not Kulficiently great or was some physical impossibility involved ? 
With regard to the second Paper he had always found it possible to get 
a uniform discharge by using an alternating current of suitable frequency 
in the primary. He asked the authors if it was the arc or the spark 
which was blown out by the air and whether the part blown out had a 
spectrum different from the rest. 

Dr. W. H. EccLES asked how much of the energy absorbed by the 
receiver was due to radiation and how much to electromagnetic induc- 
tion. He had obtained results, depending on electromagnetic induction, 
similar to those described by the a\ithors by usmg very much smaller 
apparatus, but he had discontinued his experiments, because in practice 
the whole of the energy received was due to true radiation. He pointed 
out that a receiver adjusted and tested in a laboratory was never in proper 
adjustment for actual woi-k. He suggested that the reason it was some- 
times impossible to get a position of silence arose from stray radiation 
falling upon the receiver. 

Dr. Erskine-Murray pointed out that detectors varied greatly in 
resistance, iind that therefore a telephone of suitable resistance should be 
selected in each test. 

Dr. A. RrssELL thought that Prof. Fleming and Mr. Dyke"? method 
of testing radio-telegraphic receivers would be a great help in judging 
their relative values. He much appreciated the clear distinction drawn 
between the function of the spark and the arc as this cleared up some of 
his difficulties. Although the air-blast of the Leiuiox blower was doubt- 
less beneficial by preventing arcing, he thought that the fact that the 
dielectric coefficient of the glass nozzle used was greater than unity 
might have accelerated the sparking. He mentioned some of the diffi- 
culties encountered in computing sparking voltages when there were 
two gaps in the circuit. In this case it had to be remembered that the 
sparking voltages at the moment of the discharge were not equal and When the potentials of the electrodes were known, however, 
and they were spherical in shape, the sparking voltages with two gaps in 
series could be calculated with fair accuracy. 

Dr. R. S. Willows pointed out that by blowing out the spark the 
resistance of the path was increased and the rate of change of energy 
thereby altered. The fact that greater regularity and greater energy 
could be obtained could be easily demonstrated by using an electrodeless 
discharge-bulb. Referring to the fact that it was necessary to know the 
self-induction of one of the circuits, he asked the authors what form of 
circuit had been chosen and how its .self-induction had been calculated. 
In one of the experiments a resistance r had been added, and he remarked 
that attention should be directed to its effective resistance under rapidly 
alternating currents, as this might depend upon whether the added 
resistance was a pure metal or an alloy. 

Mr. L. H. Walter agreed with Dr. Erskinc-Murray that it was neces- 
sary to choose a suitable telephone when making a test. Although the 
electrolytic detector was supposed to be more sensitive than the magnetic 
form, it was possible to choose a telephone of such a resistance as to make 
the magnetic detector appear the more sensitive. 

Dr. Fleming, in reply, said that it was impossible to state precisely 
what proportion of the current produced in the receiving circuit was 
due to tnie radiation from the clo.sed transmitting circuit, and how much 
was due to electromagnetic radiation, but from his point of view it did 
not matter. All that was necessary was that a feeble oscillatory current 
should be produced in the receiving circuit which should be capable of 
being varied by turning the receiving circuit through a certain angle, 
and whether this was due to actual detachment of energy from the trans- 
mitting circuit, or to the mere movement of lines of magnetic foi-ce back- 
wards and forwards through space, seemed immaterial. The oscillation 
detector in any case was a mere detector of oscillations. In reply to Mr. 
Duddell, he said that there was no objection to putting an ammeter in 
the transmitting circuit provided it was a low resistance instrument and 
did not produce any sensible damping of the oscillations. As regards 
the existence of an exact zero i)oint, this seemed to be a question of dis- 
tance from the transmitter. It had been usual at University College to 
«(irk with two coils about 00 ft. apart, and at that distance some very 
sensitive oscillation valves detected sounds which might be due to the 
actit)n directly upon the valve or upon the connecting wires, but by 
going to larger distance, it was possible to get complete silence at the 
telephone. With respect to the use of coal-gas or alcohol in the inter- 
rupter, coal-gas had proved itself to be incontestably superior to alcohol. 
As regards the action of the air-blast, it appeared tolerably certain that 
the ])art of the discharge which was blown away was that due to energy 
coming directly out of the induction coil or transformer. In reply to 
Dr. Eccles, he said that they had found it necessary to work at a certain 
distance from the transmitter, but that when this was done the order of 
sensitiveness in which oscillation-detectors were arranged by the appa- 
ratus i-hown was also the order in which they were found to be sensitive 
when employed in actual radio-telegra])hic work. It was necessary not 
to work the transmitter and receiver too near to one another, otherwise 
there were direct effects on wire connections, rheostats. &c,. which 
obscured the real effects. In rejjly to Dr. Willows, the reason for choos- 
ing the rectangular form of circuit was because the inductance coidd be 
readily calculated from formula given in well-known text-books. With 
respect to the remarks of Ml- Walter and Dr. Erskine-Murray, he 
agreed that it was necessary to choose a telephone of suitable 
resistance, and that the results taken with different telephones would 
not be the same. 



Dr. S. W. J. Smith read a Paper 
" On the Action between Metals and Acids and thie Conditions under 
which Mercury causes Evolution of Hydrogen. " 

The action between an acid nnil a metal, whieli results in tlie re- 
placement of hydrogen, can be formulated without the aid of any 
hypothesis beyond the a.ssumption that it is approximately reversible. 
The mode of formulation suggests a kinetic picture of the process by 
which equilibrium is in certain cases attained. This was described by 
the author, and it was pointed out that if a steady state is reached, 
after a certain quantity of hydrogen has been evolved, it will be 
defined by an equation of the form ahM—hmH. In this, a and h are 
constants at a given temperature. /( and m are the concentrations of 
the hydrogen ions and of the metal ions respectively in solution, and 
H and M are specific constants of hydrogen and of the metal. 

The e.vperiments described in the Paper may be regarded as an 
attempt to justify the above equation when the metal is mercury. 
It is shown that h3'drogen can be made to appear after equilibrium 
has been reached, either by reducing the value of m or by increasing 
the value of h. The effects produced by HC'l and HjSO^ are nearly 
alike (except for secondary effects with concentrated sulphuric acid), 
and it is probable that other acids would act in the same way. It 
would, therefore, ajipear to be justified for this case at least that 
the action between metals and acids can be formulated in a purely 
physical way. Referring to the action with concentrated sulphuric 
acid, the author described and explained how sulphuretted hydrogen 
only, or mixtures of sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrogen, could be 
obtained at will by varying the rate of removal of the mercury salt 
from the solution in contact with the metal. 

Dr. W. Watson congratulated the author and remarked that in 
physical chemistry hypotheses were often used which were not based on 
experimental evidence. Dr. Smith had shown that his hypothesis corre- 
sponded with actual physical facts, and his theory could be looked upon 
with satisfaction. 

In reply to a question by Mr. F. E. Smith, the Ai'THOR explained that 
the process by which the concentration of the mercury salt in solution 
was reduced below the amount necessary to prevent evolution of hydrogen 
was endothermic. 



In connection with the utilisation of its small waterfalls. South 
Africa labovirs under tlirce disadvantages. These are : ( I ) The 
length of the dry season in ordinary years ; (2) the high rate of 
wages prevalent ; (3) the frequent uuhealthiness of the localities in 
which waterfalls arc usually found. For the first of these draw- 
backs the writer has no remedy to offer. Water storage may gene- 
rally be a commercially feasible proposition in countries where three 
weeks without rain constitute a drought, but where, as in many 
parts of South Africa, a normal dry season of six months has to be 
reckoned with, the cost of an adequate reservoir will almost always 
be quite prohibitive. The second and third of the drawbacks can 
be minimised by a proposal which the WTiter first made about 10 
years ago, and of which he now finds some portions have been 
rec3ntly applied by the Siemens-Schuckertwerke, in some linked-up 
power stations they have built on some low falls on the Rhine. 

It has long been known that the ordinary three-phase induction 
motor, when driven at a speed higher than that of synchronism, and 
when supplied with a wattless current of synchronous frequency, 
will operate as a non-synchronous generator, the load it takes up 
depending upon the speed at which it is driven and nothing else. 
With such a generator, therefore, paralleling is unnecessary, and no 
regulation is required in any respect except that of speed. The 
same tliree wires that carry away the power output serve alst) to 
bring in the wattless exciting current. There is no com])lication 
whatever, the ordinary motor switchboard being used, no starting 
switch is required, and the rotor of the generator can be of the 
extremely simple and mechanical type, known as the '" squirrel 

It is of some or all of these facts that the Siemens-Schuckertwerke 
have taken advantage in the installation to which reference is above 
made. They have interlinked three turbine-driven stations, of 
which two are non-synchronous, as described, and the third is 
equipped with the ordinary synchronous generator, exciter and 
regulating switches. It is only, therefore, in this third controlling 
station that any skilled electrical attendance is required, the other 
two being placed in charge of men who only need look after the 
turbines and put on or take off water when instructed to do so by 
telephone from the controlling station. The saving in expense 
results from the employment of one set of skilled, and two sets of 
unskilled shiftsmen instea d of three sets of skilled attendants. 

* Abstract from the " South African Mining Journal," of a Paper lead 
before the South African Afsoeiation of Engii esrs. 

The wTiter's pro))o.sal goes somewhat further in the .same direction. 
In most of the waterfalls in South Africa the head available is suffi- 
ciently high to warrant the use of an impulse wheel, such as the 
Pelton. The mechanism of this is so exceedingly simple that it. 
together with a squirrel cage induction generator, can perfectly well 
be trusted to look after itself, particularly when arrangements are 
made by which it is always under constant load. The latter condi- 
tion is secured by the use at the control station of an automatic load, 
which adjusts itself so that the total load on the system remains 
constant, in spite of motors being started or stopped. 

The control station would contain (a) a synchronous generator, 
with exciter and regulating switchboard, and large enough to supply 
the wattless current required by all the induction generators and 
induction motors connected to the system. (/;) A prime mover, 
large enough to bring this machine up to speed and make up its no- 
load losses when fully excited. As soon as one of the power stations 
is at work, the prime mover can be thrown out of gear and the 
synchronous generator can be run as a motor, or. rather, as a con- 
verter, taking a small watt current from the mains and returning to 
them a comparatively large wattless one. Of course, if a waterfall 
or other cheap source of power is available at the control station, it 
would be advisable to utilise it and allow the synchronous machine 
to supply both power and wattless current, thus saving capital out- 
lay, (c) A resistance capable of absorbing the whole power output 
of the .system, and which operates automatically, absorbing more or 
less power as external load is thrown oflf or on, so that the sum 
remains constant. The resistance oan take the form of an ordinary 
three-phase liquid-starting switch. ■ 

The power stations would each contain a Pelton wheel, direct- 
coupled to a squirrel cage induction generator, and a switch with 
automatic time relay overload release. Under ordinary circum- 
stances no attendance beyond,perhaps, a weekly visit of inspection 
would be required. 

The synchronous generator, non-synchronous generators, and 
motors would all be connected in the usual way to the same set of 
three wires, and the author points out that there is nothing experi- 
mental about any part of the scheme. The provision of a special 
machine to provide wattless current would never add 20 per cent. 
to the capital outlay. Taking it, however, at this figure, we might 
get for the total capital outlay per kilowatt, £20 in the case of the 
ordinary synchronous power stations, and £24 for the mainly non- 
synchronous combination proposed. On the basis of a load factor 
of 100 per cent., and allowing 20 per cent, per annum to cover 
interest, redemption and maintenance, the hourly charges per kilo- 
watt of output would be, in the case of synchronous stations, (>109od.: 
and in the case of non-synchronous stations. 013I5d. Wages for 
each synclu-onous station woidd, within the limits of size being con- 
sidered, be independent of size and amount to about 36d. per hour. 

Now, suppose three waterfalls were available, each capable of 
producing 100 kw. The wages in the case of synchronous stations 
would amount to 0-3tid. per kilowatt-hcur of output. The wages 
for one synchronous and two non-synchronous stations, which would 
all three be looked after by one staft' of men, would only amount to 
0I2d. per kilowatt-hour. The comparative total costs are there- 
fore 0-4695d. per kilowatt-hour for the syncluronous system and 
0-2515d. for the nonsyncluonous system. 

The author finally shows that the consequences of a breakdown in 
such a power station left to itself are not .serious, and he hopes that 
the suggestion may lead to its adoption to the benefit of small power 
users in the remoter parts of the country. 



Workmen's Compensation. 

In the Salford County C.nnt. last week, application made on 
behalf of the General Electric Co., to terminate or reduce an award m 
favour of I^wis Kaiser, one of the company's former workmen. It 
appeared that Kaiser sustained an accident involving the loss of some of 
his finger ends, and it was stated that the healing process was such as to 
enable the man to perform the work he had been previously engaged 
upon, viz.. stamping out metal discs and rings under a power press. 

His Honour Judge Shiress \\;ili. asked if the company were prepar«i 
to take the man back at his old job. 

Mr. Acton (for applicants) : We have not a vacancy at present, but 
we are prepared to take him on as soon as we have. 

Mr Frank Da.lby, works manager of the company, said he did n.>t 
know that the man applied for work as soon as he came from hospital and 
wai refused. He would not take on a man with a maimed hand if he 
applied for work while there were men with two hands availal«>. 

His HoNOi'R declined to alter the award, lUid gave judgment Uv 
respondent with costs. 




London Electricity Supply Leffislation.— I'lie sctoud reiiding of 

the Bill iiitrudiK-ed by the Bnaid of Trade to constitute the L.C.C. the 
purehasiug authority in respect of the undertakings of the companies 
which promoted the London (Westminster and Kensington) Electric 
Supply Companies Act. 1908. has been postponed until 19th inst. 

X-Bay Besearch Work. — In the House of Commons last week, 
Mr. Holihouse stated, in reply to a question bj- Mr. Bowerman, that a 
grant had been made fiom the Royal Bounty Fund to Mr. Harry W. 
Cox, who recently sustained serious and permanent injuries in connec- 
tion with X-ray research work. 

Electric Lighting Acts (Amendment i Bill-— A petition in favour 
of this Ijill has been presented by Shettield Corporation. 




A pupil is wanted for a l.t. three-wire station in the South London 
area. Preference given to those having teohnical training. No 
premium and no salary. 

An armature winder is wanted by a railway company in London. 
See advertisement. 

A lecturer in chemistry and physics is required at the L.C.C. 
Paddington Technical Institute. Commencing salary £150, rising by 
annual increments of £10 to £200 per annum. Applications, on forms, 
to be obtained from the Education Officer, L.C!.C. Education Offices, 
Victoria Embankment, W.C., by 11 a.m.. April 26. 

Mr. G. F. Nayler has been appointed chief assistant at the Nelson 
electricity works, Mr. W. M. Thomson engineer-in-charge and Mr. 
W. G. Coates shift engineer. 

Mr. J. S. Beddoc. Pembroke, lias been appointed second assistant 
electrical engineer to the Admiralty, and Mr. A. E. Frankling to a 
similar position at Portsmouth naval establishment. 

Gillingham Council have appointed Mr. F. T. Woodward com- 
mercial assistant and canvasser at £104 per annum, and Mr. Parker 
shift engineer. 


Sir John Cass Technical Institute. — Special com-ses of instruction 
will be given during the summer term at this Institute in Practical 
Physical Chemistry, by Mr. G. Senter, B.Sc, Ph.D., and on Conduc- 
tion in Gases and Radio-activity by Mr. R. S. Willows, M.A., D.Sc. 
Detailed syllabus of the courses may be obtained from the offices 
of the Institute, Jewry-street, Aldgate, London, E.C., or by letter to 
the Principal. 

Crystal Palace Engineering School. — The " Wilson '" premium for 
the best Paper read before the Crystal Palace Engineering Society 
during the present session has been awarded to C. J. Allen for his 
Paper on " Ferro-Concrete as applied to Buildings." 

Other Papers read during the session were '" Sea Coast Defences," by 
D. H. Wliyte, and ' The Mechanical Testing of Iron and Steel," by 
A. N. Lucey. The Premium was presented to Mr. Allen by Su: Wm. H. 
White, K.C.B., on the occasion of the 109th distribution of certificates 
at the above school on April 7. 

Aberdeen. — A lengthy report has been prepared for the Electricity 
committee by the city electrical engineer (Mr. J. Alex. Bell), on the 
charges made for electrical energy. 

Mr. Bell states, in his report, that, in considering a new method of 
charging, it was es.sential to have one sufficiently flexible to meet in com- 
petition the various other forms of power and light. Their present 
system of charging had the objection, from a consumer's point of view, 
of being complicated, and the simpler one could make tariffs the better. 
It had been said that the prices charged at Aberdeen would not compare 
favourably with those charged in other towns, but the returns submitted 
by him satisfactorily met that allegation. In regard to municipal tram- 
way undertakings receiving their supply from combined lighting and 
traction stations, it had been urged that the price charged for their 
tramways was too high. Out of 70 municipalities owning tramways 14 
had separate stations, and five out of these 14 municipalities did not own 
the lighting and power supply undertaking. The uninitiated were given 
to making the mistake of comparing the works costs of these separate 
stations with the price charged by combined stations. The lowest price 
charged for ordinary power consumers in most cases was considerably less 
than that charged for tramways. Of the 211 municipal electricity works 
in the United Kingdom Aberdeen was 25th in size of output, and as 
regards works costs it ranked 26th in order of merit. In regard to total 
costs (exclusive of capital charges) it only ranked 45th. That was 
mainly due to the excessive sum paid for rates and taxes in comparison 

with otlrer undertakings, and was partly due to paying rates on the full 
value of then- underground works, whereas other undertakings paid only 
on a quarter of their value. They paid 1207 per cent, of their revenue 
from electricity supply in rates and taxes, whereas other undertakings 
jiaid, on an average, between 1 per cent, and 5 per cent., only one being 
over 10 per cent. Their capital charges were high, due to their cautious 
policy of depreciation, which made Aberdeen one of the financially 
soundest electricity undertakings m the country. Mr. Bell thought that 
unless the Council were prepared to quote for large factory supplies on 
the lines of other municipal undertakings, the department could hardly 
be considered to be fulfilling the part of an electricity supply undertaking, 
and doing what it could for the industries in their midst, and it might 
even be necessary to consider carefully the question of future dejjrecia- 
tion, oi' (as he preferred to call it) an antiquation fund. The future 
reduction in cost of supply all round could only be obtained in a limited 
number of ways. The works costs were down to a low figure, the plant 
installed being highly economical; the use of steam turbines in future 
extensions would slightly improve that figure. He was already con- 
sidering the question of exhaust steam turbines. A speedy relief from 
excessive taxation would help the undertakmg ; that the capital charges 
be kept down to the lowest possible figure compatible with sound work 
and with due regard to the expansion of the business was also essential. 
The increase of the output of the station, with improved load factor, was 
the point the committee should, in his opinion, continue to devote the 
most attention to. The load factor worked out last year at IS'46 per 
cent. During the past year the number of units sold was 5,104,03r). 
Though the committee had not yet had under consideration the charges 
to be made for large factory supplies — and it might ba mentioned that in 
most cases those were better dealt with under agreement for a term of 
years — still, the smaller power business had increased most satisfactorily. 
He had worked out and submitted particulars of the revenue that would 
have been derived from their power consumers had they adopted the 
tariffs for that class of business in other large towns. When dealing with 
the matter the committee should, in his opinion, consider the use of slot 
meters for certain classes of lighting consumers, and as regards power 
rates, rearrange them to include the large power users and the daylight 
imdertakings, such as the granite industry. A low rate for heating and 
cooking would also be of benefit to the undertaking, and public lighting 
should be put on a fixed rate per lamp per annum. 

Argentina. — The " Review of the River Plate " says the Govern 
ment has ajjproved the statutes of the Cia. General de Electrioidad de 
Cordoba, v.hich is to have an authorised capital of SI. 500,000 gold. 

Santa Fe Municipality have received offers from Mr. Donald Tiblon, 
Messrs. Fleming & Co. and Messrs. R. Smiles and J. Wall for the purchase 
of their existing tramway imdertaking and the conversion of the system 
to electric traction. It is probable that if either proposal is accepted an 
arrangement will also be made for supplying electricity for lighting part 
of the town. 

Australasia. — The Cobar Electric Supply Co. has been formed to 
take over from Mr. E. M. Grant the right to supply electricity for 
power and lighting in Cobar, N.S.W. The generating plant will con- 
sist of two 4(( kw. three-phase alternators, belt driven from two 
54 B.H.r. suction gas driven engines, and the estimated cost is put at 
£4,600. For street lighting there will be 60 lamps, some of 25 c.p.. 
and the remainder of 50 c.p., and later on it is proposed to supply 
current to the adjoining municipality of Wrightville. 

Korumburra (Vic.) Shire Council recently decided to raise a loan 
of £2,500 for additional electric lighting plant. 

The power plant of the tin mines of the Mount Bischoff Co., at Waratah 
(Tasmania), is a mile from the main distribution point, and water from 
the river Waratah is conveyed thereto by a race 100 chains in length, and 
consisting partly of a ground race of 13-5 sq. ft. sectional area, and partly 
of an iron flume of 2 ft. racfius. The race ends above the power station, 
to which the water is conducted by a steel pipe column 1,350 ft. in length 
and 18 in. inside diameter. The power plant includes two 150 kw. 50 
cycle 2,300 volt British Westinghouse three-phase alternators, coupled by 
flexible coupling to impulse wheel type Escher Wyss turbines, the 
buckets of which have been specially designed to stand the stresses due 
to the working head of 560 ft. A contract has lieen recently placed for an 
A.E.G. 300 kw. three-phase alternator and a 450 H.p. Voith turbine, 
also for switchgear and a Tirrill regulator. This new plant is expected to 
be working by June next. 

Bacup. — The Council have obtained sanction to a loan of £27,770 
for the electrification and reconstruction of the tramways in the 
borough. When the lines are completed there will be a through 
tramway connection from the Rossendale Valley to Blackburn. 

Bath. — Last week the Council decided to apply for sanction to a 
loan of £11,700 for the electricity su])i)ly department, viz. £5.200 for 
excess expenditure. £6.000 for mains exten.sions during the next 
three years, and £500 for a mechanical stoker. 

The Chairman of the Electric Lighting committee, in moving the adop- 
tion of the minutes of the committee, stated that a special sub-committee 
had been constituted to consider and report upon a scheme of adver- 
tising with a view to increasing the revenue of the undertaking. He 
explained at some length the committee's relations with Mr. Schenk, 
who had asked whether the Council would, on any terms, including che 
dropping of his bill, be prepared to negotiate for a new agreement for 
the sale of the undertaking. A letter had been received from his soli- 
citors suggesting a joint conference between the Board of Trade, the 



committee iind himself, for the piir|K>se of reducing the objections of the 
Boiinl to a minimum, and stating liis (Mr. .Sclieiik's) willingness to with- 
draw the present bill on terras. The committee, however, recommended 
that it was undesirable to re-open the negotiations and declined the offer 
for a conference. 

The report was adopted. 

Belfast.^It is evident that the electricity undertaking is making 
good progress in this city.foi' the chairman of the Gas committee con- 
siders that " the Electricity committee is unfairly cutting rates to 
obtain customers." and the Gas committee have actually passed 
a, resolution infavour of the ••electricity undertaking being ]>laced 
under the Gas committee." Fortunately, there are many hard- 
headed, business men on the Council, and there is little likelihood of 
this ingenuous recommendation being ado|ited. 

Bexhill. — Sanction to a loan of £2,120 for additional ])lant at the 
electricity works has been applied for by the Council. 

Bray (Ireland). — The Council recently resolved to apply for sanc- 
tion to a loan of £2.600 for additional plant at the electricity wurk.s. 
An engineer is to be called in to overhaul the engine at the .station. 

Brussels International Exhibition. — Notice is given that sections 45 
and 59 of the Patents and Designs Act, 1907 (which jirovide that the 
exhibition of inventions and designs at international exhibitions shall 
not prejudice the right to apply for patents or for the registration of 
designs, &c.), will apply to the Brussels International Exhibition. 
1910, and exhibitors will be relieved from the proviso in the said 
sections that notice of intention to exhibit must be given to the 
Controller of Patents. 

Buxton. — An unopposed inquiry was held last week into the 
(Council's application for sanction to a loan of £724 for extensions at 
the electricity works. 

Chichester. — The electricity works, which have been designed by 
Mr. Horace Boot, consulting engineer, Westminster, for the supply of 
electricity for lighting and power in Chichester and district, are Hear- 
ing completion, and it is hoped that supply will be given in a few 
weeks' time. This is one of the first electricity works relying entirely 
on Diesel oil engines for its prime movers, these engines having been 
supplied by, Bickcrton & Day. The contractors for the 
whole of the works are Messrs. Johnson & Phillips, and Mr. Boot has 
had as his clerk of the works Mr. R. V. Weare. 

Colchester. — The action, brought against the Council by Messrs. 
HoUington Bros, for an injunction to restrain a nuisance, alleged to 
have been caused by vibration at the electricity works, has been 
settled by the payment of £300 to Messrs. HoUington for costs and in 
final settlement of all claims. 

East Lothian Tramways. — The Western District Committee of 
East Lothian County Council have been notified by the Musselburgh 
& District Light & Traction Co, that they propose to proceed 
with the construction of the tramway, proposed to be laid from 
Levenhall to Port Seton, and a committee has been appointed to 
watch the construction of the line. 

Electricity in Agriculture and Horticulture. — The " Dundee 
Advertiser," of the Cth April, contained a lengthy account of the 
installation of electrical apparatus on the farm of Mr. William Low. of 
Balmakewan. N.B. Prof. Greig (of the North of Scotland College of 
Agriculture, Aberdeen), who worked for a long time with the late 
Prof, S. Lemstrom, and who very kindly overlooked Prof. Lem- 
strom's proofs before the publication of his famous book on this 
subject, was the primarily cause of the important application under 
practical working conditions on Mr. Low's extensive farm. Having 
carefully read the literature on the subject, Mr. Low, in view of Prof. 
Greig's descriptions, upon whose estate there is, we understand, 
every possible use made of electrical application of a practical 
character, decided to have an experiment made on an adequate scale 
to test its merits. We learn that Mr. Low 

Has decided to introduce the requisite electrical plant, and, in con- 
junction with the Directors of the North of Scotland College of Agricul- 
ture, to engage in experimental work. Five fields have been set apart, 
one each of barley, oats, potatoes, first year's grass and second year's 
grass. Half of these crops, covering some 23 acres of land, are to be 
electrically treated, while the remainder of the plots will be unelectri- 
fied. It is Sir Oliver Lodge's process, or system, which is being installed 
at Balmakewan. The plant necessary to generate electricity at Mr. 
Low's place is small. A turbine is bemg erected on the banks of the 
Luther, IJ miles from the Home Farm. Current is conveyed by over- 
head wires to the area of experiment. Here a weather-tight hut contains 
the transforming and retcifying apparatus. 

The expenses incuiTed in installing such a system are jiretty consider- 
able. The cost to Mr. Low will be something like £200, and he is already 
provided with the necessary generating plant. Electrical treatment of 
soil apart, Balmakewan is an interesting estate. There are two farms on 
it — the Home Farm, extending to 330 acres, and the Mains of Luther 
Farm, some 170 acics in extent — and each is ]ierfectly appointed. The 
laird is head of the engineering firm of Low & Duff, Monitieth, and the 

hand of the engineer-agriculturist is evident on all side;. The plant 
installed on the Luther burn 8upi)lies the electrical energy that lirives 
the thraBhing mill at the Home Farm 1} miles distant, the mansion house is 
electricallylighted, electric power isu.sed in the laundrj', and the machinery 
in the sawmill is worked by electricity, as also is the Broadbent stone 
crusher. Mr. Low has recently had fitted up a small motor to drive an 
ice refrigerator plant. Altogether, Balmakewan, thanks to its enter- 
prising proprietor, is probably the most up-to-date estate in the north- 
east of Scotland. 

Electricity in Gold Mining.— The " Australian Mining and Engineer- 
ing Review " states that .Mr. Parham has applied, on behalf of a 
syndicate, for permission to utilise the water power of the Toaroha 
river to generate electrical energy for working the terraces and 
Rimu Flat, near H<ikitika, New Zealand. 

By menus of l."i() sluice heads it is estimated that about 10,000 B.H,P. 
would be obtained, and it is calculated that a head of about 700 ft. can 
be obtained by constructing a tunnel and a pipe line to the site of the 
power station. It is proposed to use 2,500 kw. h.t. gene- 
rators driven by 3.600 H.p. Pelton water wheels and the current would 
be stepped up to 20.000 volts and transmitted 17 miles to the pumping 
station. Mr. Parham's estimate for the first two pumping units is 
£.'51, .500. 

Epsom. — The Council propose to introduce a system of " free " 
wiring in co-operation with local contractors. 

Frome. — Negotiations are proceeding for the transfer of the elec- 
tricity works to Kdmnndson's Electricity Corpn. At present the 
company is working t he station under agreement with the Council. 

Glasgow. — The Joint Committee on the Production of Electrical 
Energy report that in their opinion the existing arrangements for the 
generation of electrical energy by the Corporation should be con- 

Hanley. — The borough electrical engineer (Mr. C. H. Yeaman) has 
been instructed to report as to the advisability of giving a supply of 
electricity in Milton. 

Hornsey. — The Council have applied for sanction to borrow 
£(5,000 for extensions of the electricity supply mains and house 
services. An electrical exhibition is to be held in the Muswell Hill 

India. — Messrs. Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works are installing two 
30 H.p. Campbell gas engines, gas producer plant, and two 50 amp. 
500 volt dynamos, for the electric lighting of Pondicherry. For 
street lighting 324 25 c.p. Tantalum lamps will be used. 

Infirmary Lifts. — Before entering into a contract for the electric 
lifts required at the new infirmary. Edmonton Guardians have 
decided to obtain a report from an electrical engineer at a fee of 20 

Kirkcaldy. — The Council have received a communication from a 
firm of solicitors intimating that clients of theus were prepared to 
construct an electric tramway from Kirkcaldy to Inverkeithing. and 
asking for an appointment to discuss the scheme. The Tramway 
committee were instructed to meet the promoters and report to the 

Light Railways in Germany. — In a bill recently introduced into the 
Prussian Diet pro\isi(in is made for the extension of the light railway 
system at a cost of £1 1 ,3()G.000. This amoimt includes £4,000,000 
for the construction of new lines, over £200,000 for doubling of track 
of seven existing lines, and about £5.000,000 for new rolling stock. 
Though most of the lines are worked by steam, £80,(X10 is provided 
for the electrification of the Dessau-Bielefeld line, and it is reported 
that if this should prove a success many of the new lines will be 
similarly e(juipped. 

London Fire Brigade.— The annual report of the London Fire 
Brigade states that of the 3,238 fires in 1908 only 101 had their origin 
in electric lighting, &c., against 355 directly attributable to gas light- 
ing and heating. 

Of the electric fires 91 are stated to have been caused by defective 
electric circuits. Of the gas fires 108 were caused by escajies of gas, 84 
by curtains, &c., coming into contact with gas light, 22 by overheating 
of gas stoves, 20 by gas stoves, 15 through seeking with light for gas 
escape, 14 by overheat of gaslight, &c. 

Maidenhead.— The Council have applied for sanction to a loan of 
£3,500 for extensions of the electric generating plant. 

Middlesbrough.— The electrical engineer (Mr. H. M. Taylor) has 
reported to the Electric Light committee that there will be a sub- 
stantial profit on the past year's working of the electricity under- 
taking, and therefore it has "been decided that £1.482 is to be contri- 
buted in relief of rates. 

Municipal Tramways Association.— -Vt the meetings of the man- 
agers' section of this Associat ion, w hich w ill be held in the Town Hall. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, on June 3 and 4 next, the following subjects wi 1 
be intr<Hluccd for discussion : — 

'• Description of Newcastle Tramways," by Mr, E. Hatton : " Ch.irge* 



for Energy for Traction Purposes." by Mr- •!• M- McElroy ; "' Transfer 
Tickets." by Mr. A. EllLs ; ■' Medical Examination of Motormen and 
Conductors: What the Standard of same should be," by Mr. J. B. 
Hamilton : " Time .Meter.s." bv Mr. H. Alozley ; and " Maintenance of 
Tiark and Koadw ay." by Mr. W. M. Rogerson. 

Newcastle-under-Lyme. — Sanction has been received to a loan of 
£700 for extensions of mains and liouse services. 

Newport (Mon.) — Sanction has been received to a loan of £2,57S 
for additional jrenerating plant. On Tuesday the Council authorised 
tile ]iurchasi' of three additional tramcar.s. 

Obituary. — The death is announced of Mr. John Wilson, manager 
of Leitli Corporation tramways. Deceased was in the service of the 
Edinburgh Street Tramways Co. for many years, but when the 
Corporation took over the tramways he was appointed manager. 

We regret to record the death, in his 63rd year, of Mr. Charles 
Edward Stuart at Kew. Mr. Stuart had been in the service of the 
Associated Telegraph Companies 39 years, and was from 1881 until 
tlie time of his death registrar of the Globe Telegraph & Trust Co. 

Presentation. — Southend tramway and electricity staff have pre- 
sented a diamond ring to Mr. Andrews, tramway traffic manager, who 
is leaving for Malta. 

St. Anne 's-on-the-Sea. — The Council recently decided to allocate 
£700 out of the profits on the electricity undertaking to the relief 
of rates. 

Councillor Cooper objected to the proposal, and said there were only 
two reasons which could justify the appropriation of the profits to relief 
of rates : one was that the price of electricity should have been reduced 
to a very low point, and the other that the use should be practically 
universal. Neither of those existed in St. Anne's, where the price was 7d- 
and 2d. per imit, or a flat rate of 5Jd. ; and at the end of 1908 only 665 
householders out of 1,937 were users of electricity. The soundest policy 
was to devote any surplus to a reduction in the price of electricity. 

South Africa. — East London Town Council recently offered to 
take a lease for 20 years of the Government power station at the 
Harbour, at £520 per annum, to purchase the cables in the Buffalo 
river and the plant for £5,000, and to supply current to the Govern- 
ment at .3d. per unit. 

Of the loan proposed to be raised by Pretoria Municipality £75,000 
is included for electric tramways. 

Southampton. — The Manager of the tramways reported recently 
to the Council on the increaseS^^nergy consumption per car-mile 
during the last year or two. 

The report stated that^n some towns the units per car-mile had 
gone up enormously, although Southampton's increase was not very 
great. Among the towns he had prepared a schedule of there were 
only four (Reading, Bradford, Aberdeen and Leeds) in which the 
returns showed a decrease of units per car-mile. The decreased con- 
sumption in Reading was attributed to strict supervision over drivers ; 
Bradford stated that about 100 of their cars had been fitted with meters 
and returns showed that these had a powerful influence in stopping 
waste : and Aberdeen also recommended close supervision of the men 
to prevent " rushing and abuse of the controller." The chief reasons 
given for the increased consumption per car-mile were careless driving, 
increased age and consecjuent wear of track, cars and equipment and 
general increased speed of running on most tramway systems. In the 
manager's opinion a likely cause of increase was that the iron cores of 
the field coils and armatures had aged from constant use. That was 
especially noticeable in transformers, but was probably due to the 
use of alternating current. With direct current the deterioration 
was not so noticeable. It was found that owing to the iron 
ageing a greater amount of current was required to energise the 
magnets, and thereby propel the car. The wear and tear of the gear 
wheels and pinions was an important factor, and if an axle got bent 
it immediately increased the consumption of current. However, it 
was probable that the chief factor of incre.ase was careless handling by 
motor men. As regards the wear and tear of gear wheels it was a 
moot point as to the proper time to replace these. From tests he had 
inude he found that worn gears used more current than new ones, but 
if new gears " mesh ' too deeply tlie result would be the opposite. 
Ge;vrs that had been in use about two years were working at their best 
etiiciency. It was possible that those which had been in use for a 
much longer period were using more current than at some prior tmie, 
but as the total cost of replacement was about £12 per car, one hesi- 
tated to scrap them too soon, as it took a long time to save £12 of 
current. As regards electrical equipment he did not think the small 
amount of money saved in current would warrant expenditure on more 
erticient apparatus. The increased number of passengers per car-mile 
would contribute to an increased consumption of current. In conclu- 
sion the manager drew attention to a controller regulator, which 
made it impossible to rush the controller handle round too quickly. 
The cost of installing this would be about £4 10s. per car. 

Southwark iLondon).— In our issue for April 2 (p. 083) we stated 
that .Mr. K. T. Wright had been temporarily a|)point^d manager of 
llic electricity supply works. We learn that this is inaccurate, as 
th(^ El?ctric Light C( mmittee withdrew their recommendation, and 
at a subsequent meeting it was decided to request Mr. 1). M. Kinghorn 
to continue in the service of the Council for the time being. 


READY NEXT WEEK.— Vol LXII. of "The Electrician" 
(1,028 pages), bound in strong cloth. Price 17s. 6d. ; post free, 18s. 6d. 
Now ready. Cases for Binding. Price 2s. ; post free, 2s. 3d. 

A complete set of " The Electkician " can bo supplied. A number 
of odd volumes and some odd old back numbers, to help in making 
up complete sets, are also available. 

Swansea. — The Electricity committee anticipate a profit of about 
£2.000 on the working of the electricity undertaking during the 
current year. 

Torquay. — Last week the Council decided to adoi>t, in place of tlie 
present maximum demand system, a flat rate of 4^. per unit for 
electric current as from the 25th ult. 

Watford. — The Council are to undertake (through contractors) the 
wiring of St. John's Church, at an estimated cost of £200. The 
amount is to be repaid by 28 quarterly instalments. 

Wigan. — The Electricity committee have approved plans for the 
extension of the generating station, and tenders are to be invited. 

Wimbledon. — The Electricity undertaking has been assessed at 
£9,920 for income ta.x purjioses. 

The borough electrical engineer has been instructed to prepare a 
scale of charges for the supply of energy for power. 

An agreement is to be entered into with Merton Council for supplying 
energy to the sewage disposal works at West Barnes-lane at I Jd. per unit 
for power and lighting. 

Wireless Telegraph Notes.— It is reported that further experiments 
are being carried out by Lieut. Loring, on behalf of the Postmaster- 
General, having particular relation to islands laying off the mainland 
and other places where natural difficulties make the cost of communi- 
cation under the regular telegraphic system very heavy or pro- 

The " Standard's " Genoa correspondent states that the oflficial 
opening on the Molo Vecchio of the wireless telegraph offices, labora- 
tory, school, &c. (which are arranged on the Liverpool model), has 
just taken place. Messages can now be sent from Genoa to a 
distance of 320 miles direct, and the office is in touch with the Italian 
stations, Rome, Naples, Palermo, Bari, Anoonza and Venice. 

Wireless Telephone Notes. — In the presence of the Minister of 
Marine, JI. Picard, on Monday, interesting experiments in wireless 
telephony were made by two naval officers (Lieuts. Colin and Jeance), 
between the Eiffel Tower and M^lun, a distance of 50 kms. (30 miles). 
Successful attempts were made in August and November last to 
establish wireless telephonic communication between Paris and 
Melun and Paris and Dieppe. Yesterday's trials with improved 
apparatus amply confirmed the practical value of the earlier restilts. 
The representatives of the press were enabled to overhear the con- 
versations engaged in at the offices of the Radio-telegraph Mfg. Co. 
in the Boulevard Grenelle, where everything was heard very distinctly. 
Woking. — Three additional schools are to be wired for the electric 
Worcester. — A special committee has been appointed to consider 
and report upon the charge made by the Electricity committee for 
pumping at the water works. 

Workhouse Lighting.— Haslingden Guardians are negotiating 
with R.nvtcnstall Coiporation for the supply of electricity for light- 
ing llie Haslingden workhouse. 

Wrexham.— The Council have obtained sanction to a loan of £6,850 
for mains, house services, &c. 

York. — Last week a special meeting of the Council was held to con- 
sider tenders for the construction of new, and the reconstruction of 
the existing, tramways. 

Aid. Meyee, vice-chairman of the Tramways committee, said that the 
committee had decided to recommend the adoption of the overhead 
system, mainly on account of economy. They had come to the conclu- 
sion that the conduit system was prohibitive (.wing to cost, and the 
tenders they had received for the surface-contact system amounted to 
nearly £20,000 more than those for the overhead system. That reprc- 
■sented about a kl. per car-mile for sinking fund and interest, and it 
seemed to him that that expenditure was greater than the benefits they 
would derive from the ado])tion of that system. He moved that the 
Council decide upon the overhead system. He gave particidara of some 
of the 21 tenders received ; <ine was for the " O.B." and one for the 
Lorain surface-contact sy-tcm. and the Railless Electric Traction Co. had 
also tendered. The lowest lender was for £,S(i.O00. 

A long discussion ensued, liut idliniately. owing to a tie on a divi"iion, 
the further ccmsideration of the matter was adjourned. 

At a public meetina- on Wednesday a resolution against the inunici- 
palisation of the tramways was carried. 



Dinner. — Mr. J. Eaton-Slmre. slio|i superintendent, presided at 
the second annual dinner of tlie .slu)p olKcials and foremen at Siemens 
Bros. Dynamo Works at the Institute. Tippina;-street. Stafford. 

Tliis was the first function of its kind attempted at the in.stitute, but 
the arrangements were admirably carried out by the committee (Messrs. 
Briggs, Rathbone and Saunders, with Mr. F. E. Read as hon. sec). 
There were about 100 present. The toast of " The Firm "' was given by 
Mr. Kilpatrick and supported by Dr. Kloss. Mr. Koettgen (managing 
director, London) resjionded, and spoke very encouragingly of the 
future prospects of the Stafford works. Mr. Palairet propo.sed '" The 
Guests," and Mr. Kieifer, the Stafford managei-, received a cordial recep- 
tion in responding to the toast. "' Siemens Institute " was proposed by 
Mr. C. N. Toplis, and >Ir. Read replied. During dinner the institute 
orchestra rendered selections of music 



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brings a great mass of statistical and technical data 
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All branches of Electrical Engineering and Industry 
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The Asylums Bo.\rd invite tenders for the in- 
stallation of telephones md fire alarms at the South Western Fever 
Hospital, Stockwell. S.AV., in accordance with tlie plan and specifica- 
tions prepared by the engineer-in-chief (Mr. T. W. Hatch. M.Inst.C.E., 
M.I.Mech.E.), and which may be obtained at the offices of the Board, 
Embankment, London, E.C. Tenders by noon April 23. 

C'HE\^NGTON East Parish Council will receive provisional estimates 
and offers, accompanied with plans, drawings and specifications, for 
the installation of a street lighting scheme by electricity for the 
district. The scheme will provide for aerial wiring upon creosoted 
poles, for about 80 up-to-date lamps. Current will be supplied from 
the local collier3'. Mr. W. Gibson, the Council's surveyor, will meet 
intending contractors at 94, Queen-street, Amble, by arrangement. 

Amble Urban District Council are prepared to receive provisional 
estimates and offers, accompanied with plans, drawings and speci- 
fications such as will meet Board of Trade requirements (free of 
charge to the Council) for the installation of a gas suction plant, 
and, alternatively, for steam plant, to supply electricity for public 
and jiriv.ate lighting in the town. Mr. W. Ciibson. the Council's 
surveyor, will meet intending contractors at 94, Qu2?n-strcet. .\ml)le, 
by arrangement. 

Stepney (London) Electricity Supply Committer invite tenders for 
supply and erection of steam, feed, circulating, water, and other pipe 
work, valves, hot well tank, motor-driven centrifugal pumps, &c. 
Copies of specification. &c., from the borough electrical engineer and 
manager (Mr. Wm. C. 1'. Tapper, A.JI.I.E.E.). 27, Osborn-strect. 
Whitechapel, E. Tenders to the chairman of the committee by noon 
April 22. 

WoODBKlDGE Urban Council, who arc desirous that a company 
should establish electricity works in the district, announced that 
they would support a company in an a|)plication for a |)rovisional 
order and would enter into a contract for public lighting from 
April 1, 1912. The population is 4,600 and gas is 4s. Cd. per 1,000 ft. 
Tenders by June 1. 

Belfast Tramways and Electricity committee invite tenders for 
supply, delivery and erection of one circulating pump, with motor and 
pipes, for the pump house. Laganbank-road. Specification. &c., 
from the city electrical engineer, Mr. Thomas W. Bloxam, M.I.E.E. 
Tenders to the town clerk. City Hall, Belfast, by noon April 24. 

London County Council require tenders by May 4 for supply of 
about 4,000 tons of girder tramway track rails and fastenings and 
3,000 tons slot rails and conductor tees. Particulars from the County 

London County Council also want tenders by May 4 for roadwork 
and platelaying required for various tramways (2J miles single track). 
Particulars from the County Hall. 

' The Metropolitan Board want tenders by 10 a.m. 
April 28 for supply of four ambulance tramcars at the Smallpox 
Hospitals, near Dartford. Specifications, &c., from the Board's 
offices. Embankment. E.C. 

Manchester Tramways committee want tenders by 10 a.m., 
April 20, for electrical equipments for cars, arc lamps, cable, wheel 
tyres, tubing, bolts and nuts, &c. Specifications, &c., from Mr. J. .M. 
McElroy, 5.5, Piccadilly, Manchester. 


Cardiff Corporation have received the following tenders: — 

Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works (accepted) £475 

Morris & Lister £910 Electric Construction Co. ... i570 

Gener.1l Electric Co 871 Walsall Electrical Co 564 

Union Electric Co 741 Spagnoletti (Ltd.) 558 

Sanders & Co 653 British Thomson-Houston Co. 549 

Tetley&Co 630 Co.\-Walker,< 535 

Bertram Thomas 628 Switchgear Co 525 

British Westinghouse Co. ... 619 | Johnson <1' Phillips 490 

Elec. it Ordnance Access. Co. 596 Cowans (Ltd.) 485 

Ferranti (Ltd.) 593 I Whipp & Bourne 483 

British Insulated k Helsby Cables [accepted] £1,824 

W. T. Glover & Co £1,950 

Calleiider's Co 1,907 

Siemens Bros. * Co 1,884 

Western Electric Co 1,878 

Lahmever Electrical Co. ... £1,874 

W. T. Henley's Co 1,866 

■Johnson A- Phillips 1,859 


W. T. Towler & Son £730 

.John Spencer (Ltd.) 714 

Foster Bros 673 

J. Wilson & Co t40 

Alton &Co. {accepted) £595 Bros 1,002 

Stewart & Lloyds 8C0 

Babcock & Wilcox 795 

J. H. Nicholson & Co 766 | 

Wimbledon Council have accepted the following tenders fi r 
annual supplies for the electricitv undertaking : — 

Bninner. Mond & Co.. alkali ; "Pryke & Palmer. F. Bu'd & Co., and 
J. Harvey, tools, engine room stores, &c. ; Western Electric Co., h. and 
l.-t. cables, public lighting cables. &c. ; Doultoii & Co. anil Albion Clay 
Co., conduits ; Callender's Co., joint boxes and jouitmg materials, &c. : 
W. Lucy & Co., house cut-outs : British Insulated & Helsby Cables, 
all other cable items ; British Westinghouse Co., transformers and 
meters ; A. Duckham & Co., lubricating oils : W. H. Willcox & Co.. 
other oils ; General Electric Co.. metallic filament lamps and electrical 
accessories ; W. Geipel & Co., carbons : Siemens Bros. Dvnaino Works, 
V.I.R. cables ; E. J. Shaw & Co., arc lamp globes ; Union Electric Co., 
flame arc laiip carbons ; F. Bird & Co., castings : Hall & Co., firebricks 
and fireclay. 

Colchester Corporation have accepted the following tenders for 
annual stores : — 

Joslins Limited, prepayment meter installations, ironmongery, tixil-s 
and oilmen's sundries ; Stanford & Co., castings ; \'alveline Oil Co., 
oils; W. Lucy & Co., fuse boxes; Reason Mfg. Co., s.ot meters (Id. 
meters), and Ferranti Limited, slot meters (Is. meters). 

For tramway stores the following tenders have been accepted : — 

.Joslins Limited, rubber and fibre material, oils, and lighting cables ; 
Williams & Co.. ironmongery ; Lubroleine Oil Co.. axle grease ; Watling- 
ton & Co., carbon brushes, pinions and trolley heail fittings, overhead 
equipment, &c. ; Dick, Kerr & Co., various car fittings ; Jackson & Co., 
armature coils ; and Bracket! & Co., castings. 

Stepney (London) Council has accepted the tender of the City 
Glass Co! for annual supply of arc lamp globes of the estimated 
value of £58. 2s. 6d. Conditional upon a trial being satisfactory, an 
order has been placed witli H. Bennett at £120 for " Fumicide "' 
smoke prevention apparatus. The Council is to have the option of 
ordering three additional sets at an inclusive sum for the four of 

Gla.'gow Corporation recently accc|>tcd tl c following tenders for 
the tramways department :— - 

British Westinghouse Co.. armature ci>ils ; Ixirain Steel Co.. sjvirc 
points, special track work, st<ol rails and fishplates ; Wm. Jessop & Son, 
high speed steel; British Insulated & Hdsby Cables, copper bonds; 
Hughes Label Co., labels for ticket boxes. 



A contract for the supply and erection of electric haulage and 
pumping plant for the pits of the Tluislington Coal Co.. Ferry- 
hill. CO. Durham, has been placed with the General Electric Co. The 
British Wcstinghouse Co. arc also supp!}-ing a three-phase alternator 
(2,750 volts, 40 periods) for the Thrislington collieries. 

Stockport Council have accepted the following tenders : — 

Ed. Bennis & Co., elevator (including rotary filler); Babcock & Wilcox, 
weldless steel tubes'; Stewart & Lloyd, electrically-welded l>iping ; 
Lorain Steel Co., tramway cro.iB-over. 

Burj' (Lanes.) Electricity committee have accepted the tender of 
iJaxendale Bros, for the sujiply and erection of the steel work for their 
new power station. 

' The D.P. Battery Co. have received orders (amongst others) 
during the past week for 15 storage batteries of their country house 
type for various installations in tlie British Isles. 

Wigan Council have placed contracts with the Universal Mill 
Furnisliing Co. and R. Burland & Sons for cylinder and dynamo oil. 

Walsall Corporation have accepted the tender of Youngs Limited 
for the su])ply of .56 jacks for the tramway department at £1. 12s. <k\. 

Yarmouth Council have accepted the tender of the Bru?li Co. for 18 
gear wheels at 55s. each, and that of John Baker & Co. for 60 steel 
tyres at 34s. 6d. each. 

Derby Town Council have accepted the tender of Alton & Co. for 
pipework at £320. 

Brighton Lighting committee have accepted the tender of the 
Phcenix Dynamo Co. for a 300 kw. motor generator at £978. 

Accrington Electricity committee have acceptid the tender of the 
Brush Co. for two double-deck and one single-deck cars. 

Nelson Council have placed an order with J. Carter & Co. for 
wiring the fire station. 

Watford Council have placed an order with tlie Lea Recorder Co. 
for a CO2 recorder. 

Maidenhead Council have accepted the tender of Callender's Cable 
& Construction Co. for the supply of cable at £397. 

Gosport Council] have accepted the tender of Manlove. Alliott & 
Co. for the extension of the refuse destructor at £3,946. 

Llandudno Council have accepted the tender of J. K. & R. Lord 
for supply and erection of a Lancashire boiler at £430. 

Warrington Council have accepted the tender of H. Bibby (at £25) 
for electrical work at Garven House. 

Oldbury Council have accepted the tender of the Worthington 
Pump Co. for an electric motor for the sewage works at £39. 10s. 

The Postmaster-General's Department, Melbourne, Victoria, 
have placed an order with Richard Johnson, Clapham & Morris for 
g.i. wire at £319. 

The Oriental Timber Corpn., Geelong, Victoria, recently placed an 
order with the Australian General Electric Co. for electric lighting 
and power ]ilant, including a 750 kw. three-phase alternator (480 
volts, 50 cycles) and a Curtis steam turbine, 15 induction motors 
(including one of 300h.p.), with switchboard, Tirril regulator, &c. 
The plant will be manufactured by the British Thomson-Houston 
Co., of Rugbj'. 


Messrs. W. H. Allen, Son & Co., of Queen's Engineering ^Works, 
Bedford, and London, have decided to undertake tin- manufacture 
of water turbines under the patents of Messrs. I'iccaril. I'ietet & Co.. 
of Geneva. 

Messrs. J. & H. Grevener have taken over the sole agency in 
the United Kingdom and the British Colonies for the sale of the 
well-known manufactures of the Land & Sea Cable Works. Stocks 
of wires and cables of every description will be held in London and 
also in the chief provincial town.s. Messrs. Grevener have appointed 
Messrs.Davies Bros., Swansea, to represent them in Wales and the West 
of England, and Messrs. Hamilton Bros., of Glasgow, in Scotland. 

Messrs. R. Easton & Son, who recently removed to 28 and 30, 
Southwark Bridge-road, London, S.E., announce that they are now 
able to offer mtich quicker delivery of their lifts and cranes. 

Joseph Richardson Norris and John Henderson, jun. (trading as 
J. R. Xorris & Co.), electrical engineers, 5b, Manchester-street. 
Oldham, have dissolved partnership. Debts by J. R. Norris, who 
continues under the old style. 

Sales by Auction.— Messrs. Fuller, Hor.sey, Sons & Cassell will sell 
by auction on the premises, 33, Endell-street, Long-acre, London, 

W.C, on Tuesday ,*April 27 at 11 a.m., liigh-class machine tools, in- 
eluding a No. U " Cincinnati " Universal milling machine, a plain 
milling machine, seven screw-cutting lathes, four radial and pillar 
drilling machines, slotting and shaping machines, &c., a 10 b.h.p. 
motor, shafting and belting, parallel vices, loose tools, &c. Catalogues 
of Messrs. Gadsden & Pennefather, solicitors, 28, Bedford-row W.C, 
and of the Auctioneers, 11, Billiter-square, London, E.C. 

Messrs. Fuller. Horsey, Sons &. Cassell have been instructed to 
sell by auction at the works of the Motogear Engineering Co.. 
Emerald-street. Theobalds-road, London, W.C, on Friday, April 30, 
at 11 a.m.. modern machine tools, including nine screw-cutting and 
other lathes, four milling and four drilling machines, Hendcy shaping 
machine, &c.. also a 5 B.H.r. National gas engine, shafting and belt- 
ing. &c. 

Plant for Sale.— Messrs. G. Elliott & Co., 186-188, Long-lane, 
Bermondsey, London, S.E., have for sale two compound Marshall 
steam engines coupled to two Crompton dynamos, and also three 
dynamos. Further particulars are given in advertisements. 

The Coatbridge & Airdrie Electric Supply Co., Moorgate-court, 
Moorgate-place. London, E.G., have two d.c. direct-coupled ste^m 
dynamos (Browett, Lindley-Brush sots) for sale. 

Premises to Let. — Premises in Westbourne-road, Barnsbury, N. 
(suitable for motor garage or factory) are advertised to be let by 
the Dennis Estate Office, 1, Warner-street, Roman-road, Barnsbury, 
London, N. 

Messrs. A. J. Cayley & Son, Chenies-street, London. W.C, 
advertise to be let premises for showTooms, workshops and 

Patents Development.— The proprietors of the following British 
Patents desire to make arrangements for their development and 
practical working in this country : — 

No. 7,942/1906, for " Improvements relating to Wireless Telegraphic 
and Telephonic Systems." Applications to Messrs. Ha'seltine, Lake & 
Co., 7 and 8, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane, London, W.C. 

No. 2,274/1904, relating to " Improvements in Telegraphic Trans- 
mitters," and No. 5,944/1902, relating ,to " Improved Telegraphic 
Systems." Applications to Messrs. Lloyd Wise & Co., 46, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, London, W.C. 

Directory of the Engineers and Metal Trades. — We have received 
from Messrs. Kellys (Ltd.) a copy of the eleventh edition of Kelly's 
Directory of the Engineers and Iron and Metal Trades and Colliery 
Proprietors. This useful work of reference, which was first issued 40 
years ago, is jjublished at intervals of four years, and the information 
contained in the present edition extends to no less than 1864 pages, an 
increase of 32 pages over its immediate predecessor. The Directory 
comprises every calling connected with the profession and the in- 
dustries si>ec)fied and connected with metal, or having any connec- 
tion with, or affinity to, engineering. The preface contains interest- 
ing statistics on the exports from, and imports into, this country of 
the various raw materials and manufactured articles, which are 
followed by an index to the towns and places dealt with in the 
Directory — nearly 7,500 in number. It is stated by the publishers 
that all the places in this list have been specially visited, and the 
particulars relating to each firm have been personally taken by their 
agents, the information thus collected having been subsequently 
compiled and arranged in the form in which it appears in the 
Directory. The pul)lished jirice is 30s. nctt. 

Metropolitan Railways and Tramways Map. — From Mr. Edward 
Stanford we have received a copy of a new and useful map of Metro- 
politan railways, tramways and miscellaneous improvements, which 
was deposited with the London County Council for the 1909 session. 
The map. which is drawn to a scale of one inch to the mile, gives a list 
of the plans deposited. The published price is 2s. nett, or 4s. mounted 
in case. 


Galvanic Batteries.- — In these days of extra high-tension power 
transmission, wireless telegraphy and other electric wonders, it is 
often forgotten that the primary battery still possesses a considerable 
sphere of usefulness. We are reminded that this is the case by a list 
of galvanic batteries which has just been issued by the India Rubber, 
Gutta Percha «fc Telegraph Works Co. This contains full details 
of the well-known Silvertown Leclanch6 cells and batteries for all 
purposes. These cells are made in a number of different types and 
sizes, and are adapted for a great variety of uses. Poggendorff, 
bichromate, Bunsen, Grove and Daniell batteries also find a place. 
The Silvertown improved low resistance battery, which is specially 
adapted for driving small motors for dental and similar purposes, as 
well as for charging small accumulators and lighting rooms at night, 
is also described. 



"General" Electrical Progress. — We have rtccivcd fiuni 
the General Electric Co. a copy of their March " Progress Pamphlet." 
This contains some details of the high-tension consumer's equip- 
ment which we have already described in The Electrician, as 
wiellas of Osram fittings, radiators, cooking ouliits, cu'cuit-breakers. 
ironclad switches, lamp holders, ceiling roses and similar apparatus 
are nUo included. A leaflet issued with the pamphlet gives the latest 
prices for Osram lamps. 

Plitjger PtTMPS. — From Messrs. W. H. Willcox & Co., Southwark- 
street, London, S.E., we have received a leaflet illustrating their 
" Willcox-Turner " patent triple acting plunger pumps. Among 
these is the " Twin-type " pattern which is specially suitable for 
work where a considerable quantity of water i.s to be delivered. The 
jjumps seem admirably fitted for the work they have to do. 

The O.S. Wiring Sy.stem. — This new systemof wiring (described 
in The Electrician for April 9), which is designed to provide 
for modern requirements in regard to elasticity of application, 
as well as inexpensiveness of material and erection, perfect 
electrical continuity and simplicity, is being exploited by the Sun 
Electrical Co. They are now supplying two kinds of patent semi- 
flexible wires which are metal-cased throughout, and are known as 
"Kuhlos " and " Stannos ' metacase conductors. These, combined 
with the company's well known"Kalkos" conduits form the O.S. wiring 
system. These "" " conductors offer, it is claimed, many 
advantages over the so-called " surface flexible " system as they are 
watertight, electrically continuous and mechanically protected. By 
using the O.S. w-iring system in one form or another, low cost is no 
longer inconsistent with efficiency and durability. The catalogue 
illustrates and describes the various details of the wires themselves, 
together with the accessories required by the systems. 

TANTALiitf Lamps. — We have received from Siemens Brothers 
Dynamo Works (Ltd.). Tyssen-street, Dalston, N.E., a new catalogue 
dealing with " Tantalum " lamps and fittings specially designed for 
ship and harbour lighting. In general arrangement it is original 
and contains a good selection of cheap and handsome fittings. The 
list, which also deals with metal and carbon filament lamps of con- 
venient voltage and candle power, must prove a very useful publica- 
tion to all interested in shij) lighting installations. Copies will be 
supplied to bona fide trade applicants. 

Bells and Telephones. — Messrs. Falk, Stadelmann & Co. have 
recently issued a "Bells and Telephones " catalogue, and although it 
contains details of bells and telephones, the title by no means indi- 
cates its full scope, for we notice that such widely different articles 
as induction coils and gimlets are listed. This catalogue is supplied 
free to bona fide contractors, and they should find it a distinct acquisi- 
tion to their library, 

Single-Phase Motors, — The single-phase E.B.H. motor is a 
speciality of Messrs. E. Brook (Ltd.), Huddersfield. Their latest list 
contains full details of these motors which are made up to a standard 
pressure of 100 to 1 10 and 200 to 220 volts, w ith frequencies of .W, 60, 
80 and 100, These motors can be supplied from stock on the same 
day as ordered. 

Pick-Quick Coal-Cuttbrs. — Messrs. Mavor & Coulson's artistic 
calendar for April contains some interesting details of the operation 
of their well-known pick-quick electric coal-cutter. From tests made 
with this machine it has been found that the average output of coal 
per month is 2„300 tons, which is, it would seem, a very satisfactory 
result. A pamphlet dealing with the firm's generating plant is also 
to hand. 

Rot.\ry Scraper. — Mr. O. N, Beck has issued a pamphlet dealing 
with a rotary scraper for cleaning colliery tubs. This scraper is 
electrically-driven, and forms a quick and easy method of getting rid 
of the dirt from tubs. 

Self-Sustaining Winch. — The London Electric Firm send us their 
latest pamphlet of electric winches, which includes details of their 
2.^ cwt. and r> cwt. sizes. These winches are, it is claimed, self- 
sustaining, and are made without ratchets, pulleys or worm gearing. 

Lightning Conductors. — The Nationalen Elektrizitats Gesell- 
schaft, of Munich, send us a iJamphlet in English and French, dealing 
with their system of protection from lightning. The pamphlet is 
excellently illustrated and gives full details of this Company's well- 
kno\vn lightning conductors. 

Imports. — The following are official values of electrical machi- 
nery, material, and apparatus imported into this country (a) during 
March, 1909, and {h) during the current year from Jan. 1 to 
March 31, with the increases or decreases compared with the corres- 
ponding periods of 1908 : — 

Electrical machinery («) £54,597 (decrease £13,110) : (h) £119,337 
(decrease £61,676) ; telegrauh and telephone cables (a) £9,963 (in- 
crease £112), ('-) £24,805 ('decrease £9,894) ; telegrai)h and tele- 
phone apparatus (a) £19,584 (increase £1,096), {I') £44,322 (decrease 

£15,674) ; other elect I ica) wiresand cables, rubber insulated (a) £4,233 
I decrease £1,675), (6) £13,949 (decrease £4,880) ; with other iDsulationa 
(a) £12,664 (increase £4,340), (;-) £29,888 (increase £2,175) ; carbons ('() 
£11,401 (decrease £6,C44 , ',) £36,178 -decrease £11,855) ; glow lamps 
(ai £28,298 (increase £12,443), ih) £118,603 (increase £53,646; : arc 
lamps and electri:; searchlights t".) £315 £4), ih) £7,362 (in- 
crease £6,226 ; parts of arc lamps and searchlights (other than carVjons I 
('() £4,462 (increase £125), (6) £12,363 (decrease £2,004) ; primary and 
secondary batteries (a) £4,391 (decrease £848), ('j) £14,207 increase 
£3,833). Total of electrical goods and apparatus, other than machi- 
nery and telegraph and telepnone wire (a) £105,149 (increase £7,294), 
('-) £328,329 (increase £26,264). 

Exports. — The exports of electrical machinery, material, &c. (a) 
during March, 1909, and (h) during the current j'ear from .Tan. I 
to March 31, and the increases and decreases compared with the 
corresponding jjeriods of 1908, are as follows : — 

Electrical machinery ('<) £111,699 (decrease £2,900', ('-) £334,598 
(decrease £21,373) ; telegraph and telephone cables («) £45,126 (de- 
crease £4,547), (/<! £98,244 (decrease £68,606); telegraph and tele- 
phone apparatus (-() £15,283 (incre;ise £4,904), (/.) £49,950 (increase 
£9,817) ; other electrical wires and cables, rubber insulated la) £21,709 
(decrease £1,241), (/-) £62,615 (decrease £12,732): with other in.sulations 
(«) £19,384 (increase £1,380), (h) £59,906 (increase £281) ; cirbons (n) 
£596 (decrease £452', {h) £2,067 (increase £446) ; glow lamps («) £7,401 
(increase £3,932), (/.) £17,409 (increase £7,536) : arc lamps and search- 
lights (") £2,981 (increase £1,634), ('.) £6,089 increase £2,559) ; parts 
of arc lamps and searchlights (other than carbons) la) £2,361 (increase 
£1,319), (b) £5,069 (increase £1,367"): primary and secondary batteries 
(«) £11,731 (increase £5,135), [h] £30,433 (increase £21,852). Total of 
electrical goods and apparatus, other than machinery and telegraph 
and telephone wire, (-() £160,644 (increase £18,056), ("'/- £423,484 (de- 
crease £36,122). 


A meeting of the creditors of the Buenos Ayres Grand Xational 
Tramways Co. (Ltd.). (in voluntary liquidation), will be held at 62, 
London Wall, E.C., on 19th inst., and creditors are required to send 
particulars of their claims to Mr. Fortescue Thursby, one of the 
liquidators, by May 1. 

A dividend is to be paid to the creditors of Thos. Ernest Evans 
(trading as T. Arthur Evans & Co.), electrical and mechanical engi- 
neers, 14, Heathfield-street, Swansea, and claims are to !» sent by 
April 26 to Mr. Hy. Rees, Government-buildings, Swansea. 

A supplemental dividend of 2Jd. is payable at Bankruptcy-build- 
ings. London, W.C., to the creditors of Thos. Hodgkinson (trading 
as Electro-Neurotone). 180, Goldhawk-road, London, W. 



Note. — The undermentioned Applicalions (exfcp< those marked f) are not 

open to public inspection until after accfptance of Complete Specifications. 

Those marked f are open for inspection 12 months after the dale attached 

to them, if they have not been published previously in the ordinary course. 

Names within parentlieses are those of commtinicators of inventions. When 

complete Specification accompanies application, an asterisk is affixed. 
December 7, 1908. 

26,408 Rogerson. Sanding tram and other lines. 

26,441 Wilcox. Trolley guards. 

26,449 & 26,450 Hartmann & Braun Actien Ges. Hot-«-ire electric 
current measuring instruments. (Date applied for, 6/3/08. )*t 

26,453 Hale. Emergency or secondary lighting. 

26,485 Mayer. Trolley "wire suspenders. (Date applied for, 21/12/07.)*! 
December 8, 1908. 

26,507 Johnsen & Walleen. Conducting current to or from con- 
tinuous-current electrical machines.* 

26,533 Wild & Lister. Circuit-breaker action. 

26,555 Conrad. Transformers for operating vapour electric devices. 
(Date applied for. 10/l/08.)*t 

26,572 Walker. Electric lighting installations where high-voltage cur- 
rents are transformed. 

2(i,.58S Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. & Round. Measuring 
electromagnetic wave lengths. 

26,592 Ellinger. Heat-resisting electric lamp protector. 

26,620 Job. Switching devices. 

December 9. 1908. 

26,630 Baker. Rotary switch. 

26.665 Norman & Reader. Driving a centrifugal pump blower by 

means of rotating field electric motor in such a manner that no 
glands or stuffing boxes are required. 

26.666 Norman & Reader. Electrical converter for converting direct 

current to alternating current or vice versa, and ttansfurming 

voltage as required. 
26,674 Stevens. Charging several batteries in parallel, and regidating 

the voltage on electric feeders. 
26.709 Ferrantl' Cuiwnt collectors.* 
2<!.739 Kearnev. Overhe.xd guide rail for mono railway and tramway 




December 10, 1908. 
26,752 Fenkeli. & Perry. Electric lamp-holders. 
26.79(1 Stratton & C'laremont. Mechanical connectors for electric 

26.808 Meirowskv. Electrical condensers. (Date applied for. 1 8/5/08. )*t 
26,822 Read. Electrically heated geysers. 

26.825 B.T.-H. Co. & Gray. Production of coherent conductors of 

refractory material. 

26.826 B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co.. U.S.) Silicon alloy.?. 
26,832 Fleming. Detecting electric oscillations. 

26,830 Black. Electric traction contact boxes. (.Addition to No. 

26.844 BrcHLER. Electrical conductors. 
26,862 Jacob & Tudor Accumulator Co. Devices for ste.idying the 

load on connected generating plants. 
26,867 Davis, Graham cS: Cox. Combined telcphnne and electric light 

or other equipment. 

December 11, 190S. 
26,881 Electric Control. JIaimillan & Rattenbury. Mechanisms 

for operating and controlling the movements of members. 
26,894 Bird & Thomson-Bennett. Electric ignition apparatus for 

internal-combustion engines. 

26.915 Murray. Keyboard transmitter for printing telegraph systems. 

26.916 Murray. Tape transmitter for multiplex telegraph systems. 

26.917 Murray-. Synchronising arrangement for a multiplex printing 


26.918 Murray. Printer for a multiplex printing telegraph system. 
26,929 Julius Sax & Co. & Wheat. Cluster lamp-holders for electric 

incandescent lights. 

December 12, 1908. 
26,967 TiMAB & ZlEGLER. Time relay for electric currents.* 
26,973 HooKHAM. Electrical contacts. 
26,984 Hall & Robertson. Dynamo-electric machines. 
27,021 Smith. Preventing tele])hone or telegraph wires, when biviken, 

making contact with other wires carrying higher voltages. 
27,034 VoLLERT. Chemical electrolytic process. 
27,036 Otti.ey & Harrison. Electric incandescent lamps. 
27,043 HoiNG. Devices for suspending pipes, cables and the like.* 

December 14, 1908. ' 
27,064 Ardaoh & Ardaoh. Renewing the life of tram rails in situ. 
27,075 SruRoTER. Devices for attaching wire conductors to insulators. 

(Date applied for. 12/12/07.)*t 
27,017 Siemens-Schuckebtwerke G.m.e. [H. Securing thin covering to 

fine single wires. (Date applied for, 14/12/07.)*t 
27,1.38 BoNBRiciHT. Electric speedometers and odometers.* 

27.139 Clement. Telephone exchange system.* 

27.140 Drysdale. Potentiometer for measurements on alternate-cur- 

rent and direct-current circuits.* 
27,143 Timar & Dbeoer. Arc lamp with pairs of carbon.* 
27,145 Highpield. Electrical wiring. 
27,149 Leitner. Driving mechanism for dynamos. 
27,156 Ross. Electric heaters. 

December 15, 1908. 
27,16! Baker. Switch for closing and opening an electric circuit. 
27,207 Raasch. Time switches.* 

27.212 Cecil & Bbonsdon. Electric ignition regulator. 

27.213 SwEETSER. Electric switches. 

27,236 Justice. (Alfred W. Kiddle & Amalie Mathilde Baunuinn, 

U.S.) Electric generators.* 
27,212 Crouch & Etchells. Electrical distribution systems. 
27,244 Marshall. Electric switch mechanism. 
27,283 Landis & Gyr. Alternating-current meter.* 

December 16, 1908. 
27,303 Gilbert. Feeding mechanism for are lamps. 
27,310 Chambers. Telephony and telegraphy by means of "■ Hertzian 

27,343 Siemens-Schuckertwerke G.m.b.H. .Alternating-current meters 

(Date applied for, 17/12/07.)*t 

December 17, 1008. 
27,436 Blackall & Jacobs. Electric signalling apparatus. 
27,462 Tanaka, Wanibuchi & Peacock. Generating electric currents.* 
27,470 S.MITH & Granville. Insulated line wire cables. 
27,477 Justice. (Essex Co., U.S.) Third rail insulators.* 
27,491 Barta & French. Electrical machines. 

December 18. 1908. 
27,504 Zumpt. Electrical fuse-boxes. 

27,530 HoLMAN. Arc lamps. (Date applied for, 1/9/08. Comprised 
in No. 2,261/08. dated 1/2/08.)* 

27.538 Rawlings, Handcock & Dykes. Severing the hard metal 

sheathing of electric conductors. 

27.539 Rawlings, Handcock & Dykes. Sheathing electrical wires. 
27,577 Wioley, Redpath & Petrie. Fuse-setting machines. 
27,585 Good & Da vies. Incandescent electric lamps. 

December 19, 1908. 
27,616 Priestley & Priestley. Electric tramway car.i, locomotives, 

motor car.-i, &e. 
27,626 Walton & Bell. Showing variation of temperatures, with 

elwtrical alarm attachment. 
27,639 Dawson. Attaching shades and reflectors to incandescent 

electric lampj. 
27,664 Wilkinson. Devices for electric heating.* 


1907 Specifications. 

26,294 Harrison. iSupporting filaments m incandescent electric lamps. 

(Post-dated, 27/6/08.) 
27.034 Davy. Arc lamps. 

27,0.38 B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co., U.S.) Electric motor-starting device.?. 
27,095 Ryan. Electrical welding machines. 
27,559 Murphy. Electrode for use in the purification of water and other 

27.675 Hatfield. Electromagnetically operated apparatu-i. 
27,830 GiBBs. Electrolytic cells. 

1908 Specifications. 

2,153 BucKTON. Incandescent electric lamp caps and couplings. 
4,372 Felten & Guilleaume-Lahmeyerwerke Akt.-Ges. Regula- 
tion of pressure of electric machines. (Date applied fiu-, 
7,328 Allgemeine Elektricitats Ges. Arc lamps. (Date applied 

for, 2/8/07.) 
8,101 Siemens Bros & Co. & Toplis. Cooling the commutator of a 

dynamo-electric machine. (Addition to No. 7,255/00.) 
8,255 Dickinson. Brake operating mechanism for tramway cars and 

other vehicles. 
8,522 Bero. Turbo-electric generator systems. (Date applied for, 

0,237 Allgemeine Elektricitats Ges. Protecting transformers, 
cables and other electrical apparatus. (Date applied for, 
9,636 Siemens-Schuckertwebke Ges. Fittings for electric glow 

lamps. (Date applied for, 25/6/07.) 
9.702 & 9,703 Ruzicka. Manufacture of electrical resistances. 
9.832 Peters. Safety fuses for switchboards. 
9,850 Boult. (Union Switch & Signal Co.) Electric signalling 

systems for railways and the like. 
9,876 De Sainte-Clare. Variable-speed gear for electric automo- 
biles. (Date applied for, 7/11/07.) 

10,171 Siemens Bros. & Co. (Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges.) Reducing 
the reflex action at the points of connection of electrical conduc- 
tors or circuits differing in the values of their electrical proper- 
ties. (Addition to No. 9,273/06.) 

10,269 Ruzicka. Arc lamp. 

10,317 Mershon. Insulating supports for high-tension conductors. 
(Date applied for, 21/.5/07.) 

10,632 Patebson & Dark. Clamping device for electric contacts or 

10,704, 10,767 and 10,768 Tate. Storage battery i)lates. (Date 
applied for, 20/12/07.) 

11,004 Timar & Von Dbegeb. Starting switches for electric motors. 
(Date applied for, 5/6/1907.) 

11,008 Routin. Electro-mechanical regulators or governors for electric! 
generators. (Date applied for, 24/5/07.) 

1 1.710 Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges. Plastic mass from tungsten com- 
pounds. (Date applied for, 3/8/07. Addition to 16,489/07.) 

12,411 MoziNGO. Electric railway system for collecting and delivering 
mail. (Date applied for,' 10/6/07.) 

12,420 Paulin & Fortune. Telemotor apparatus for ships' steering 

12,044 Girdlestone & Thobkelin. Arc lamp.-!. 

12,682 Allgemeine Elektricitats Ges. Arc lamps. (Date applied 
for. 15/7/07.) 

13,130 ScHULZE. Measuring instruments having an electromagnetic 
brake. (Date api)lied for. 29/2/08.) 

13,539 Haack. Mercury vapour lamp. 

13,661 Bloxam. (Siemens Schnckertwerke Ges.) Fittings for incan- 
descence electric lamps. 

14,259 Diaz & Azarola y Gbesillon. Preventing the theft of elec- 
trical energy. 

14,425 Graham. Telephonic systems. 

14,538 Berg. Turbo-electric generator systems. (Addition to No. 

14,5.54 Allman & Leeson. Electrical vulcanising apparatus. 

14,776 SCHWENKE. Electric projectile igniters. 

15,289 Hall. Magneto machines for use in connection with the igni- 
tion systems of internal combustion engines. 

15,376 Rains. Electrical water heaters. 

15,818 AiTKEN. Telephone cordless switchboards. 

1.5,819 AiTKEN. Telephone cordless switchboards. 

15,949 RoRKE & Rorke. Electric make- and- break devices. (Post- 
dated. 27/4/08.) 

16,090 Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges. Telephone installations. (Date 
applied for, 2/8/07.) 

16,849 Hall. Safety spark-gap devices for use in connection with the 
ignition systems of internal combustion engines. (D.ate applied 
for, 20/7/08.) 

16,910 SchattNkr & AmberTon. Prepayment electric meters. (Date 
applied for, 17/3/08.) 

17,114 London Electron Works C'o. & Kardos. Elevated tracks or 
run-ways and trolleys therefor. 

17,205 BradBURn. TcIe])onc apparatus. (Date applied for, 25/1/08.) 

17,410 LuNDBE.iG, Lunduebii & LuNDBERG. Electric switches. 

17,414 Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works & Kieffer. Ventilating rotors 
of dynaraoelectric machines. 

17,417 Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works. (Siemens-ScluicUertwerke 
Ges.) Commutators for electrical machinery. 



10.">")2 Henshaw & Swindells. Cnntrolliii}; tho tnillcy poles n£ elec- 
tric cars and the like. (Addition to No. 25,415/05.) 

ll.'<n SiEMENS-ScHWKERT Webke Ges. Continuoiis-ciurent ma- 
chines. (Dat« applied for. 27/7/07.) 

12,29tj EvERSHED & ViGNOLES & VioNOLES. Electrical resistances 
adapted to measure currents by the fall of potential method. 

14,080 Roth. Switch-holders for electric incandescent lamps. 

15.330 Weisse. Electric fuses. 

1C,7(>6 Siemens Bros. Dvnamo Works. (Siemens-Schuckertweike 
Ges.) Electro-magnetic clutches. 

16.797 Reksixg. Arc lamps. 

1«.848 Hall. Magneto machines. (Date applied for, 20/7/1008.) 

17,416 Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works. (Siemens Schuckertwerko 
Ges.) Cooling of the end windings of dynamo-electric ma- 

17.493 Wolhaupter. Insulated joints for railway rails and the like. 

17,509 Regina-Bogenlampenfabrik Ges. & Hanisch. Arc lamp. 

17,535 Allgemeine Elektbicitats Gcs. Arc lamps. (Date applied 
for, 21/8/07.) 

17,730 Kennedy. Alternating-current electric energy int^-grating 

17,809 Bergmann. Magneto-electric igniting device with asymmetric 
polar pieces. 

17,841 Page. (Telegraph Transmitting Instrument Co.) Keyboard 
telegraphic transmitters. 

17,934 Paljiborg. Telephone exchanges. (Date applied for, 3/9/07.) 

17,936 Reineke. Producing electric energy. 

18,216 S.P. (Suchostawer Patents) Synd. & Sayers. Surface con- 
tact system of electric traction. 

18,458 B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co., U.S.) Electric heating devices. 

18,461 B.T.-H. C«. (G.E. Co.. U.S.) Commutating poles for dynamo- 
electric machines. (Addition to No. 5.741/07.) 

18,713 S.P. (Suchostawer Patents) Synd. & Sayers. Electric trac- 
tion on the surface contact system. 

18,880 Stephens. Manufacture of magnetos. 

19,265 Marsh. Electric furnaces. (Date applied for, 19/9/07.) 

19,311 Siemens & Halske Akt.-Ges. Electric incandescence bodies 
of tungsten. (Date applied for, 26/9/07.) 

19,388 Ebner. Interrupt€r for electric ignition apparatus of explosion 

19,889 Siemens-Schuckertwekke CJes. Repulsion electric motors. 
(Date applied for, 28/9/07.) 

20,179 Seragnoli. Electro-pneumatic device. 

20,288 Robert Bosch. Terminal for magneto-electric ignition appa- 
ratus. (Date applied for, 15/11/07.) 

20,352 Hankin & Wolff. Resistances in electric circuits. 

20,601 Siemens Bros. & Co., & Ferrbira. Electrically-controlled rail- 
way signals. 

21,075 Kingsbury-. (Western Electric Co.) Switching apparatus for 
interconnecting the Imes of a telephone exchange system. (Date 
applied for. 3/1/08.) 

21,603 Allegemeine Elektricitats Ges. Devices for protecting trans- 
formers, cables and other electrical apparatus. (Date applied 
for, 29/4/07. Included in 9,237/08.) 

21,628 S.P. (Suchostawer Patents) Synd. & Savers. Electric trac- 
tion on the surface-contact system. 

21.741 Keller. Electric furnaces. 

22,516 MiEss. Incandescence vapour lamps. (Date applied for, 

25,029 Eisenstein. Wireless telegraph systems or the like. (Additions 
to No. 20,128/07.) 


Cuba Submarine Telegraph Co. 

The seventy-fifth ordinary general meeting was held on Wednesday, 
Mr. George Keith ]>residiug. 

The SECRETARY (Mr. James Scott) read the notice convening the 
meeting and the auditors" report. 

The CHAIR.MAN then said: Gentlemen, Mr., our Chairman, 
is unable to be present to-day. He is not well, and his doctor enjoins 
quiet. He has asked me to read his speech. " Gentlemen : — When we 
held our half-yearly n eeting last October I explained that the receipts for 
the six months from January to June had been adversely affected by the 
failure to a serious extent of the sugar crop in the island of Cuba.[and that 
ccmsequently they compared unfavourably with (hose of the |ircvious 
year. From past records we find that th<' second half of the year always 
shows smaller receipts than the tirst half. It was, therefore, to be ex- 
pected that our traffic receipts from July to December would be less than for the previous half-year ; and as you will sec from the comparative 
statement which is attached to the re))ort they amounted to £12,909. 
against £16.158 received from .Tanuary to June. They also compare badly 
with the previous year, for during .fuly to December,! 907, we received 
£1.5,715, or nearly £3,000 more thiin in the six months we are dealing with, 
and this falling off reflects to a largo extent the general bad state of trade 
throughout the West Indies. This year the sugar crop is much larger, the 
mills are working away at full swing, and the general trade of the island is 
in consequence much better, and we estimate that our earnings for the tirst 
three months of this year are fairly satisfactory. have only alluded to 

the sugar crop, as that is the most ijnporlant one in the island, but there 
is also the tobacco growing, which is of great value, csp<-cially in the 
western part of the island, and I am glad to say that the' latest advices 
encourage the expectation of a fairly good crop. The .American occu- 
pation of the island came to an end last .lanuary, and since then the new 
president has been in power : it is hoped that the present Government 
w'll fulfill the expectations which have been f<jrmed of it, and that a term 
of peace and prosperity is now being entered upon. Our cables have 
worked well, and there has been no difficulty in dealing with the traffic 
with which we have been entrusted. In regard to the present accounts, 
I will first call your attention to the revenue account ; our receipts are 
£12,909 from traffic, and from interest on investments, &o., £1,948, 
making together £14,857. The expenses are £6,02.5, thus leaving a 
balance of £8,832, which enables us to place £1,000 to reserve fund, pay 
the dividend on our preference shares, which amounts to £3,000, and to 
ask you to agree to a dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum on 
on our ordinary shares, thus maintaining the same rate as we have i)aid 
for the past three half-years. A contribution of only £1,000 to the 
reserve fund is not so large as we have been accustomed to ; but we 
recognise that our present reserve of £111,000 is a good, solid amount, 
and you Board felt that as we had made the 6 per cent, dividend we 
might fairly pay it. The details of our expenses are very similar to those 
of the corresponding half of 1907; the total then'was £6.177. or £152 more 
than this year. Our capital expenditure shows an increase of about 
£2,400, which is accounted for by our having bought the freehold house 
at Santiago, in which our office is situated ; it is a very suitable house, in 
the best position for our business, which we have rented for a good many 
years. N(jw our offices at Santiago and Cienfuegos are in our own houses, 
which may be regarded as a good investment. I regret that our claims 
against the American and Spanish Governments still remain unpaid, 
but I still have hopes that we may yet receive them." I now move the 
adoption of the report and accounts. 

Mr. R. K. GRAY seconded the motiolV, which was carried unanimously. 

Resolutions approving the dividends recommended by the directors 
and according a very hearty vote of thanks to the chairman, directors 
and staff brought the proceedings to a close. 

AKGLO ARGENTINE TEAMWAYS CO. (LTD.)— ifr. J. B. Concanon stated 
at the meeting last week that, in regard to the companies which they had 
absorbed, the Grand Naticmal andLa Capital Traction & Electric Com- 
panies' systems were being worked by the Anglo Company as from the 
1st inst. As regards the results they were likely to arrive at when the 
necessary junctions and additions to trrtHi w-ere constructed to allow of 
the entire combination being run systematically and economically as one 
complete whole, he thought they might safely rely upon the experience 
gained so far. as an indication of what they might look for in the future. 
Although they were working the Belgrano systems from July 1, 1907, 
the Buenos Ayres Electric and the Belga-Argentine systems from July 1, 
1908, they were only able to run new services in combmation with the 
.Anglo as from Oct. 1 last, and the result had been that for the quarter 
ended Dec. 31 the total combined receipts .showed an increase of 10-72 
])er cent., and the working expenses came down from 5709 per cent, to 
55-40 per cent., while for the months of January and February this year 
the net profit amounted to £95.249, an increase of £11,009, or 13 per 
cent., so that he thought it was reasonable to expect further large in- 
creases in net receipts when they were in a position to work new services 
over the Grand National and La Capital Traction Co.'s lines in com- 
bination with their present system, especially as those systems were far 
larger and more important than those of the Belgrano, Buenos Ayres 
Electric and Belga-Argentine. They anticipated that the results for 
the current year, although one of transition, would, after providing for 
all prior charges, leave a balance sufficient to pay a satisfactory dividend 
on the ordinary shares, while they look for a further substantial improve- 
ment in the net revenue in 1910 and subsequent years. 

BABCOCK & WILLCOX (LTD.— The net profit during the j-car 1908 was 
£301.614. 16s. 5d.. and. with £38.664. 3s. 4d. brought forward, the balance 
was £340,278. 19s. 9d. The interim dividends of 3 per cent, on the pre- 
ference and of 8 per cent, on the ordinary shares absorbed £69,400, and 
out of the balance (£270,878. 19i--. 9d.) the directoi-s recommen.l that the 
following dividends be paid for the half-year ended Dec. 31. 1908. viz.:— 
3 per cent, on the preference shares, less tax (£3.0tX)) and 8 per cent, on 
the ordinary shares, tax free (£66.400). and a bonus of 4 per cent, on the 
ordinary shares, tax free (£33.200). £100.000 is to be placetl to reserve 
and £25.000 to the dividend cipialisation fund, leavmg a balance to be 
carried forward of £43.278. 19s. 9d. Although, in common with all other 
engineering firms, the compnnv is atfcctcd by the general dei>ression in 
trade, the works are fairlv well occupied, and the works, buildmgs. 
machinery. &c.. have been "well maintained, and additions and nnpiovc- 
iiicuts ciiiricd mil. 

BATH ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS (LTD )- At the meeting last week Sir 
James Sivewright said that, like other tramway undertakings, 
their carnines for 1908 compared unfavourably with those for the pre- 
ceding vear. Probablv there was no business that was more affecte.l 
bv climatic causes than a tramway system, and in Bath the general 
trade depression had prevented people from spending inoney to the 
,-ame extent .as thev did in good times. The diminution in earnings 
had been largely compensated by the savings effect e<l in expenditure. 
The loss on theiV omnibuses had been reduced from £792 in HO* to 
£31 in 1908. The omnibuses were an indiicct source of revenue, for 
they brought passengers to tie tramways that they otherwise would 
not have. 



£2.130 liroiight foiwurd. tlic profit fur liH)8 was £1)1,220, and after jja^iiij; 
debenture interest, preference dividend and interim dividend of 2s. fid. 
per share on the urdinary .shares the available balance is £14,790, and the 
directors reeommend that a balance dividend of 3s. (id. per shai'e (ta.\ 
free) be paid on the ordinary shares (making a total dividend for the year 
of 6 jier cent.), and that £1,(370 be carried forward. 

BRITISH ALUMINIUM CO. (LTD.) — At a meeting of the debenture stock- 
holders last week it was decided to increase the nominal mortgage deben- 
ture stock from £1,000,000 to £1,100.000, and to create and issue £240,000 
5 per cent, redeemable mortgage debentures of the Loch Leven Water & 
Electric Power Co. Mr. G. A. Touche stated that owing to the enormous 
change which had come over the industry during the past 18 months it 
had been found necessary to jiress forward the completion of the Kin- 
loddevcn works and the manxifacture of aluminium was begun there last 
month. The cost would be £1,000,000. The scheme at Kinlochleven 
included the building of an electric railwiiy and a village for housing the 
employees. Tlic increase of output thereby assured would be of immense 
advantage to tlie comjiany. as the company would in future have to rely 
iipim the greatly imrcnsed sales for satisfactory results. 

CALCUTTA TRAMWAYS CO. (LTD.)— The receipts for 1908 were £16.5,547, 
and working expenses £10(),800, leaving a balance of £58,747. and after 
adding balance forward, &c., the disposable balance is £60,592. Interest 
on debenture stock, &c., and the dividends on preference and ordinary 
shares absorbed £41,498, leaving £19,094. The directors propose to pay 
a final dividend of 2s. per .share, making 4 per cent, for the year, to add 
£5.000 to dejireciation and to carry forward £333. 

CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.— The directors' report for 1908 
states that the ]irofit was S7.53.088. Depreciation, &c., and interest 
absorbed S242.720, and dividends paid (7 per cent.) amount to .S439,042, 
leaving 871,325, which, with the balance from 1907 made 8145,231 for 
carrying forward. Notwithstanding the continued industrial depres- 
sion, the company secured several important contracts, which, added to 
current business, will keep the company fairly busy during the year. 
During the past three months more orders were secured than during the 
previous six months, and a.s indications pointed to a material improve- 
ment in trade conditions the future is looked forward to with more con- 
fidence than at any time during the preceding year. 

HAVANA EtECTRIC RAILWAY CO.— The gross earnings in 1908 were 
S2,276,S07. an iu. r-.isf of si:!3.iis4 over 1907. After deducting expenses 
and Ij per ci rut. dividend un the jireferred and 1 per cent, dividend on the 
common stock, the balance was §200,967. The gross earnings per track 
mile were 838,448, against $36,217, and net earnings §19,168, against 
816,923. During the year a decree was issued by the Provisional 
Government K'viug authority to the company [to con.struct about 30 
miles iif ixtin-i'^ii^ nr new lines. 

INDO EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)— The directors, in their 
report for 1908, announce that they have been successful in obtaining 
an extension of the Persian Concession for 20 years from January, 1925. 
Tariff modifications decided upon at the International Telegraph Con- 
ference at Lisbon will not materially affect the Company's receipts. 
Direct Wheatstone working (without intermediate retransmission), 
hitherto in operation between London (Manchester and Liverpool) and 
Teheran, has been extended to Karachi by the co-operation of the Indo- 
European Telegraph Dcjiartment of the India Office, and is in daily use 
for telegrams exchanged with India and the Far East. The former 
retransmission at Teheran has thus been eliminated, with consequent 
gain to the telegraphing public in respect both of speed and of accuracy. 
Revenue from message account and other sources amounted to 
£132,837. 4s. 4d., compared with £136,579. 2s. 2d. for 1907, a decrease 
of £3,741. 17s. lOd. Expenses on commercial and general account were 
£49,926. 4s., and on maintenance account £25,807. lis. 8d., making 
£7.5.733. I.5.S. 8d., against £73,052. 19s. 8d., an increase of £2,680. 16s. 
The balance is £57,103. 8s. 8d., which is reduced to £.53,601. 4s. lid. 
by deduction of income-tax. Adding balance brought forward 
(£8,558. 7s. lOd.) and £549. 9s. profit on realisation of investments, the 
total is £62,709. l.s. 9d. The directors have set aside £5.(J00 to meet line 
repair contingencies. Deducting this sum and interim dividend (ilO.tiio) 
there remains £47,084. 1 s. 9d. The directors propose a dividend for the 
six months t« Dec. 31, 1908, of I7s. 6d. per share (making 6 per cent, for 
the year) and a bonus of 20s. jier share, both tax free, and to make a 
special distribution (tax free) to the shareholders of £12,750 (equivalent 
to 1.5s. per share) out of inteiest upon certain investments. They also 
propose to hand over to the trustees of the retirement trust fund a 
further sum of £5,000, carrying forward £10,209. Is. 9d. 

A shareholder (Mr. G. von Chauvin) has notified that he will at the 
forthcoming meeting move a resolution " That a special sum of £3,000 
be voted to the direet^irs in recognition of their past services to the com- 
pany, to be divided among them in such manner as they may deter- 

the tradiii^r for 1908 'iucludinj; £190. Is. IQd. brousht forward) is a 
profit of £11,391. 10s. 9d. After jiayinj; iiifcrest on debentures and 
loans (£5,097. 17.--. 7d.) and a dividei'iil on preference shares (£2,500) 
there remains £3,793. 1.3.s. 2d. The directors recommend that £2,500 
be placed to a renewal account and £1,000 to reserve, leavin<i 
£293. 13s. 2d. to be carried forward. At the end of the year the equiva- 
lent of 94,905 8 c.p. lamps was connected (against 89,300 in 1907)— at 
Ventnor and Bonchurch 21,074 (against 20,655), Sandown and Shanklin 
19,392 (18,479j, Newport and Cowes 34,435 (31,710), and Rvde and St. 
Helens 19 904 (18,456). 



BROWNE ENGINEERING CO. (LTD.) (102,382.)-Reg. April 5, capital 
£30,000 in £1 shares (5,000 preference), to adopt an agreement with 
11. J. .S. Mackay, W. J. W. Bullock and H. A. Harvey, and to carry on 
the business of electrical engineers, electricians, suppliers of electricity, 
*c. Private companj-. First directors aie H. J. S. Mackay, Vv'. J. W. 
Bullock, H. A. Harvey and J. A. Smeeton. 

POWER ENGINEERS (LTD.) (102,302)— Reg. March 30, capital £2,000 
in £1 shares, to carry on the business of electrical, mechanical and 
civil engineers, manufacturers of and dealers in electrical and other 
machinery and appliances, &c. Private companj-. First direc- 
tors, W. B. Esson and R. B. Matthews. Reg. office, Bank-buildings, 
Kingsway, London, W.C. 

SIR JOHN JACKSON (SOUTH AMERICA) LTD.) (102,452)— Reg. April 7, 
capital £100,000 in £100 shares, to furry on the business of contractors 
for public works, iucludini;' railways, tramways, docks, electric light, 
telegraphic and telephonic works, &c., in South America. Private 


Return to March 3 gives capital as £150,000 in £1 shares, all of which 
have lieen taken up. £1 per share has been called up on 68,402, 15s. 
per share on 16,598 and 5s. per share on 65,000 and £97,100. 10s. has 
been received. Mortgages and charges, nil. 


J. DEFRIES & SONS ^LTD.)- Charge on a book debt due from the 
Midland Railway Co., dated March 13, 1909, to secure £174. 17s. Id. 
Holders, Messrs. Gedge & Feeny. 

GRATZE LIMITED. — Particulars of £2,500 debentures, created 
Mai'ch 19, 1909, filed pursuant to sec. 10 (3) of the Companies Act, 
1907, the whole amount being now issued. Property ch.irged, com- 
pan}''s rnidertaking .and property, present and future. No (irustees. 


TION (821F)— Particulars filed March 30. Capital *50,000 in shares of 
SIOO. Reg. in U.S.A. on March 7. 1898. British address : 13, South- 
ampton-street, Holborn, W.C, where Mr. .J. Wetzler is authorised 
to accept service. 


HEUORANDA (April 15). — Bank rate 2i per cent, (since April 1, 
1909). Price of silver, 23, "5 d. per oz. Consols 85^ — 85J for money and 
account. Consols Pay Day, May 5 ; Stock and Shares Continuation 
Day, Ajird 27; Ticket Day, April 28; Pay Days, April 16 and 29. 
Mining Shares Carry Over Daj-, April 26. 

Prices of Metals (London). — Copper, cash, 57i; three months 58J. 
Lead, English, 13§ — 13; ; foreign, cash, 13rV ; three months, 
13g. Spelter, cash, 21i-2U; two months, 21^— 21g. Tin, English, 
133j— 135i ; foreign, cash, 133J — 133i, three months, 134 — 134J. Iron, 
Cleveland, c;ish, 47/6J, and three months, 48/2. Magnet Stetl (price 
supplied by W. F. Dennis & Co.), £55. 

EVERED & CO. (LTD.)— The accounts for 1908 show a loss of £6,081, 
against a lo9s of £4,074 for 1907. From this has been deducted the 
credit balance of £3,071 brought forward, leaving a debit balance of 

FLEMING, BIRKBY & GOODALL (LTD.)— At the recent meeting a divi- 
dend of 9 per cent, on the ordinary shares was declared, £9,589 being 
carried forward. 

MEXICO TRAMWAYS CO.— A dividend of 1} per cent, for the quarter 

ended 31st ult. has been declared. 

STOCK EXCHANGE NOTICES.— The Stock Exchange committee have 
been asked to ap]ioint s]ie<ial settling days in and grant quotations to 
scrip, fully paid, for £1.2.'>ll,(lllll (i jii-r cent. 50 year mortgage bonds of 
the Mexico Truminiii-i Ci). and iT.-i.dUO 4 J per cent. £100 ])rior lien gold 
bonds (registered) of the Montreal Water tfc Power Co., and .also to griint 
quotations to £357,100 4J per cent, prior lien gold bonds (registered) (in 
lieu of 4 per cent, bonds now quoted) of the latter erunpany ; a further 
issue of 1,240 £10 fully paid (i jier cent, cumulative )ireference shares of 
the Conntii 0/ London L'cctrir Stipphj Co. (Llil.) : 35,704 ,^£10 fully paid 
4 per cent, guaranteed preference shares (in lieu of ordinary shares now 
quoted) of the (It. Northrrn, Piccadilh/ d- Brompton Railway Co. and 
IS.-,((,(KMI.OOO additional 4 per cent. ,SI,000 convertible bonds of the 
American 2\tephone it Telerjraph Co. 

TELEPHONE COMPANY OF EGYPT (LTD.) -The directors recommend 
.1 di\ idciid ot 4 per cent. (4s. ])er sli.ire), less tax, on both the preferred 
and deferred shares for the past half-year, making 10 per cent, for the 
year, placing £500 to reserve for contemplated pension scheme, and 
carrying £25,782 forward. 

THE niEOTBICULN, APRIL l<i. 1909. 


Aberdeen OorpoxfttlOD ■ 


Anglo- Argentine 

Ayr Corporation 

Baker St. & Waterloo By.... 


Barrow l" 

Bath Eleotrlo Trama, Ltd.. 
Birkenhead Corporation ,. 
Bixmingham Corporation., 

Birmingham & Mid 

Blackburn Corporation 

Blackpool and Fleetwood.. 
Bolton Corporation 

Bournemouth Corporation.. 

Bradlord Corporation 

Brighton Corporation 

Bristol Trama & Carriage... 

Burnley Corporation 

Barton Corporation 

Bury Corporation 

Calcutta Tramways Oo 

Camborne -Bedrutb 

Cardiff Corporation 


Central London Railway ... 

Charing C.,EuBton & H'stead 

Chatham & Dist. Lt. Bys.... 

City & South London Rly... 

City of Birmingham 

Colchester Corporation 

Cork Electric Trama Oo. ... 

Croydon Corporation 

Devonport & Dist. Trams... 

Dover Corporation 

Dublin & Luoan Railway... 

Dublin United 


Dundee Corporation 

East Ham Council 

Exeter Corporation 

Qateshead & Dist. Trams... 

Glasgow Corporation 

Glossop Tramt? 

Graveaend — Northfleot 

Great Northern & City Bly.. 

Gt. Northern, Piccadilly, &o. 

Greenock & Port Glasgow... 

Hartlepool Tramways 

Hastings Eleo. Trama Co.... 

Hong Kong 

UuddersSeld Corpn. 

Hull Corporation 

nford District Council 

Ilkeston District CoonoU ... 

Ipswich Corporation 

Isle of Thanet Co 


Eeighley Corporation 

EidderminBter & District... 

Kilmarnock Corporation ... 

Lanarkshire Trams Co. ... 

Lancashire United 


Leeds Corporation 

Leicester Corporation 

Leith Corporation 

Lincoln Corporation 

Liverpool Corporation 

Liverpool Overhead Rly. .. 
f uondon County Council .. 

London United^ 


Maidstone Corporation 

MEinchester Corporation .. 

Mersey Railway 


Metropolitan Dist. Railway 

Metropolitan Eleo. Trams... 


Nelson Corporation 

Newoaatle-on-Tyne Corp. ... 

Newport (Mon.) 

Northampton Corporation. 

Oldham, Ashton & Hyde ... 

. Oldham Corporation 

i Perth (N.B.)Corporation ... 
, Perth(\V.A.)Elec. Trams... 
: Peterborough 

Portsmouth Corporation ... 


I Preston Corporation 

Rotberham Corporation ... 
i Rothesay 

Salford Corporation 


Sheffield Corporation 

Singapore Trams 

South Metropolitan 

South Staffs 

Southend Corporation 

Southport Tramways 

' Stalyb'db'c.IIydeA'C.Jt.Bd. 
Sunderland Corporation ... 

Sunderland Diatrlot 

Swansea Trams 

Swir, on Corporation 

Tynemouth and District , 

Tyneaide Trams Co- 

Wallasey District Coundl 

Walsall Corpn 

Warrington Corpn. ....... 

West Ham Corporation... 


Wo'verhampton Co 

' Wolverhampton Corpn... 

Mar. 11 
April 7 







or Deo. 



Worcester . 

Wreiham ',',",' 

Torkehire W.R. Trama !!'..!. 
Yorkshire Woollen District. 

weeks. Amount 






















































760 505 
















6 670 



10.22 J 












£ Dm- 

g Dwro 

101 7,0 

lol 4/« 
10 6/0 

St. ax 

b 2/0 

St. HX 

6 6,6 

6' 3/6 

St. 4% 

6 2/6 

6: 2/8 

8t. *% 


6i 2/S 

6 2/6 

St. 4J% 

10 7/0 

10 6/0 

St. 6% 

St.! 4i% 

6 1 iX 

6' 6% 

10 60 

10 6'0 

St. 1 m 
St.' 44% 

6 36 
6 26 

St. 4J% 
6, 4,t; 
6 4/0 
6 6% 
t.' 4% 

St.! *X 

St.' 4J% 

3 1/!'S 

6, 3/0 

St. I 4% 

6! 3,<i 

61 2/3 

St. m 

St. 1 3}% 
100 4J;; 
100 41% 

6 SK 

6 6% 
100. 4% 
100' .. 

1 3% 
100 4i% 
10 8-0 

6 46 
St. 4% 

6 6/0 

6 3 '6 
St. 3i% 

6. -• 
St.! ix 

6 4/0 

St. ax 

61 2/6 

6 26 

St.' 4i% 

6 6/0 

6 2/3 




AprU 14. 

'2!P- Dot. 


'Bonmemonth ft Poole Eleo. 8np. Ord... 

Do. 4i per Cent. Cam. Pref. 

Do. 8 per Cent. Cum. Second Pref. ... 

Do. 4i per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) ... 
Bromley (Kent) El. Lt. Si Power Sharei 

Do. Do. 1st Debs. 

Rrompton ft Keneincfton Eleo. .Sup. Ord, 

Du.- 7 per Cent. Pref. 

Cent 1 Eleo. Sup. Co.4 X On«r.Db.8took 

Do. 4J per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 4per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) 

Do, 4i per Cent, Deb, Stick (red.) .. 

' Do. City Undertaking 4i% Cm. Prel. 

Chelsea Electric Supply Ord. 





10 6/0 

10! .. 

10! 4/0 

St.' */, 

61 3/0 

St. ikX 

10 ea 
10 e/. 

St.! UK 

61 113 
St. iX 
10 1 6/U 






















8 X 




3 X 


3 X 

T)kj. 4i per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) 
tCity of London Electric Lighting Ord... 
tOo. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) 

Do. 44 per Cent. 2od Dob. Stock (rod.) 
CountyofDurhamElec. P.D. Ord 

Do. 5 per Cent, non Cum. Pref. 

t County of London Eleo. Supply Ord 

t Do. 6 per Cent. Com. Pref. 

Do. 4J% Deb. Stock (red.) 

Do. Second Deb. Stock 

I Folkestone Electricity Supply Co. Ord 
t Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Prof. 

Do. 44 Ist Deb. Stock (red) 

tHove Electric Lighting Ord 

KensinRton 4 Kniehtsbridge Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Ist Pref 

Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) 

t Kenaingtn. ft Kugtbg. Co, & Notting Hill 
Co. (Joint Station) 4% Deb. Stock (red.) 

Kent Eleo. Power Co 

London Electric Supply Ord , 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cent. 1st Mort. Deb 

Metropolitan Electric Sap. Ord 

Do. 44 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do, 4* per Cent. Deb. Stockist Mort, 

Do. slperCent. Mrt. Dab. Slook(red,) 
Midland Elec.Corp.for P. D.ldtMort.Db, 
Newcastle & Dist. Elec. Ltg. Ord 

Do. 44 perCeat. Dab 

Newcastle Elec. Supply Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent, non Cum. Pref. 

Dd. 4 per Cent. Mort. Djb. red. 1907. 
Norlh Metro. E'eo.Fowor Sup. SMorts 
Northern Counties fileo. Bup 

Do. 4k percent. Djb 

Nottins'HiU Electric Ord ., 

Oxford Electric Ord 

Do. 4 per Cent. Dab. Btook 

St. James' & Pall Mall Eleo. Ori 

Do. 7 per Cjnt. Pref, 

Do. 84 per Csnt. Dab. Stock (red.) .., 
Smithfleld Markets Electric Sap. Ord.., 

Do. 4 per Cent. Djb. Stock , 

tSouth London Electric Supply Ord 

South Mctrop'n Eleo. Lt. & Power Ord, 

Do. 7 per (5ent. Cam. Pref 

(Do, 44 Ist Db. Stk. R?lI 

lUrban Electric Supply Ord 

t Do. 6 per Cent. Cam. Pref. 

) Do. H per Cent. 1st Mort. Djb 

Westminster Elec. Sup. Ord 

Do. 44 per Ceut. Cam. Pref. 


Uaker ht « Waterloo 4^ Perp. l)b. 8t 
Bath Elec. Trams Pref. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

t Do. 44 1st Mort. D->1>. Stock (red.) ... 
B'hanl A Midland Trami 4) 1st Db.Stk. 
Bristol Tramways & Carriage Ord 

Do. Cum. Pref. (fully paid) 

Do. 4jier Cent. Debi 

British Electric Traction Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cam. Pref. 

t Do. 6 per Cent. Perpetual Dabs 

Do. 44 per Cent. 2nii Deb. Stock 

Central London Ordinary Stock , 

Di. 4 per Cent. Pref. Stock 

Deferred Stock 


r Cent. Debs. 


n -loj 

101 —105 


05 —98 
8 -SJ 

09 -1U2 

33 —98 

98 — lO'l 
81 -4J 

102 -1U5 

lOi -10; 
11-; -i-'4 

121 -123 

101 -101 

1 —2 


81 -Si 


106 — U9 

lol —104 



95 —98 


71 -71 


03 —96 

97 -IC'i 

85 —39 
5 —54 

92 -96 

a -6J 


10 J —109 

86 -35 
Oj —93 

88 -93 

City of Birmingham Trams. 6%Cm.Pref. 

Do. 4 per Ceut. Ist Mort. Dobs 

City ft South London Ely. Con. Ord. ... 

Do. 6 per Cent. Perp. Pref. (1891) ... 

Do. (189C) 

Do. (1901) 

Do. (1903) 1 

Do. 4 per Cent, Perpetual Dabs j 

Dublin United Trams. Ord I 

Da. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Ot.Norlliern& City Rly. Pref. Ord. (4%) I 

0. Northern, Piccadilly & Brompton Ord.i 
Do. 4 per Cent. Udb. Stock '1 2.-ooiio.of»TJ.| 

tDo. 44 Ub. St 

Imperial Tramways Ord 

JDo. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

IDo. 44 per Cent. Debs 

1. of Thauet B. T. ft Lt. 6 per Coat. Pref. 
Do. 4perC3ut. Uob. Stock 

Lanarkshire Tramways ;•• 

Lanes. Utd. Trams 6 4 Prior Lien Do. St. 
Liverpool Overhead Railway Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref 

Do. 4 percent. Deb. ... ......■■■■. 

London United Trams, r,/. Cum Pref. ... 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ist Mort. Deb. Stock 
Mersey Con. Ord. Stock 

Do. 8 per Ceut. Perp. Pref. ........ 

Metropolitan Eleo. Tramwaya Ord, 

Do. Deferred •■■ 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 44 per Cent. Deb. Stock .. 

Metropob'an Railway Consolidated . 

Do, Surplus Lauds Stocks 

Do. 84 per Cent. Preference 

Do. 84 per Ceut. " A " Preference . 
Do, 84 per Cent. Conveitable Pref. . 
Do 84 per Cent. Debenture Stock . 

6 13 4 
6 17 19 
5 U 

4 6 6 

6 :o 

4 11 

4 12 

5 11 

6 16 

4 U 6 

4 3 6 

4 2 

3 19 

4 12 

3 18 

Mu, Sept, 
Feb, Aag 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, Jaly 
April, Oet 
May, Not 
March. . .. 
Mar, Beot 
Jane, Dee 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aag 
Jan. JnlT 

Jan, July 
March . . 
Jane, Dee 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 
June, Deo 
Jan, July 
April, Oct 
April, Oct 
Feb, Aag 
Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 
May, Not 
April, Oct 
Mar, Sept 
Feb, .\ug 
April, Oct 
Feb, Aag 
Jan, Jaly 


8 Days to 

Al-BIL 14. 
eat. ' ad. 

91 —96 4 4 

94 -97 4 2 6 

61 —70 




7f< -82 


a _3 



2J -:'g 
81 — 8j 
6t —73 
65 -67 
8i -65 
49 —51 
102 —101 
9.' -91 
41 -4J 
99 —103 
31 -32 
110 -112 
10) —10) 
1m! _1J5 
93 — 9i 
100 -102 


93 -94 

2 —3 
7S -33 

7 — S 

8i -8 J 

61 -59 

H -10 
91 -3) 
1 -liV 

4} -.-.J 
8i -I 

3 -I 

1 —2 

a —3 

Vi —Jl 
iS -37 
69 -71 
87 —33 

73 —SO 
76 —77 
92 —91 

6 13 
4 18 
4 H 6 

4 14 

1 IS 
3 16 


10;; lu« 
»2t 1 l»» 

loj 1 loi 
1071 , .: 

April, Oct 
Jan, July 
Mar, Sept 
Mar, Bepl 
Jan, July 
AprU, Oct 
Jan, July 
Jane, Dec 1 
Jan, July 
June, Deo 
Feb, Aag 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aag 
Feb, Aag 
Jan, July 

Jan, Jaly 
March .. 
March .. 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aag 
Feb, Aug 

i Jan, July 
Feb .... 

I Feb, Aag 


Feb, Aag •; 
April, Ojt 10 '4 

April, Ojt i • • 

April, Oct " 

April, Oat •• 

Mar, Sept ?? 

Jan, Jttfy , H 

Jan, Jaty 1 
AprU.... I 
J.»u,Jaly 1 
April, Ost : 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aag I 



Jane, D30 i 

Feb, Aug 24 

April, Oct 83 

May, Not 

Feb, Aag 67 

Feb, Aug 85 

Feb.... _ 

Jan, July 1031 

Jan, July V3i 93i 

April, O't 

April, Oct 

Feb, Aug 3L 291 

Feb, Aug — I .. 

Feb, Aug - 

Feb, Aug . • I M 

Feb, Aug 91 ., 

May, Not ..I .. 


Feb, Aag .. .. 

Feb, Aug .. _ 

Feb, Aug .. .. 

Jan, July . 934 •■} 

.M»r, Sept 

April, Ojt 

Msr, Sept 

Mar, Sspt 

Jan, July 

Mar, S3pt 

Jaa, J uly 

Feb, Aug 

Jan, July 

Feb, Aug 

Fob. Aag 

Jan, July 

Jan, July I 

Jan, J uly 

Feb, Aug. I 

April.. . 
Feb, Aug 
Jaa, July 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aag 
Jaa, July 


THK ELECTRICIAN, APBtl. 16, 1908. 


g Last 
= DITI- 
to DEND 


Price I 

Wed.. 1 

i» prill*. 

VIKIJ). "'J,™"'" 8 Days 
■""• 1 Armi 


April 14. 

8 Days io 
April U. 

St- SJ% 
St. .. 
St I .. 



Met. Rly. SJ per Cent. " A ■ Dfh. Stock i 90 —92 

M -.'ropolitan Distriot KaUwav Ord ' HJ— 15 

Do. E-Ttension Pref. (6 per Cent.) I S" — 33 

Do.. Assented Pref. (Int. GuBr. by 

Und. Elec. liWs. Co. of London, IAA'.)\ 63 -66 
Do. 3 per Cent.'Consoltd. Bent-chargel 77—79 
Do. 4 per Cent. Midland Bent-eharge' Iwa —106 

Do. Gnar. Stock 4 per Cent fl-Sl 

Do. 6 per Cent. Perp. Deb. Stock ' 136 —lis 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ditto - 69-12 

New Gen. Tract. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Potteriea Electric Traction Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4i per Cent. Deh. Stock 

s. Met. Elec. Trams. 4 Ltg. 6% Cm. Pref. 
Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Sonderland Diat. Eleo.TrmB.65fl«tMt.Db. 

UndergdE.Eys.Lon.S" In.bds.witli 
Do. 5^ Prior Lien Bonds 

Do. 4*1; Kondswith coup. 2 .. ' 

Yorkehire (W.B.) Elec. Trama. Ord. ..." 
Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. . 
Do. 4 J per Cent. 1 at Debs " 


Aron ElectncttT Meter Ord 

Do. 6%Cnm. Pf. „ 

Babcock & Wilcox Ord 

Do. Pref 

British Insulated A Helsby Cables Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Do. H per Cent. 1st Mort. Deb. (red.) 
British Thoms'n-Houst'n i^X 1st Mt.Db. 
Britifh Westinghonse 6 per Cent. Pref... 

Do. 6 per Cent. Prior lien Dbs (rd.) 

Do. 4 per Cent. Mort. Deb. Stockl 

BiushE.En(;.Co.4i",,Perp. IstDeb.Stock 

Do. Perpetual 2nd Deb. Stock .... 
Callender's Cable Con. Ord '. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4J per Cent. Ist Mort Deba. (red. 
Caatner.Kellner Alkali Co 

Do. 4i per Cent, lat Mort. Deb. (red.) 
u,: Chadburn's (Ship) Telegraph Ord. ... 
0/7J t Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

*x • 

BO . 



solidated Electrical Co. 

1 J/o" I Consolidated Signal Co \.. 

1 (I/7J ' Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

3 3/U j 'Cronipton & Co. (Nos. 1 to 86,000) .'....". 

100 bX I Do. 6 per Cent, let Mort. Debs. (red.). 

1' 0/7S tDaris 4 Tinmiina 

5 2/0 Dick, Kerr ct Co. Ord .'".■... 

6 0/7J t Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Bt. 4JX ' Do. 4} per Cent. Deb. Stock 

6 1/6 I Ediaon JiSwanUniled("A"8h.)(£3Dd.) 

6 2/6 Do. (jE6p8id) 

St. 4% I Do. 4 per Cent. Mort. Deb. Stock (rd. 

bt. 6% t Do. eberCent. 2nd Deb. Stock 

t .. EdmoDdaon'a Elec. Corp. Ord. 

6 .. I Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Bt. 4J% i Do. 4}percent. 1st Mort. Deb. (red.) 

2 .. 1 Electric Constraotion Co 

2 2/9; D?. 7 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

St. 'X Do. 4 per Cent. Perp. Ist Mort. Debs. 

10 6/0 General Electric (1900) 6% Cum. Pref... . 

St. 45; t Do. 4 per Cent, let Mort. Deba 

5 lu/3 . IlenlcT's Telegraph Works Ord. 

6 2/3 Do 4i per Cent. Pref. 

Bt *hX Uo. 4 j per Cent. Ist Mort. Deb. Stock 

in 16/0 . India Eubber, Gut. Per,, 4c.,WrkB. ... 


, Pnf. 

102 -103 

f4 -S6 



64 —68 




6 -fi 

104 — 1U7 

91 —96 


H -13 
ua— 107 




i 4 19 

9 12 

6 3 


6 19 

4 17 

6 4 


I - 

5 2 

6 13* 


4 14 


3 16 



4 14 

4 4 


i 13 


6 6 


9 4 


7 7 


11 16 


6 13 


4 7 


4 4 


7 7 


Jan, July I 91 J 
Feb, Aug 16 
Feb, Aug 

Feb, Ang _ . ■ 
Jan, .Tuly 7^^ 
Jan, July 108 
Mar, Sept *»3 
Jan, July 13HJ 
Jan, July i 8<g 
May .... ! •• 
April, Oct . . 
Feb, Ang | . . 
May, Nov ; 
Fob, Ang 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
•Tone, Deo 35 J 

Jul, July 

1^— 1| 

95 —98 

],■'., -Ij'.. 

lOi'— 104 


16 -78 

E4 —87 

69 -62 

1 -IJ 

eo —64 

63 -87 

6 -6i 
106 —108 
15 —16 


98 —100 

83 —86 


6 —51 

32 —34 

1(0 —102 


ICti —109 
1C4 —1(6 
104 —106 
106 -1(8 

100 -102 
14 -14j 
86i— tfj 
- 8J 

4 10 
4 2 

. Do. 4 per Cent. Debs, (red.) 

National Elec. Construction Co 

Kichardsons, Westgarth & Co., Ltd. Ord, 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

To. 4j per Cent. Perp. Deb. Stock ... 

Simplex (Jonduits Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Telegraph Consti uction 4 Maintenance 
L;.. 4 per Cent Deh. Bonds (1909) ... 

tVKKers, Sons 4 Maxim, Ltd., Ord I 

t Do. 6 per Cent. non. Cum. Preference! 

f Do. 6 per Cent, non -Cum. Preferred 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ist Mort. Db.Sk.(red) 

Do. 4J per Cent. 2nd Mort. Deb. (red.) 

Do. 6 per Cent. Srd Mort. Debs Bcrip. 

J. G.White 4 Co. 6% Cm. Pref. 

Willacs i Kobinson Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do 4 per Cent. Ist Mort. Deb 


I Amazon Telegraph 

Do. 6 per Cent. Debs, (red ) 


Do. Preferred 

Do. Deferred 

ICommercial Cable 4 per Cent. Deb.Stk. 

Cnba Submarine Ord 

Do. Preference 10 per Cent ' yj* ly 

I Direct Spanish Ord 3 _3i 

* Do. 10 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 81— ">1 

Do. 4J per Cent. Deb lOO;;— 10-i"/ 

t Direct Dnitei States Cable l?i— 123 

Direct West India Cable 4J JJ Eg. Db. (rd. ) 1 00—10-' 

Eaetem Ordinary |o(/i_]3oi 

' Do. 3J per Cent. Pref. Stock fcj — 67"' 

Do. J j)cr Cent. Mort. Deb. Btk. (red.)! 101 — lOB 

' ' ■ ■ 111-128 

(0 -102 

Eastern Extension 

Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Eastern i S.Af. iX Mauritius Sub.Debs. 

O.N. (oi Copenhagen), with Coupon 75 . V9 — ai IstMt. Db^red.) PO —10" 

UacksT Companies Common .. 

Do. JPrcIorence 

Marconi a Wireless Teleg. Co _ 

Pacific 4 Europcn Tel.4»Oo»r.Db».'(redi)i lOo'— 102 

-'"• "---^ - 11-1, 

■>2 -n 
71 —78 


West Coaotol An 
Do. 4 per tent. Deliy. 

e/D 1 

t India ii Panama 
Do. 6 per Cent, lat Pref 

Do. 6% 2nd l-ref 

6 per Cent. Debs, 

ICO —102 

100 —102 

6 6 
6 13 

3 18 
2 16 

4 10 
6 17 
e 11 
. 16 
6 8 
4 H 
6 15 
4 8 
6 6 
8 16 
6 11 

8/0 IWesteni leleuraph '" 1? Zm 

i'/. Do. 4 per Ctnt. Deb Stock (red.) .".",(,; _Jo5 

4% Western l-nionTel,.t.h.;.J niifii-/ M.,„j; '"^ i"" 

April, Oct 
April, Oct 

Jnlyi Feb 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Mar, Sept 
Feb, Aug 

Jan, Jnly 
Mar, Sent 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
Not, May 
May, Not 
Feb. Aug 
March . . 
April, Oct 
August ... 
April, Oct 
April, Oct 
Jan, July 
Jan, Jnly 
Mar, Sept 



Jan, July 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Ang 
June, Dec 
Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 
May, Not 
Jan, July 
Jan, Jnly 
July .... 
Jan, Jnly 
June, Deo 
Mar, Bept 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Ang 
Mar, Sept 
Feb, Ang 

April, Oct 


Not .... 
May, Nov 
Jan, Jnly 

Mar, Jnly 
Jan, July 

June, Deo 
June, Dec 

Apr, Oct 
Apr, Oct 
May, Not 

June, Dec 
June, Dec 
6 F,My,Ag,N L5 
K,My,Ag,N Inl} 
I F,My,Ag,N " 
8 Jn,Ap,Jy,0 
Feb, Aug 
I Feb, Ang 
April, Oct 
' April, Oct 
I Jan, Jnly 
3 !ja,Ap,Jy,0 
II June, Dec 
II Ja,.My,JjO 
6 I .la.My.JyO 
6 , May, Nov 
6 Ja,Ap,Jy,Oi 12,' 
\ Feb, Aug I .. 
u I May, Not i .. 
U I Jan, July I £0,' 
! June, Dec ' .. 
tl I May, Nov ; (4 
Ja,Ap,Jy,ui « 
e Ja,Ap,Jy,0 
I April.... 

J uue, Ueo 

May .... 

Jan, July 

May, Nor 

May, Nov 

May, Ho'^ 

Jan, July 



1 Mr,Jn,0,D 
6 June, Deo 

H .. 

li I .. 

IJ.i ! 18,-i 

10-j 'lOlJ 




1' 0/6 





1 0/7 J 



timer. Telephn. & Telegh. Cap. St 

Do. CoU. Trust 81,000 4 per Cent. Bda 
! AngloPortue'ae Teh b% 1st Mt.Db. Stk. 

Chili Telephone 

Monte Video Telephone Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

National Co. Pref. Stock 

Do. Def. Stock 

Do. 6 per Cent. Ci 
Do. 6 per Cent. C 
Do. 6 per Cent. n< 
Deb. Stock 3J 

n. 1st Pref. 

n. 2nd Pref.- 

-Cum. 3rd Pref. . 
Cent, (red.) . 

Do 4 per Cei t. Dob. Stock (red.) 



- 8/0 
10 6/0 

8t. 4i% 

t, 3/3 

100 :^13 

lOo, *J4 
100: by, 

600; 5% 

St. 6% 
St.' 6% 

10s 0/3 

ll 0/7S 

Bt. 6% 

St. $li 

600I by. 

100; »!' 

1' 1/2! 

1' l|2i! 

St.i b% 

b\ 3/0 

lOU' «1 

••] 6% 

St. 4J5; 

6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Bed. Deb. Stock 
Telephone Co. of Egypt 4Jj;Db.Stk.(red.) 
United River Plate 

Do. 6per Cent. Cum. Prof. 

Do. 4J Deb. St. Ked 


Eleo. k Gen, Investment 6% Cum, Pref. 

IGlobe Telegraph & Trust 

t Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Submarine Cables Trust (Cert.) 


Anglo-Argentine 6% Cum. let Pref. ... . 

Do. lOX Non-cum. 2nd Pref. 

Do. iX Deb. Slock 

Auckland Elec. Trams. 6% Deb. (red.).. 

Brisbane Electric Trams. Invest. Ord..., 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref, 

Do. 4) per Cent. Db. Prov. Certs 

British Columbia El.Ky.Df. Ord 

Do. Pref. Ord. Stock 

Do. 6% Cum. Perp. Pref. Stock 

Do. 4i per Cent. Ist Mort. Debs 

Do. V ancouTer Power Deba 

Do. 4i% Perp Con. Deb. St 

Buenos Ayres Lacroze Trama Ist Mt. Db, 
Buenos Ayres Port 4 City Tram. 1st Mt, 

Deb. Stock 

Calcutta Tramways (1 to 137,610) 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4j% Ist Deb. Stock (red.) 

Cape ElectricTram Shares 

Ci t) ol Buenos Ayres Trams Co. ( 1904)Sh, 

Dl, 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Colombo I'r. & Ltg. 6% Ist Mt. Db 

Electric Traction Co. of Hong Koug 6 

per Cent. 1st Mort. Debs 

flaTana Elec. Ey. Con. Mt. 6% $1,000 60 

year Coup. Bds , 

Kalgoorlie Elec. Trams Sh 

Do, 6 per Cent. '* A " Deb. Stock 

Do. 6 per Cent. "B" Ditto 

Lisbon Elec. Trams. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. E per Cent. Keg. Mort. Deba 

Madras Elec. Trams. 6% Deb. Stk 

Mania Elec. By. «1,U00 Gold Bonds 

MexU'o'lrains Uo. Com. St 

Do. Gen. Con. lat Mort. 5% Gold Bda.... 
Montreal St. Ky. Sterling 4i per Gent, 

Debs. (1922) (Nos. 601 to 2,000) 

Do. do. (Nos. 1 to 4,0U01 

Perth Elec. TiumaOrd 

Do. iBt Mt. Db. Stock 

BangooD Elec. Trams 4 Supply Co, 6% 

. Pf. , 

Do. 4J/; 1st Mort. Ueb. Stk , 

R o Janeilo Tram, Ll, & P. Cj 

to. 3 I jr. Gold Buds , 

♦ To. lUyr.Mt.Buds 

TShu Puulo Tramway, Light 4 i'ower Co, 

$100 Stock 

Do. 6 per Cent. Ist Mt. $600 Db 

Toronto Hy Co. lat Mt. 4J4 Ster. Bonds 


Adelaide Elec. B'ply Co. 6% Ca. Pr 


Do. 4iper Cent. Deb. Stk. (red.) 

Calcutta Elec. Supply Ord 

(Canadian Gen. tlec. Co. Com. Ht 

t ll". ;% I'm. PI. Sl.ick 

Castner Elect roly tic Alkali Co.(of U.S. A.) 

Ist Mort. Sll. Debs 

Elect. Development Co of Ontario ...^ 
Elec. Ltg. & Trac. Co. of Aust. 6 per 

Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Deb Slock 

Elec. Supply Co. of Victoria 6 per (Jent. 

Ist Mort. Deb. St 

Indian Elec. Sup. & Trao.Co 

Kalgoorlie Elec. I'ovfer 4 Ltg. Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Madras E. S. Corp. 6 per Cent. ConstD. 

Deb. St 

Mexican Elec. Light Co. ix lat Mort 

Gold touda 

Mexican Lt. 4 I'ower Co. Com. St. ... 

Do. 6>S l>t Mort. Gold Ends 

Montreal Lt. Ut. Si Power Co. Cap. St.... 

Kiver Plate Electricity Co. Ord 

Do, 6 per Cent. non-Cum. I'ref 

Do. 6 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

tKoaallo Elec. Co. 0% Pref. (1-20.000) 

bhawuuguu Water «» I'ower Co. Ca 

Do. bperCent.Bds , 

Uo. 4iPer. Con. Mt. Db, SI 

139,5 -14( J 
98 —1011 
98 —100 

121 —123 

101-1 li 


93 —100 
loo -102 

'l'«— li'a 


83 —90 

lull —102 



103 —105 



9j— 10 
9u -91 

XUi -115J 
li6 — ilT 

97 —102 

73 —82 

8 ,1-8 4°; 

I3',— 1.1'. 

Ijl — H.4 

lOb — los 

97 — »9 

5 9 
4 16 
4 9 

6 IS 9 
6 7 6 

6 8 6 

5 10 6 

7 16' 

6 2 

Jan, Jnly 
Mar, Sept 
August . . 
Not .... 
May, Nov 
Feb, Ang 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
June, Deo 
Jan, July 
April, Oct 
April, Oct 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
July .... 
June, Dec 
Jan, July 

Jan, JoIt 

April, Oot 

April, Oot 
Jan, July 
June, Deo 
Jan, July 
May .... 
May, Nov 
Jan, Jnly 
Mar, Bept 
May, Nov 
April, Oot 
Jan, July 

Mar, Sept 

Feb, Ang 
Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 

June, Deo 
May, Nov 

June, Deo 

Feb, Ang 

Jan, Jnly 
Jan, July 
July .... 
Jan, July 
Jan, Jnly 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aug 

Feb, Ang 

May . . , . 
Jan, July 

June, Deo 
Feb, Aug 

Mar, Sept 

Jan, July 
April, c»ot 

Jan, July 

Feb Ang 
Jan, July 

April, Oot 
April, Oot 

April .... 
May ... .. 
Jau, July 
April, Uot 

Jan, July 

141} 136) 






157 tJ 



874 i 





ESTABLISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861; Second Series (Weekly), 1878. 

No. 1,614. 

r No. 2. 1 
Lvoi. Lxiii.J 

FRIDAY, APRIL 23, 1909. 

Price Sixpence '"M""*- 

Abroad 9d., or 18 ctntt. or 90c., Of TOp/. 


Notes 39 I Reviews 57 

Arrangements for the Week 41 Essays Biographical and 

Electricity Works and Refuse Chemical [Ramsay], Re- 

Destructors. By J. A. viewed by F. M. Perkin. 

Robertson. Illustrated . . 42 The Proper Distribution 

Simplex Flexible System of of Expense Burden 

Electric Wiring. Illus. . . 46 [Church] ; Liquid and 

Electric Cranes. By H. H. Gaseous Fuels [Lewes]. 
Broughton. Illustrated. The Composition and Dura- 
Continued 47 bility of Cable Papers. By 

The Industrial Application of Clayton Beadle and Henry 

the Electric Motor, as Illus- P. Stevens. Continued . . 58 

trated in the Gary Plant Patents in 1908 61 

of the Indiana Steel Com- The"G.B. " Surface-contact 

pan}-. By B. R. Shover. System in the Mile End 

Illustrated. Concluded .. 49 Road, London 62 

Wireless Telegraphy in the A Graphical Method for De- 
Territorial Force. Illus. . . 52 termining the Flux Density 

Oerlikon Three-phase Vari- ,,, j" Tf ''■VV- By F Blanc... 65 

able Speed Motors. Illus. 53 ^^6 Budding Exhibition at 

c.^ ,■ \, ,■ ■^i.-n Olymiiia 66 

Starting Machine with Device ParliamentartIntelligence 67 

for the ^eutraIlsatlon of Municipal, Foreign & General 

Reraanence. Illustrated . . 55 Notes 67 

Imperial College of Science Trade Notes and Notices ' . . 70 

and Technology 55 Companies' Meetings and 

Combined Destructor | Reports 73 

Stations 56 Companies' Share List 75 

N^ O T E S. 

The Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

The following iiomination.s for the new Council of the 
Institiition of Electrical Engineers were announced at the 
meeting yesterday evening : — 

Dr. Gisiert Kapp. 
Sir H. H. Cunynghanu, K. C.B. S. Ecershed. 
W. Duddell, F.R.S. Col. H. C. L. Holden, F.R.S. 

Members of Council. 
II'. W. Cook: ' Major W. A. J. O'Meara, C.M.G. 

G. K. B. Elphinstone. W. H. Patchell. 

Dr. E. Hopkinson. /. H. Rider. 

J. W. Jacoinb-Hood. W. Rutherford, 

ir. Judd. J. F. C. Snell. 

T. Mather, F.R.S. G. Stoney. 

W. il. Morrison. A. H. Walton. 

G. H. Wordingham. 
Associate Members of Council. 
E. Russell Clarke. H. Human. 

J. E. Taylor. 
Hnn. Treasurer. 
Rjbert Hammond, 
The names printed in italics are new nominations. The hon. treasurer 
retires annually, and is eligible for immediate re-election. 

No engineer was more closelj' a.ssociated with the early 
days of electrical engineering than Dr. Gisbeet Kai'P, who 
was welcomed back to this country, after au absence of a 
few years in Germany (where he occupied conspicuous 
positions as Editor of the " E. T. Z.," and as secretary of 

the Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker), to fill the chair 
of electrical engineering at Birmingham University. Of 
the vice-presidents, Sir Henry CuNYXOH.iiiE has already 
served on the Council, and is well known in connection 
with patent law; but in recent years he has been connected 
more particularly with the legal restrictions which in this 
country become necessary to a growing industry, being at 
the present time one of the Assistant Under-Secretaries at 
the Home Office Mr. Duddell and Mr. Evershed have 
served on the Council on previous occasions and their careers 
are well known to our readers. Of the new ordinary mem- 
bers of Council, Mr. W. W. Cook is assistant chief engineer 
of the National Telephone Co., Mr. G. K. B. Elphixstoxe, we 
need scarcely say, is identified with Messrs. Elliott Bros., 
and was formerly associated with the firm of M. Theiler & 
Sons; Mr. W.A.LTER Judd, electrician-in-chief of the Eastern 
& Associated Telegraph Companies, has served on a previous 
occasion, as have also ilr. J. H. Eider and Mr. C. H. 
WoRDiNGHAJi. On the ocher hand, the Council are intro- 
ducing some new blood by the selection of ilr. W. M. 
Morrison, engineer and managing director of the British 
Aluminium Co. Among the associate members of Council, 
Mr. E. EussELL Clarke is an entirely new nominee, and 
is well known in that section of the Bar dealing with 
patent actions. 

Another Solution of the Wiring Problem. 

At present it may be said tliat there are two schools of 
thought in regard to the wiring problem, or the problem of 
wiring houses at a reasonably low cost. One school prefei-s 
the device of giving the cable a metallic covering sufijciently 
strong to aftbrd mechanical protection, but at the same 
time not so stiff as to prevent easy flexibility. The Staunos 
system, which we described a week or two ago, is an 
example of this kind. Such a system presents a satisfac- 
tory solution, and one that can be applied to work not only 
upon the surface, but equally well to work that is concealed 
beneath the plaster. The second school of thought is 
concerned with surface work exclusively. In this con- 
nection we have pointed out on previous occasions that 
although ordinary " flexible " may not be so suitable for the 
purpose in this country as abroad, a special kind of cable 
might very well be evolved for the purpose. The ordinary 
" flexible " stands a good deal of everyday wear, and 
little exception is taken to it. Therefore, a more haixly 
variety should surely be suitable for surface wiring where 
no very great wear would be experienced. "We are glad to 



note that Simplex Conduits, Limited, have taken the matter 
up, and, as will be seen in another column, three grades of 
flexible twin wire are now available for surface work of this 
kind. The first grade is armoured with tinned-iron wire, 
the second grade is covered with flame-proof material in 
place of such armouring, and is weather-proofed beneath 
the flame-proofing, and the third grade is simply covered 
with cotton, the covering beneath this cotton also being 
weather-proofed. We do not doubt that cables of this 
class will meet a very distinct want, and we trust that this 
kind of surface wiring will receive more careful attention 
now that the desired material is at hand. 

The Electric Supply Industry in America. 

Some idea of the progress made Ijy the electricity supplj- 
industry in America is afforded by the central station 
statistics contained in the half-yearly electrical directory 
issued by the publishers of our contemporary, the " Elec- 
trical World." Tiie most recent publication contains par- 
ticulars of 5,7-iO plants on the North American continent, 
of which 5,264 are in the United States. The correspond- 
ing figures a year ago were 5,464 and 5,015 respectively, 
and the number of new plants is really much greater than 
is indicated by these figures, since a large number were 
last year absorbed or consolidated; actually, during the 
last six months alone, 195 new stations in the United 
States have been entered in the directory. When these 
figures are compared with the retixrns contained in our 
recent Electric Supply Tables the difference in the 
development of electricity supply in the smaller towns 
in this country and America Ijecomea most marked, for it 
is probably in the number of these small plants that the 
difference between the returns for the two countries must 
be sought. One factor that helps such a movement is that 
in America the small town of to-day is a large town to- 
morrow, whilst, in this country, no such rapid development 
can be looked for to aid electrical enterprise. Another 
feature encouraging the adoption of electric power is the 
extensive system of inter-urban electric railways, which 
has been so far developed that it will probably be possible, 
at an early date, to travel from New York to Chicago, a 
distance of about 900 miles, by such means. Since no less 
than 4,154 of the plants give an alternating current supply, 
there seems every inducement for the adoption of metallic 
filament lamps. The great ]ireponderance of these plants 
is certainly interesting when compared with the tendency 
to favour continuous current for small stations in this 

Royal Society. — Among the Papers read at the meeting yes- 
terday afternoon wa.s one on " Dynamic Osmotic Pressures " 
by the Earl of Berkeley, F.K.S., and Mr. E. (!. J. Hartley. 

Imperial College of Science and Technology. — At a recent 
meeting of the Governors it was decided, subject to the 
approval of the King in Council, to recognise the association 
of the College with the metallurgical department of the 
Sheffield University for the subject of advanced metallurgy 
in iron and steel. It was felt that this course would provide 
greater facilities than would be obtained by organising a now 

Cable Interruptions and Repairs. 

Date of Interruption. Date of Rejiuir. 

Pontianak— Saigon Sep. 16, 1908 .„ Apr. 16, 1909 

Tourane— Amoy Jan. 19, 1909 ... Apr. 19, 1909 

Hong Kong— Macao Apr. 13, 1909 ... — 

Obock— Djibouti Apr. 15, 1909 ... — ' 

Fatal Accident to Prof. Tufts.— A recent Central News 
telegram states that Mr. F. L. Tufts, professor of physics in 
Columbia University, was recently killed while engaged in 
some electrical testing work. 

Iron and Steel Institute — We announced in our last issue 
that Sir Wni. I^ewis, president of this Institute, might be un- 
able to preside at the forthcoming annual meeting in London. 
Sir William has now intimated that he will be unable to hold 
office, thus placing the council in a position of some difficulty. 
Under these circumstances Sir Hugh Bell has consented to 
hold office for a further term of twelve months. 

Junior Institution of Engineers. — The twenty fifth annual 
dinner of this lustitution will be held at the Hotel Cecil on 
Saturday, May 1st, at 7 for 7:30 p.m. Mr. James Swinburne, 
F.R S., president of the Institution, will occupy the chair, and 
Mr. R. B. Haldaue, M.P., will be the guest of the evening. 

The visit of the Institution to inspect s.s. "Otaki " has been 
postponed till April 28th. 

Victorian Institute of Engineers. — The annual general 
meeting of this Institute was held in Melbourne on March 10. 
The report of the Council stated that thy increase in the 
number of members was the largest in any one year since the 
early days of the Institute, and a promising feature was the 
esta])lishnient of a student grade. A salaried secretary (Mr. 
D. L. Stirling) has been appointed, and Mr. J. A. Smith has 
been re-elected president, Mr. H. R. Harper becoming vice- 

Leeds Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.— 
The following are tlie nominees put forward by the council of 
this section for election to the committee during the session 
1909-10. The election will take place at the annual general 
meeting on May 6th : Chairman, Mr. W. M. Rogerson ; vice- 
chainnan, Mr. T. Harding Churton ; committee, Messrs. A. B. 
IMountain, W. Hartiiell, A. J. Cridge, H. H. Wright and S. W. 
Schofield ; him. sec, Mr. H. Dickinson. 

Power Generation by the Tides. — According to the " Elek- 
troteehnik und Maschinenbau " the idea of utilising the force of 
the tides for the generation of electric power has not been 
altogether abandoned in Germany. With this end in view a 
station of an original kind is to be constructed on a branch of 
the Elbe. The promoters of this scheme are endeavouring 
to get users of light or power in the neighbourhood to take 
advantage of this method of utilising the movement of the 
North Sea. 

New Type of Tantalum Lamp Filament. — According to the 
" Electrical World " a patent recently issued to Werner von 
Bolton, of Charlottenburg, describes a new type of incandes- 
cent-lamp filament, consisting of a homogeneous mixture of 
metallic tantalum intimately commingled with a carbide of 
tantalum or of a metal of the vanadium group. Tiie most 
advantageous form of the invention is stated to be a mixture 
of tantalum and tantalum carbide, and is secured by heating 
tantalum powder, held in a plastic mass by a binder which is 
carbonised by heat, thus giving rise to the carbide of the metal. 

Personal. — The Marylobone Electric Supply committee re- 
cently received 128 applications for the position of engineer 
and manager of the electricity undertaking, and this number 
was reduced to four. After interviewing these the committee 
recommended ]\Ir. A. Hugh Seabrook, of ^^'est Ham, for the 
appointment, to which a commencing salary of £800 per 
annum is attached. Mr. Seabrook, who has been engineer and 
manager at West Ham for 3i years, served his apprenticeship 
with Messrs. Crompton & Co. He was assistant at Great 
Yarmouth for three years, and spent a similar term at 
Hampstead, after which he became engineer and manager at 
Barking, from which place ho migrated to West Ham. Mr. 
Seabrook has proved a most energetic and progressive chief of 
the West Ham electricity undertaking. 

Alimiinlum Direct from Bauxite. — The difficulties and cost 
attendant on the reduction of aluminium by the usual method, 
which requires that the alumina shall be free from impurities 
before reduction, has led a German inventor to propose a 
process whereby the purification of the alumina and the re- 
duction of the aluminium go on together, while a valuable by- 
product is also obtained. In this method, according to the 



" Engineering and Mining Journal," the crude bauxite is 
mixed with carbon and a boron compound, and treated in the 
electric furnace. The iron and silica go into combination with 
the boron, forming an exceedingly hard material, which has a 
commercial value as an abrasive, while the pure alumina passes 
to another part of the same furnace, or to another furnace, if 
desired, for reduction into aluminium in the usual way. 

Electric Heating and Cooking in Hotels. — According to the 
"Electrical Keview and Western Electrician," the Stantley 
Hotel, at Estes Park, Colorado, is to be operated by electricity. 
Mr. F. 0. Stantley, the proprietor, has acquired his own 
water-power, which, at a distance of four miles, will provide 
enough electric power to supply not only all the electricity 
for use in the hotel, but for his own private residence and 
for the cottages in Estes Park. Street lighting will also be 
supplied from the same source. The owner is determined to 
make his hotel representative of the latest ideas iu applications 
of electricity, and has ordered a complete electric-cooking 
equipment for his kitchen ; electric water heaters for supplying 
hot water for the baths, kitchen and laundry ; also electricall}-- 
heated mangle and flat-irons for the laundry. When open for 
regular service this summer the hotel will be "up to the 
minute " in all its electrical ajjpointments. 

H^roult Electric Furnace in California. — The "Electrical 
World" states that the Noble Electric Steel Co., of Heroult, 
California, is about to start up an electrical process for smelt- 
ing iron. The cost of electrical energy at Heroult is £2. Ss. per 
horse-power year, or £.3. 4s. per kw.-year. In an experimental 
furnace, which made several test runs last year, it is stated that 
1^ tons of iron were produced per day at a cost of 17s. per 
ton of pig iron for electric energy. With the larger furnace, 
now nearing completion, from 15 to 20 tons of pig iron a day 
will be produced for an expenditure, it is believed, of 16s. per 
ton for electrical energy. It is claimed that iron can be made 
at the furnace for £3. -Is. a ton. The electric smelting furnace 
for iron ore consists of a concrete stack 20 ft. high, with elec- 
trodes fixed in the walls of the crucible, the charging being 
done from the top, so that a long column of charge is pre- 
heated before it reaches the fusion zone between the electrodes. 
The electrodes are 24 in. apart. 

Magnetite Arc Lamps. — A patent recently issued in the 
United States to Dr. C. P. Steinmetz describes the use of arc- 
lamp electrodes composed wholl}^ or largelj' of magnetite. 
When the positive electrode is made of this material the arc 
gives oft' a brilliant white light having a spectrum like that of 
iron. The inventor states that the negative electrode need not 
be of magnetite, as the composition of the positive electrode 
determines the quality of the light. He suggests the use of 
certain impurities, such as magnesia, lime or alumina com- 
pounds, in the positive electrode for improving the perform- 
ance of the lamp. In a patent issued to Dr. W. K. Whitney 
the use of copper for the negative electrode is described. This 
electrode is so constructed that the heat generated by the arc 
will maintain it at a certain temperature which is below that 
of oxidation of the copper, but which is high enough to pre- 
vent the products of combustion of the arc from condensing 
on the electrode. 

Corps of Electrical Engineers. — A detachment of the 
Corps of Electrical Engineers visited Sheerness for an Easter 
training, under the command of Capt. H. E. Webb-Bowen and 
■Sec. -Lieut. W. E. Hammerton. Thej- returned to town on 
Saturday last. The weather during the training Avas on the 
whole favourable for carrying out the work of the corps, 
the detachment being engaged in running the searchlights in- 
stalled at Sheerness for the defence of the Medway. On Wed- 
nesdaj' morning there was an inspection by the officer com- 
manding the Ro3'al Engineers at Sheerness in company drill, 
and in the evening in technical work. Great satisfaction was 
expresseil by the inspecting officer at the smartness of the 
detachment. On Friday afternoon, the 16th inst., a further 
drill inspection was held by the Chief Engineer from Chatham, 
who was accompanied by the Commanding Officer at Sheer- 
ness. A technical inspection was also held during the evening, 
when an attempt was made bj- several small torpedo craft to 
enter the river unobserved, which attempt, however, proved 
unsuccessful owing to the boats being in every case picked up 

by the searchlight beams. The Chief Engineer expressed great 
satisfaction at the manner in which the men carried out their 
various duties and complimented them on their smartness and 

general efficiency. 

Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association. — The annual 
convention of the Association will this year be held in Man- 
chester from June 21st to 2Gth, under the presidency of Mr. 
S. L. Pearce, city electrical engineer. The meeting will be 
opened by a conversazione at 7;30 p.m. in the Town Hall, 
when the Lord Mayor of Manchester, Aid. E. Holt, will wel- 
come the mercljers. The Lord Mayor will also open the pro- 
ceedings on Tuesday at the Municipal School of Technology, in 
Whitworth-street, when the presidential address will be de- 
livered and a number of Papers read. On the same day a 
luncheon will be held at the Town Hall, at the invitation of 
the chairman and members of the ]\Ianchester Electricity Com- 
mittee, and several works in the vicinity will be visited. Wed- 
nesday is to bo spent in Liverpool, where the members will be 
welcomed and entertained by Sir Charles Petrie and the 
members of the Tramways and Electric Power and Lighting 
committees in that city. Visits to the " Mauretania " and 
other " sights " will be paid in the afternoon. On Thursday 
papers at Manchester will again be the order of the day, the 
annual dinner taking place in the evening, while on Fridaj' 
the annual general meeting will be held. The headquarters of 
the Association will be at the Midland Hotel, Manchester, 
and arrangements have been made for entertaining the ladies 
of the party while the male members are engaged iu the more 
serious work of the convention. 


FKIDAY, April 23rd (to-day). 

Physical Socif-tv of Londos. 
Jj).m. Meeting at the Imperial College of Science, Imperial 
Institute-road, South Kensington. Agenda : (1) " On a 
Want of Symmetry shown bv Secondary X-Rays," by Prof. 
W. H. Bragg, F.R'S. (2) "transformations of X-Eays," by 
Mr. C. A. Sadler. (3) " Theory of the Alternate Current 
CJenerator," by Prof. T. R. Lyle. 

The IxsTiTrTiox of Mech.\xical Exoineebs. 
S p m. Meeting at Storey's Gate, St. James's Park, Westminster. 

S.W. Presidential address by Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall. 
Students' Sectiox of the Institi-tiox of Civil Exgineebs. 
!f ji.hi. Meeting at Great George-street, Westminster, S.W. 
Paper on " The Development of Hydro Electric Power 
Scheme.'^ : with Special Reference to 'U'orks at Kinlochleven," 
by Mr. J. M. S. Culbertson. 

Royal Institutiox of Great Britaix. 
9ii.m. Jleeting at Albemarle-street, Piccadilly, W. Discourse 
on " Tantalum and it.s Industrial Applications," by Mr. 
Alexander Siemens. 
MONDAY, AprU 26tll. 

The Institutiox of Civil Engineers. 
S p.m. Meeting at Great George-street, Westminster, S.W. 
"James Forrest" Lecture on " Road Motors," by Col. H. C. L. 
Holden, F.R.S. 

TUESDAY, April 27tll. 

iNSTiTnTios OF CI^^L Engineers. 
:> p.m. Annual General Aleeting at Great George-street, West- 
minster, S.W. 

The Faraday Society. 
S p.m. Meeting in the Library of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, 92, Victoria-street, S.'iY. Papei-s on (1) ''Experi- 
ments on the Current and Energy Efficiencies of the Finlay 
Alkali Chlorine Cell," by Messrs. F. G Donnan, J. T. Barker 
and B. P. Hill. (2) ""Oii the Coefficients of Absorption of 
Nitrogen and Oxytren in Distilled Water and Seji Water, and 
of Atmosjiheric Carbonic Acid in Sea Water," by Dr. C. J. J. 
Fox. (3) " On the Electromotive Force of certjiiu Platinum 
Compounds with Special Reference to the Oxygen-Hydrogen 
Gas Cell," by Mr. P. E. Spielmami. 

Corps of Electrical Eng:ineers (London Division). 
Commandiivj: Otticer, Col. K. E. B. Crompton, C.B. 
The following orders ha\ e been issued for the current week :— 
Monday, April 26th, 

" A " Company Infantry drill, 6:30 p.m. 

Tuesday, April 27th, 

" B " Company Infantry drill, 7 p.m. 

Thursday.April 29th, 

•' C " Company •••••■1 Technical drill, 7 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. 
Friday, April 30th, J- ' ^ '^ 

"D" Company J 





Summary. — After considering the nature of the problem involved in 
the nse of a destructor n-ith an electricity works, the author deals brieily 
with the most important points in destructor design. Finally, the results 
achieved at Greenock are given in detail. 

Although combined electricity and destructor stations are now in- 
creasing at the rate of about 20 per annum, the value of the combina- 
tion is still a matter of controversy. 

Refuse disposal by cremation is primarily a sanitary measure, but 
the utilisation of what would otherwise be waste heat in the process 
naturally appeals to those responsible for municipal administration. 
Nevertheless any question of profit should be subservient to the 
requirements of cleanliness and public health. 

It is proposed to show in this Paper that appreciable benefit can 
be obtained from the combination of electricity works and refuse 
destructors under certain conditions. The first is that tliere should 
be a fairly steady demand for energy on the electricity works. 

The refuse must, of course, be collected daily, and it is desu'able for 
sanitary reasons to transfer it from the collecting carts to the furnaces 
as quickly as circumstances permit. But unless the steam from the 
destructor can be utilised during the greater portion of the 24 hours, 
it vn\\ be necessary either to provide sufficient furnace capacity to 
bm'n a day's collection in a comparatively short period of time, 
storing the material as it is delivered, or to bye-pass the hot gases 
from the furnaces direct to the chimney. There are objections to 
siicli methods, and thus it follows that a continuous load must be 
available at the power station. In residential districts, where cm'rent 
is used chiefly for lighting purposes, it is questionable if any benefit 
is obtained from linking up the two undertakings, but where a power 
load exists, or where a tramway supply forms part of the output of 
the station, the refuse destructor and electricity works can be com- 
bined and operated with financial benefit to the community. 

The refuse itself may be looked on as a low-grade fuel, which can be 
obtained free of cost, but requiring the employment of special plant 
for its combustion. From 15 cwt. to 1 ton of refuse is collected per 
l.tXK) inhabitants per day. The chart (Fig. 1) shows the variation in 
delivery at Greenock during different periods of the year, and as the 
quantity of ash-pit refuse is less in summer, it will be seen that the 
value of the whole delivery is correspondingly reduced, so that while 
it is possible to obtain results as high as 86 units per ton in October, 
the figure in July falls as low as 24 units per ton. It has been 
suggested that in certain cases it would be profitable to reinforce the with low-grade coal or coke dust in order to secure uniform 
steaming, and if a simple process of this kind could be devised which 
■would enable the destructor boilers to be worked at or near their full 
capacity, irrespective of variations in the quality of the refuse, the 
steam-raising results could be enormously improved. There are 
difficulties, however, in designing a furnace to burn refuse and coal at 
the same time, and as matters stand the great difference in the quality 
of the refuse delivered from hour to hour, and throughout the year, 
constitutes the most serious drawback in combined installations, 
entailing the use of stand-by coal-fired boilers to ensure steady steam 
pressure at the engines. 

The principal objection to combined installations by station engi- 
neers is the presence of dust or fine grit which finds its way into the 
engine room with bad results to the generating plant. The dust arises 
partly from the tipping of refuse — especially in dry weather — and in 
the operation of clinkering the fires, but is mostly due to the crushing 
and screening of clinker. It is only fair to point out that in most cases 
the dust objection might have been avoided, or at least obviated, by a 
better arrangement of buildings, and the author can affirm that in the 
Greenock installation no real trouble has been experienced from this 

The points which call for sjjecial attention in design are the charg- 
ing or feeding of the refuse into the furnaces, the .system of forced 
draught employed, the design of furnace and combustion chamber, 
and the position and type of boiler. , 

Charging. — Tlie general practice hitherto has been to feed the 
refuse into the furnaces by manual labour. There are three systems 
of hand feeding, which may be classified as follows: — (a) The furnace 
is both fed and clinkered from the front. (6) The furnace is fed from 
the back, and clinkered from the front, (c) The refuse is tipped on 
top of the furnace, whence it is drawn or pushed through an opening 
in the furnace roof, where it falls on a drying hearth, and is then 
spread by manipulation through the clinkering door to a suitable 
thickness over the grate. 

* Abstract of a Paper read before the Glasgow Local Section of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

The great drawback to all hand-fed systems is the inrush of cold 
air which takes place during the time required for charging, and the 
consequent reduction in temperature of the furnace brickwork. 
Another serious objection is that the amount of labour, especially in 
front feeding, is very great, and the process of shovelling such difficult 
material is arduous and not clean. The chief recommendation of 
hand-fed systems is their simplicity, but it is also claimed thatjby 
selecting and feeding the refuse in small quantities better steaming 
results can be obtained than with automatic or mechanically fed 
systems. It would appear, however, that the cooling of the furnace 
during charging goes far to neutralise this advantage, which in any 
case is not sufficient to outweigh the sanitary objections to the 

MeclMnical Charging. — Having regard to the objections to hand 
feeding, it is not surprising that inventors have turned their attention 
to mechanical devices for feeding refuse into destructor furnaces. The 
earliest and best known of these is Bulnois & Brodie's system, in 
which movable iron trucks are employed. The a|)paratus is con- 
structed in such a way that the movement of the charging truck 
opens and closes the furnace door so that the whole operation of 
depositing the refuse from the carts into the furnaces is carried out 
without the intervention of manual labour. 

The system adopted in the Greenock installation is the automatic 
" tub-feed "' system, which found favom' chiefly on account of its- 
sanitary advantages. In this system the is tipped from the 
collecting carts into tubs or skips, each skip containing one load. The 
skips are then lifted by an electric crane and deposited on a storage 
platform, where they are kept till required for charging. This plat- 
form is erected over the clinkering floor, and is separated from th& 
furnace brickwork to ensure cool storage. To charge a furnace, the 
skip is lifted from the platform by the crane and is placed on a mov- 
able cradle directly over the furnace opening, which is fitted with a 
















r\ 1 





— \ f 






Un ts gaoer 

>ted ti 





Fi'li. liar. Apr. May June .luly Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. 
•08 'O'.i 

Fig. 1.— Diagram showing Refuse Deliveiied and Units Genekat,;i> 


water-sealed door. When released by the crane, the weight of th& 
skip operates a system of levers and a balance weight in such a way 
as to lift tlic water-sealed door off the fiu-nace and di'aw it to one side, 
so permitting tlie cradle to descend to the mouth of the charging door. 
The bottom of the skip consists of two hinged doors suspended so that 
when the skip reaches the proper position, the doors open outwards, 
and the contents of the skip are deposited directly into the furnace. 
The crane then lifts the empty skip, and the water-sealed door, 
actuated by the balance weight, is drawn back to its seat, the whole 
operation of opening the door, charging, and reclosing the door hav- 
ing occupied less than a minute. 

The principal advantage of the system is. of course, its comparative 
cleanliness, and as the process of lifting the skips and charging the 
furnaces of an installation capable of cremating 100 tons in 18 hours 
can be performed entirely by one craneman, the saving in labour cost 
as compared with hand feeding is an important consideration. With 
this method of charging, the reduction of temperature which takes 
place during the slower operation of hand firing is largely overcome 
and the efficiency and capacity of the furnace is correspondingly in- 
creased. The disadvantage of the system is that it prevents any 
selection or proportioning of the charges, while the deposition of a 
whole cart-load of green refuse into the furnace at one charge is apt to 
cause fluctuations of temperature with consequent variation in steam 

Furnaces and Boilers. — In modern destructor plants the following 
are essential features : — 

1. Furnace chambers or cells designed so as to embody the principle 
of mutual assistance in operation. 

2. A combustion chamber of suflRcient capacity to maintain a high 
temperature under all conditions of working and designed to act as an 
sufficient dust trap. ' 


3. A system of forced draught. 

4. One or more boilers situated between the combustion chamber 
and tlie chimney. 

Nearly all plants now in operation can be separated into two 
groups — i.e.. those in which the furnace chambers or cells are 
isolated from each other, the hot gases from two or more cells being 
led into a common combustion chamber, and those in which a number 
of grates are grouped in a common furnace. An advantage of the 
isolated system is that one unit can be shut down for repairs without 
affecting the operation of the otliers. In the common furnace system 
of construction only one of the sections, into which the grate is 
divided, is charged and clinkered at a time, and it is claimed that by 
charging frequently in small quantities a maximum temperatme can 
be maintained in the cell itself. The smaller amount of brickwork 
exposed to high temperatures as compared with the isolated cell 
system is an undoubted advantage in keeping domi the cost of 
repairs — a serious item in all destructor plants. 

The object aimed at is the maintenance of high temperatm'e in the 
products of combustion utilised for steam raising, and to obtain this it 
is essential with both t^"pes of construction that a large combustion 
chamber be provided beyond the furnaces, where all gases may be 
finally intermingled and cremated before coming in contact with the 
boiler. It is quite impossible to ensure that no green or partly burned 
gases will ever pass into the flues, and it is therefore essential that the 
chamber should be capable of storing sufficient heat in its brick 
walls to reduce the disturbance of temperature in the cells during 
charging and clinkering. The curve {Fig. 2) taken by an electrical 
pyrometer in the combustion chamber of one unit of the Greenock 
plant, shows clearly the rise and fall of temperature during these 
operations. Tlie second function of the combustion chamber is to 
trap as much as possible of the dust liberated from the furnaces. 




89 10 111212345678 


Fic. 2.— Daily Temperatuke Chart, Combustion Chamber. 

The position of the boilers with relation to the cells is an importauA 
factor in the maintenance of high temperature. In some designs tht 
boiler is sandwiched between two cells, the gases from the fires 
passing through side openings into a combustion chamber directly 
beneath the boiler tubes. The better practice is to place the boiler 
beyond the combustion chamber, so that the green gases'from newly 
charged refuse in passing through the chamber will combine with a 
large volume of higher temperature gases, thus becoming thoroughly 
mixed and cremated before they are brought into contact with the 
comparatively cooler surfaces of the boiler. 

Draught and Combustion. — The possibility of utilising destructor 
heat for steam raising is undoubtedly due to the employment of forced 
draught for combustion. The large increase in the rates of burning 
through working at higher temperatures, and the fact that destructors 
can now be operated in populous districts without giving rise to 
nuisance, may also be credited to the same cause. !Much controversy 
exists regarding the comjjarative merits of steam blowers and fan- 
produced di-aught for assisting combustion. It is claimed for the 
steam jet that it is less costly to instal. that the life of the tire-bars 
is more prolonged, and the process of clinkering the fires less arduous 
than with fan draught. Another claim, which is sometimes questioned, 
is that the steam jets in contact with the hot fuel produce a water gas 
which is of great value in raising the temperature of combustion. On 
the other hand, it is admitted that the amount of steam required for 
the steam jets is from 10 to 15 per cent, of the total steam generated in 
tiAc destructor boilers, against 4 or 5 per cent, for steam-driven low- 
pressure fans, and that, although clinkering is easier, the quality ot 
clinker is more fragile and not so suitable for building purposes. 

The advantage of hot-air draught for all combustion processes 
is generally recognised, and the gain in efficiency by its use in destruc- 
tor plant is beyond dispute, especially as the added temperature 
is usually obtained by heat which would otherwise be wasted. By 

placing a suitable heater in the main flue and passing the air through 
it before delivery to the fnrnace.s, it is po.ssible to add 300-F to 4(lO'=F. 
to its temperature, with a corresponding rise in the temperature erf 
combustion. Another advantage of fan draught is that the air supply 
can be made to regulate itself to the requirements of the fuel. The 
amount of carbon in refuse may vary from 10 to 40 per cent., and to 
ensure complete combustion und?r all conditions the air supply 
should be capable of close regulation, and this can be easily attained 
with fan draught, either by hand-operated valves or by using a 
separate fan for each furnace driven by a shunt-regulated variable- 
speed motor. In most installations in this country the average 
draught pressure employed is from 1 in. to 2 in. of water column in the 
ash-pit, but much greater pressures can be employed with suitable 
fire-bars and thick fires. The Cxreenock plant was originally designed 
for a pressure of 9 in. to 12 in., and it was found possible with this 
pressure to work with fires from 18 in. to 2 ft. in tliickness. The fire- 
grate is formed of solid iron bars perforated with numerous smaU holes 
tluough which the air is forced into the refuse. The experience gained 
after a few months' experimental working led finally to the adoption 
of an average pressure of 6 in., which appears to suit the varying con- 
ditions as efficiently as the higher pressure, with the advantage of 
economising the amount of power absorbed by the fans. The type of 
au' heater usually employed consists of a battery of tubes built into 
the main flue, but in the Horsfall destructor the air is heated by pass- 
ing it tluough side boxes in the furnace itself situated between the 
brickwork and the grate. It is found that their position here lessens 
the deterioration of the brickwork and assists the process of clinker- 
ing, but the author has found in practice that the comparatively 
small heating surface of the boxes and the rate at which the air must 
travel tluough them does not permit of a higher temperature than 
ISO^F. being attained at the outlet, while a further disadvantage is 
that as the amount of heat imparted to the air depends on the tem- 
peratm'e of the furnace, the draught is lowest immediately after 
charging, i.e., just at the time when high temperature is most needed 
to dry the refuse and to commence combustion. 

An ingenious system of superheating the air draught has been 
introduced by ilessrs. Heenan & Froude in a destructor plant recently 
erected in Richmond, U.S.A. The furnaces are of this firms standard 
hand-fed t\-pe. w-ith four giates and divided ash-pits. A secondary 
chamber is provided below the furnace gi'ate. and after the refuse has 
been cremated the hot clinker is manuallv withdra%^-n from the fur- 
nace and falls through an opening into the chamber beneath. A fresh 
charge is then fed into the furnace, and the air required for com- 
bustion — which has previously been drawn tluough an ordinary air- 
heater in the main flue — is passed tluough the hot clinker in the 
chamber before being delivered to the fires. Additional temi)eratvire 
is thus added to the air just when it is most required, and the clinker 
is also cooled down so that the process of withdrawing and harrowing 
away is rendered much easier than it would be in the ordinary way. 

Boilers. — The two types of boilers in general use for destructor 
work are Lancashiie and water-tube, the latter either of the marine or 
land type, although in one or two cases the tubular marine type has 
been successfully employed. It is usual to provide auxiliary coal- 
fired grates, with destructor boilers to increase the duty at times 
of abnormal demand ; but the author has found that the presence of 
hot gases from the destructor furnaces retards the process of coal com- 
bustion, and the actual benefit of the auxiliary coal-fired grate lies in 
the use which can be made of it when, tlirough any reason, the 
destructor furnace is out of action. The experiment of forcing the 
boilers by mixing a charge of refuse with a smaller charge of coal in 
the destructor fmnace was not a success, for on cleaning out the fires 
the coal was found only jiartially burned, the remainder being 
embedded in the clinker, which had apparently protected it from 

The economy due to superheating steam is tmiversally recognised 
with coal-fired "boilers, and as the destructor boiler plant in combined 
works is generally situated some distance from the engine-room, the 
losses from steam-pipe radiation rae comparatively great. It is 
possible, by superheating, to ensure that at least di-y steam only will 
be delivered at the ensines, while the losses through drains and steam 
traps are materiallv reduced. At Greenock the steam at the boilers 
is at about ooO'F., the temperature of the hot well is about 90 F.. and 
that of the economiser outlet about 300"F. The distance between 
the destructor boilers and the engine stop-valve is about 1(X> ft., and 
it is found that in travelling through this distance the average 
temperature loss at normal full load is 40'"F. 

The high outlet temperatme at the economiser gives the impression 
that full advantase is not being taken of the available heat in the 
boilers, and it might be possible by providing baflle walls in the boiler 
sections to absorb more heat in steam raising, and so reduce the 
temperature of the gases in the main flue; but from exi>eriments 
made in this duection it is doubtful whether any real advantage would 



accrue. The reason ajipears to be that the dust wliich collects arouud 
the'baffle plates and which can only be partially removed by cleaning 
while the boiler is under duty, reduces the available heating smface. 
with consequent reduction in the capacity and efficiency of the boiler. 
This question of dust in destructor flues and boilers has not always 
received the special attention by designers that its importance 
deserves, and the poor results obtained in many combined stations 
may generally be traced either to imperfect design of combustion 
chamber and flues or to insufficient space being allowed for dust 

However perfect the design of destructor furnaces, good results can 
only be attained if proper methods are employed in managing the 
installation. In coal-fired boilers, stoked by hand labour, we know 
that the efficiency may vary by as much as 20 or 25 per cent, with 
a change in the men employed. The importance of the stoker is, 
therefore, much greater when low-grade fuel such as towTi's refuse is 
dealt with, and to obtain continuity of temperature the most careful 
attention has to be given to the strength of air blast and the manage- 
ment and spreading of the fu'cs. If the fires are allowed to blow into 
holes an immediate cooUng effect takes place, and one reason for 
the difference between results obtained on trials and the average 
results over a longer period is probably the careful expert supervision 
— generally by the maker's representative — when test runs are being 
made. In burning refuse with heated air it is possible, if the fire is not 
carefully managed, to produce the appearance of perfect combustion 
on top of the fire, while the under side next the fire bars does not rise 
above the temperatui-e of the incoming air. To overcome this the fire 
requires to be "" managed," and so far the only method of doing this is 
by careful mixing and stirring of the refuse while it is bui'nmg. 

It has been said that the best clinker is produced when the cells 
are also worked to the greatest advantage for steam-raising piu'poses ; 
but the author's experience does not coufii'm this opinion, as he has 
found that with most classes of refuse a hard clinker cannot be pro- 
duced unless the material is kept burning for some time after the 
maximum temperature has been attained, whereas for steam-raising 
purposes it is desirable that the maximum temperature should be 
attained as rapidly as possible, and the products of combustion with- 
drawn from the fire before the cell begins to cool down. 

Supervision. — There ha\e been differences of opinion in many 
cases, as to which department should supervise the working of the 
destructor, but from the experience already gained it is now generally 
admitted that if the best results are to be obtained the department 
which is responsible for utiMsing the steam should also control its pro- 

Financial Results. — The value of destructor steam to the electricity 
tmdertaking is a subject which has caused the widest difference of 
opinion. In Liverpool, where 600 tons of refuse are burned every 
day, no less than 9,209.369 units were generated from destructor 
steam during 1907. and this result has been obtained with non- 
condensing compound engines, using 50 lb. of steam per kilowatt- 
hour. In other towns, where the destructor is linked with the elec- 
tricity undertaking, equally good results can be shown. In the 
Metropolitan districts the lowest fuel costs are claimed by Hackney, 
a combined station ; whUe amongst smaller provincial towns 
another combined station — St. Helens — has long been noted for its 
low fuel cost jjer unit. The Liverpool undertaking, which returns 
0-35d. per unit as its total fuel costs, only pays the cleansing depart- 
ment 0-2d. per unit for the 9,000.000 units generated at the destructor 
stations. At Partick. the first combined station in Scotland, the fuel 
costs were remarkably low for some years, the minimum figm'e of 
0-20d. per unit sold being returned for 1905-6. when the bigger under- 
taking in Glasgow, with ten times the output, could only reach 0-23d. 
per unit. These facts give the impression that while in some cases 
the value of the destructor steam may be over-estimated there are 
others in which it does not receive its due share of credit. 

The various methods employed in combined stations to determine 
the value of the destructor steam have been the subject of much 
contention. The only true valuation basis is, of course, the cost 
which would be incurred if the generating plant were run from coal 
alone under similar conditions as regards demand and output. To 
make the comparison accurate, any saving in capital cost to the 
electrical undertaking should be taken into account, and while it is 
rare to find any credit allowed to the destructor on account of saving 
in labour, there is no doubt that in most cases a saving does result to 
both departments due to combined supervision. 

To take the saving in capital cost first, both departments will 
benefit from the obvious fact that the cost of a site for a combined 
undertaking is than two separate ijites. In buildings there is 
also an appreciable saving, and as one cliimney will serve both 
undertakings, the cost will be halved to each. The saving in boilers 
is not so important as it appears, as it is neces.sary to provide a 
sufficient capacity of coal-fired boilers to guard against an interrup- 
tion to the working of the destructor plant in winter, when snowfalls 

may interfere with the delivery of refuse, but the saving in mainten- 
ance and repairs should be considered. In feed pipes and piping 
there is a distinct gain through combination. In all these items the 
capital cost should be fairly apportioned between the departments, 
and any saving to the electricity department taken into account when 
adjusting the actual value of destructor steam. 

In the combined installation at C4reenock the difficulty of arriving 
at the steam value of the refuse was rendered easier through the 
generating station having been run exclusively by coal-fu'ed boilers 
for three months before the destructor commenced working, and 
it was therefore possible to ascertain exactly the consumption of 
coal per unit generated and the efficiency of the boilers and generat- 
ing plant. Separate water meters had been installed to register 
the evaporation in each set of boilers, and it was intended to appor- 
tion credit on this basis, but this method did not take into account 
the stand-by losses incurred tlirough the irregular worldng of the 
destructor, and it was also found, on starting the destructor plant, 
that increased radiation losses from the steam pipes due to the 
position of the destructor boilers, brought up the consumption of 
steam per unit generated from 24 lb. to 26ilb. It was considered 
only fair that the destructor should be debited -with these losses, and it 
was therefore decided to apportion the units generated on the basis of 
the actual consumption of coal before the destructor commenced 
working, and the results given later may therefore be taken as the 
true value of the steam to the electricity undertaking under present 
conditions. The allocation is based on a consumption of 4^ lb, of 
coal per unit generated, and the weekh' coal consumption divided by 
this figui-e gives the number of units to be apportioned to coal-firing, 
the remainder being crechted to the destructor. The average price 
of coal has been taken at 10s. per ton, and after including an allow- 


1 , ! 








/\ . 








j \ ^.^ Units generated / 
1 ^■'X^' a* ^(>r)is j 

Nett onits generated 







1 : 


\/ / Units n 



works , 


July .\ug. Sep. Oct. Xov. Dec. Jau. 

Fig. 3. — Diagba.'ii showing Units Generated at Wokks. Shaced abea 


ance for capital charges on boilers and pumps, the figure of 0-35d. per 
unit was arrived at as a fair payment to make to the cleansing depart- 
ment for steam. 

In addition to the destructor plant the installation at the new 
Greenock works comprises :^Two double drum coal-fired boilers, 
each capable'^of evaporating 16,000 lb. of water per hour. These'are 
fitted ■\\ith close link chain grates and mechanical stokers. The 
generating plant consists of two 750 kw. and two 400 kw. direct- 
current Belliss-Westinghouse sets, one of these being arranged as a 
two-machine balancer and the others as single machines at 500 volts. 
The large sets on test with steam superheated to 500°F., and a vacutmi 
of 26 in. at the condenser consumed 17-8 lb. of steam per kilowatt- 
hour, and the smaller sets 18o under the same conditions. Two sur- 
face condensers are employed, the cooling water being obtained by 
gravitation from a reservoir built on the course of an aqueduct which 
originally ran through the site, the water being then employed to 
operate a mill. Under normal working conditions the average con- 
sumption of steam is 26 J lb. per kilowatt-hour, this figure including all 
losses. All auxiliaries are electrically chiven. The coal used has a 
calorific value of 11.600 B.Th.U., and the consumption, as already 
stated, averages 4J lb. per kilowatt-hour. The units used on works 
for feed pumps, mechanical stokers, air pump and economiser (not 
including units used on destructor) amount to 1-9 per cent, of the 
generated units. The chart (Fig. 3) shows the total output of the 
works during twelve months ended January 31, 1909, the shaded 
portion representing the j)roportion generated by destructor steam, 
and the lowest line the amount of energy used by the destructor for 
])ower and light. The latter amounts to 12 per cent, of the destructor 
generated units divided, as follows : — • 

Fan draught 8-5 per cent; 

Cranes 1-0 „ 

Clinker treatment 1-4 „ 

Lighting 1-1 „ 



The amount used for fan draught is unusually high, and is brought 
about by the abnormal pressure employed, but it is fully expected 
that this figure will be reduced by at least 10 per cent, in futm-e. 

The price to be charged to the destructor for energy supplied is 
a further point of contention, but the proper way is undoubtedly to 
treat the destructor in exactly the same way as another consumer with 
a similar load factor, due allowance being made for the alisence of 
distribution costs. On this basis the price arrived at was 0-6d. per 
unit, the load factor being estimated at 35 per cent. 

It has been mentioned already that tests over a short period of time 
are of little use to determine the true value of destructor steam. As an 
indication of the capacity of the destructor such tests are, however, of 
some importance. The average result of 67 units per ton over a 
whole year's working, although naturally a good deal lower than test 
results, is higher than any authenticated figure which has come under 
the author's notice up to the present, and, as it includes all stand-by 
losses on the station, may be considered extremely good. It is only 
fair to the makers to state that the installation was in some respects 
a new experiment, and that the results during the first part of the 
year were adversely affected by want of experience on the part of the 
workmen employed. It should fiu-ther be explained that the repairs 
bill is chiefly made up of alterations and experiments carried out to 
improve the working of the plant after it had been taken over by the 

The cost of carting away unsaleable residue is at present a large 
item in the revenue account, and the labour charges for crushing and 
screening clinker compared with the return from clinker sold are 
abnormally high, owing to the difficulty of finding a market for these 
materials in the present depressed state of the building trade. 

Some of the figures from the test report are as follows : — 

Number, size, and type of boilers 2 Babcock & Wilcox, 2,070 

sq. ft. H.S. 

Economiser, No. of tubes (Green's) 240 tubes in two sections. 

Total quantity of burned 32 tons, 5 cwts. 

Ditto per cell per 24 hours 24-72 tons. 

Ditto per square foot of grate per hour 103 lb. 
Total water per square foot of heating 

surface per hour 2-43 lb. 

Total water per lb. of refuse burnt (actual) 1-11. 
Total water per lb. of refuse from and at 

212^F. or 100°C 1-41. 

Electrical units per ton of refuse 97 units per ton. 

The capital cost of destructor, including one-half cost of site, 
one-half of chimney, buildings, furnaces, plant, economiser, 
proportion of steam and feed piping. 

Total : £ly.SOO 

Financial results at Gbeenock Destructor for 12 moxths ended 
Janctaky 31, 1909. 

Revenue Account. Per ton. 

Labour — Expenditure. £ s. d. 

Operating destructor 930 1 1^- 

Treatment of residue 134 2 

Repairs — 

(a) Buildings 4()i ,, .,, 

(6) Plant 1201 " -* 

Disposal of imsaleable residue 135 2 

Power and light 330 4.V 

Rates, taxes, insurance 83 ]{- 

Management 65 0|- 

Total £1,843 2 2 


Sale of steam 1,005 

Sale of clinker 05 

£1,7.30 2 Oj 
Balance to Net Revenue Account 113 IJ 

Total £1,843 2 2 

Net Revenue Account. 

Interest on £19.800 at 3J per cent 090 9J 

Sinking fund, ^ibth of capital 003 9J 

Balance from Revenue Account 113 1\' 

Net coat of disposal £1.472 1 S-J 

Technical Records. 

Tons of refuse destroyed 10.995 

Units produced from destructor steam 1,142.004 

Units used for power and light 132.00(> 

Units generated per ton 07-2 

Totnl chnker produced 5,3.38 

Total clinker .sold 1,280 

The author is aware that there are phases of the question which 

have not been dealt with in the Paper, but trusts that the arguments 

and figures submitted may elicit information from other engineers on 

this important subject. 


Jlr. Vi,'. W. Lackie (Glasgow Coi-poration Electricity Department), in 
opening the discussion, fully appreciated the value of the Paper, but was 
still of opinicin tliat refuse destructors were refuse coast ructors, and that 
a combinatitju of destructor plant and electricity supply was not prac- 
ticable in Glasgow, where they had seven small destructors in which 
fully 50 per cent, of the availaljle steam was used for driving auxiliary 
plant for refuse destruction alone. If it had been sufficientlylearly 
appreciated, perhaps their destructors would have been combined »-ith 
the public baths, of wliich there were several about the town. To get 
over the difticnity of feeding, referred to by Mr. Robertson, why had they 
not some form of chain grate feed ? He was also of opinion that the 
cost of condensing plant woidd far outweigh its advantages in the com- 
bination referred to. In Glasgow he emphasised the point that the 
cleansing department collected all the paper refuse separately, and thus 
made a considerable amount of money from its sale, whereas the paper 
would in the ordinary course be destroyed with the other refuse. 

Prof. F. G. Baily admitted he had no special knowledge of the subject, 
but it struck him that this was an instance where a special design of boiler 
might be further developed. Did the amount of £20,000 include boilers 
and economisers ? 

Mr. F. A. Newington (Edinburgh) admitted he had no experience of the 
subject under discussion beyond knowing from experience that destructors 
were horribly dirty and smelly places. In a recent visit to Greenock he 
was agreeably surprised to find his former views in this resppct 
tipset. The an'angements for handling and tipping were an enormous 
improvement on anything he had previously seen. In fact, he thought 
the author was unnecessarily modest, as he (the speaker) understood it 
was Mr. Robertson's ovvii idea. He quite agreed nith the author in not 
drying the refuse before feeding the furnaces. He thought thermal 
storage should be a good tiling. The Kensington and Knightsbridge 
system did not seem quite a success, but probably if used in a combined 
station it would be. He agreed with Mr. Lackie that such a combination 
of destructor and electricity supply was of great use for large and steady 
supply. For comi^arisou purposes he would like to know the cost of 
carting to original tippmg place. 

Mr. S. Mavoe thought cremation was the ideal method of getting rid 
of refuse. He agreed that combined destructor and electricity supply 
was quite impracticable for Glasgow, but for small to\vns it was quite the 
thing where carting was within reasonable hmits. He was much struck with 
the fact that the refuse with the best calorific value came from the poorer 
districts. Why was the chain grate not used ? It seemed incredible to 
him, since it would get over the difficulties referred to ui stoking. 

Mr. Evans asked for the calorific value of cabbage stumps and tin cans. 
He also asked if it was not the amount of unbumt cinder got from the 
poorer districts which gave the refuse the higher calorific value 
referred to. 

Mr. Willis asked why there was such an abnormal slump in the 
demand for electricity m Jul}'. Was it due to no demand, or want of 
refuse ? He was of opinion that induced draught would get over the 
dust troubles referred to during firing operations. 

Mr. Robertson, in reply, said he was, like Mr. Lackie, originally pre- 
judiced against combined destructor and electricity stations ; but by 
careful plannmg he had kept the furnaces away from the electrical plant 
as much as possible, .and he had seen to proper precautions being taken 
duruig firing by suitably designed tubs. In Liverpool there were five 
such combined stations as he advocated, and they were used as feeding 
pomts for the tramway system. To him there was no reason why 
Glasgow should not give equally good results. Cham grate feed had been 
used, but the chief ditticidty with it seemed to be on account of the 
material used, jamming and chokmg. With regard to boilei-s. so far as 
he knew no special boiler had been designed. The gases only passed 
once over the tubes, as it was found the best I'csults were obtained in that 
way. The refuse was burned at a very high temperature, and the gases 
could not be passed direct from furnace to the chimney for this reason. 
In reply to Mr. Newington, he would say the improvements in the 
Greenock plant were the Horsfall Co.'s patents. The capital cost in- 
cluded cost of boilers, economisers and part of steam iiiping. The cost 
of carting and tijiping previous to installation of destructor, taking it 
two miles out of town, was Is. 3id. per ton, as against Is. Sd. for the 
present system of ilestruction. In' reply to Mr. Evans, the average value 
of the refuse destroyed was about one-sixth the calorific value of good 
steam coal. During .luly, on account of the holidays, no steam could be 
used. He fouiu! forced draught the most desirable. 

" Wireless ' in Hotels.— According to the " Electrical 
Workl ■' the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York has already a 
wireless telegraph installation, and this load is to be followed 
by the Auditorium Annex Hotel at Chicago, where the United 
Wireless Telegraph Co. are to erect a plant. It is said that 
similar equipments will be placed in hotels at St. Paul and 
Duluth, I\Iinii., and perhaps in Buflalo and other cities. In 
addition to the Waldorf-Astoria in New York, the Eellevue- 
Stratford in riiiladelphi;; is also eqnipped with "wireless," 
and messages arc exchanged satisfactorily between these 
stations and also with vessels on the Atlantic. 




In the early days of "electric lighting this form of illumination was 
considered, not without some reason, to be essentially for the rich 
man, and the genera! opinion was that the person not very well 
blessed with this world's riches ought still to stick to the older means 
of obtaining artificial light. Whatever truth there may be in this 
statement, there is no doubt that since the time when electric light 
was first introduced, and even up to only a few years ago, the in- 
stallation of the necessary \viring in the house meant a rather larger 
capital expenditure than the small householder was able to afford. 
Our national character for stolidncss has in this, as in other cases, 
given rise to the use of very sturdy systems of wiring, which, when 
erected, have a very high factor of safety. During the past few 
months, however, the question has been raised whether this craze 
for solidity has not been carried too far. and that while including all 
points which make for safety in a system of house wuing. we could 
not as well give up a large number of the more expensive items 
without any sacrifice of this safetv. Attention has been called in 
this connection to the surface flexible systems used on the Continent. 
and a large number of engineers have expressed opinions favourable 
to this arrangement. Others, however, have stated that this method 
of wiring is scarcely suitable in this country owing to the climatic 
conditions and the more extended use of high pressures. The dis- 
cussion of this matter, however, has led to certain firms making 
experiments on the subject, with the result that one or two systems, 
which certainly combine flexibility and cheapness with "safety. 
have been put on the market. We described one of these, due to 
^lessrs. Siemens Bros. & Co.. in our issue of April 9th. and we have 
now been informed by Jlessrs. Simplex Conduits (Ltd.) that they are 
also putting on the market a flexible system which it is hoped will 
aid in the solution of the " six-light " man problem. 

This company claim that then- unique experience in electric wiring 
matters has brought home to them the fact that the adoption of 
cheap and um-eliable methods of wiring and flimsy material will not 
be of benefit to any concerned ; a statement which we feel sure will be 
endorsed by all those who have the well-being of the electrical in- 

Vu.. 1.— bAMi'Li, vt iHi. .Simplex Co.'s Cable fur new Flexible 
Wiring System. 

du.stry at heart. To resort to such methods as unprotected flexible 
cords of the ordinary kind as a means of popularising electric lighting 
would doubtless re-raise the chimera of danger from electrical fires 
from its grave, wliUe there can be no doubt that such a method, 
though convenient, is rather repugnant to British ideas of good 
workmanship. The Simplex flexible .system of wiring possesses, it is 
claimed, none of the disadvantages inherent in the wholly flexible 
systems, while at the same time it is cheap to instal and is very 
efficient. The disadvantage of unsightliness is also considerably 
mitigated, as with the patent armoured flexible, to be described 
hereafter, the wiring can be so arranged that it is almost unnotice- 
ablo against light-coloured ceilings or wall papers, whilst the other 
systems can be adapted so that the same end is attained. The time 
has now come to expose the illusion that electric light is exclusively 
for the rich man, and with some such system as that introduced by 
the Simplex Company the wants of the " six-light " man, who is 
doubtless a near relation o the " man in the street," will be satisfied. 

The Simplex armoured flexible ^\ u-e, which forms a part of this new 
system, and which we illustrate in Fig. 1, has aheady been used to 
some extent in workshops in connection with radiator wiring. It 
consists of two 20/36 conductors, which are insulated with pure 
rubber and covered mth cotton. These are formed into one circular 
strand, and are then armoured with 36 gauge iron wire, forming a 
cable having an overall diameter of 0-312.5 in. A similar wire, 
covered with flame-proof cotton flexible and water-proofed can be 
used in cases where mechanical protection or electrical conductivity 
of the covering is not essential, while a third class of wire is covered 
with cotton in place of armouring and weather-proofed underneath 
the cotton covering. 

The only accessory required with this system of wiring is a stan- 
dard circular kim box. This box is so constructed that it will take 
a ceiling rose, a switch or a wall plug, and it may also be emploved 
as an ordinary junction box. Four blank bosses are provided on I 

this box. which allows it also to be used as a terminal or junction box. 
in providing the necessary outlets it should be noted that only one 
tool tor drflling and tapping is used— i.e.. for drilling and screwing 
a standard Simplex i in. inlet. The internal dimensions of the box are 
-s in by 1 m., and ample room is allowed for making the connections. 
1 J f '^ '^"*'* "''^ ^ porcelain interior, on which terminals are 
placed for connecting to the various cu-cuits. For fixing wires to the 
tace of walls a small brass clip, which we illustrate in Fig. 2, is used. 
By means of a special nipple, which is connected to the box men- 
tionedfabove, a very good connection can be made to either lead- 
covered or cotton-covered flexible wire. These nipples depend upon 
a jambing action similar to that used in connection with the cord 
grip lamp-holder. The nipple consists of two parts ; first, a tapped 
brass nipple of ^ in. exterior diameter, which is screwed into the 
mlet of the box. The wire is inserted into this, and by means of a 
Up on the interior of the nipple specially provided it 'is impossible 
to carry the armouring into the box itself, the smaller diameter only 
permitting the taped portion of the wire to pass through into the box. 
The second part of the grip nipple is a small screwed sleeve, as is used 
m an ordinary cord grip. This part screws over that portion of the 
small brass nipple which projects from the box, and by means of a 
lapping of soft lead wire, which is used in the case of the armoured 
flexible, the jambing action ensures a lasting connection between 
the box and wire, together with efficient electrical continuity. In 
the case of flame-proofed and cotton-covered wire this jambing effect 
is produced by means of a small rubber band. These nipples are 
made accurately to size to ensiu'e an efficient gripping effect, and at 
the same time combining ease of erection. It is claimed by this 
means that an efficient lasting joint between the cable and box is 
obtamed, and, if the wire be armoured, there is also good electrical 

Fig. 2.— Clip for use with the Simplex Wiring System. 

In erecting the new system the wire is measured and cut to the 
exact length, and the insulation is worked back, so that when inserted 
in the nipple it will butt up against the shoulder provided. After 
making connections to interiors, ceiling or other accessories, the 
connection to the box is completed by fitting the lead wire (or rubber 
ring in the case of flame-proof and cotton-covered flexible). The 
former should be lapped round the armouring, and in the latter case 
the rubber ring should be tlireaded on to the wire, together with the 
screwed sleeve, in an exactly similar manner as would be the case 
in wiring an ordinary lamp-holder. Provided these instructions 
are adhered to, we are informed that an efficient and lasting joint 
between the flexible lead and the box is obtained, and, in the case of 
the armoured grade, complete electrical continuity is assured. 

Owing to the unsatisfactory results which are inevitable when a 
soldered connection is made in a flexible, due to the fact that the 
detrimental effect of the hot soldering iron results in frac'ture of many 
of the strands at the point where the wire ends into a sweating socket, 
a special form of connection has been adopted which is adapted to 
most types of accessories, and, whilst extending facilities for easy 
wiring, obviates breakages and ensures good electrical contact. On 
porcelain interiors a solid cheese head screw is used, together with 
heavy brass terminal, the upper portion being untapped and three 
washers being provided, so that at least three wires may be taken 
to the same connection. In nearly every case it will be found most 
convenient to carry out the wiring from corridors, making branch 
connection to lighting switch points by means of junction boxes with 
interiors ; these junction boxes are available for light points in 
addition if desired. When running tlirough walls, the flexible, 
whether armoured or otherwise, must be protected. This can easily 
be accomplished by a short length of " compo " tube, which can be 
made into an exceedingly neat job by chamfering away the ends 
after the wire has been run through, as would be done in the ordinary 
plumber's joint. 





(Continued from page 1003, Vol. LXII.) 

Summary. — The author here deals with the design and construction 
of the mechanical equipment of cranes. The mechanism required for 
eflfecting the usual crane motions is treated in four sections. The 
first section relates to lifting mechanism. The article opens with a 
short discussion on the determination of the size of motor, and a 
simple expression is given suitable for most ordinary types of jib and 
overhead travelling cranes. Then follow notes on wire ropes, flat 
link-chains, the gear ratio, spur and worm gears, shafting, barrels, 
blocks and hooks, mechanical brakes, limit switc'hes, and the " free- 
barrel " S3'stem. Lifting magnets and safety tongs are also described. 

Mr. H. Spillman, chief engineer of the MaschLnenfabrik 
Oerhkon, of Oerlikon, Switzerland, speaking in the di.s- 
cussion on Mr. Brnce's Paper on Worm Contact, read before 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, f stated that in 
order to give high efficiencies, a worm-gear must be designed, 
manufactured, and run under the following conditions : — 

1. The particular conditions of service must be known to 
the designer in every case. 

2. The form of the teeth must be as good as possible, and 
the teeth to be worked as accurately as possible. 

3. Full care must be taken in choosing the material. 

4. The lubrication must be excellent. 

5. The construction of the worm-gear as a whole must 
be extremely careful and accurate in character. 

6. The erection of the worm-gear at the site where it has 
to work must be given especial care, and should be done 
under close supervision. 

Fig. 80.— Spur 
Wheel Con- 

Fii:. 81. — Showing Method of secdring 
Koi'E TO Barrel. 

Eegardmg the strength of worm-gear, on this question 
there is great difference of opinion. In designing worm- 
gears, the strength may safely be based on the same formula 
as for spiu: gear, but there are many other factors which 
must be taken into consideration. Messrs. D. Brown & 
Sons, of Huddersfield, whose wide experience in all classes 
of gearing is well known, state that the most efficient angle 
of the worm is from 27 deg. to 31 deg. This is a point to 
which engineers attach far too little importance. Many 
authorities give the most efficient angle as about 40 deg., 
but it is found when the worm angle is more than 30 deg. 
the side thrust is so great as to neutralise the efficiency 
to a considerable extent. 

It is generally admitted that too much attention cannot 
be paid to the lubricatmg arrangements, and the author is 
of the opinion that the shght additional cost of an approved 
s_ystem of lubrication would be more than balanced by the 
higher overload capacity and reduced wear and tear of the 

When spur gearing is used, the wheels are made of the 

* Copyright. All rights of reproduction are reserved, 
t Proceedings, Inst. Mech. Engineers, Jan. 19, 190G. 

best open-hearth steel, hard and tough, and care is taken 
to secure a uniform grade, the best suited to resist the wear 
caused by the severe service to which crane gears are sub- 
jected. In the form of wheel shown in Fig. 80, the ca.stings 
are practically free from shrmkage cracks, and blow-holes, 
and the roots of the teeth are not so liable to be spongj' as 
with other designs. 

The pinions are made from well-hammered blanks, cut 
from the very best high-carbon open-hearth steel billets. < 

The main spur wheel is frequently keyed direct to the 
lifting barrel in order to relieve the shaft of torsional stress, 
and to minimise the load on the key. 

The slow-speed gearmg is often cast, with spur or double- 
hehcal teeth, shrouded both sides, but owing to the rough- 
ness of steel castings, and the large amount of chipping and 
filing necessary to obtain a passable gear, it is open to 

Fli:. 82. — B.\BKEL, WINDIXO ONE I'aRT OF RoPE. 

question whether cut gearing, of increased pitch and width 
to bring up the strength to that of the shrouded wheel, is 
not the cheaper in the long rmi, takuig all the controlling 
factors into consideration.* 

The teeth are short, and wherever possible the involute 
form should be used. The higher efficiency of the mvolute 
system generally, but especially where the wheel centres 
vary through wear, or other cause, favom-s this choice. 

The high-speed gearing should be enclosed in dust-proof 
cast-iron or sheet steel cases made in two halves. Steel 
cases are only about one-quarter the weight of the corre- 
sponding cast-iron gear cases, and are easier to handle. 

The shaft diameters are determined from the knowni 
torque and bending moment due to the wheels. 

As far as possible all pedestals should be provided with 
caps and adjustable phosphor-bronze steps. They should 

Fii;. 83.— Another Form of B.\rrel, iiv the Nuremberg Cr-OJE Co. 

be fitted with Kingfisher or Stauffer grease hibricators of 
ample capacity, properly fixed to prevent coming loose. 

The construction of "the barrels or rope drums will be 
inferred from Figs. 81 to 83. They should be grooved in 
the lathe to give a smooth bed for the rope, and as already 
stated must be made sufficiently large in diameter to take 
the entire length of rope, required for the maximum lift in 
one lap. In overhead travelling cranes, and other cranes of 
similar construction, the grooves are formed right and left- 
handedly from each end of the drum, so as to give a truly 
vertical and central lift.^ 

* Generally speaking it is uimecessary to shroud the main spur wheel. 
The teeth uiishrouded are stionger than the teeth on the mating pinion 
when shiouded to the pitch line on both sides. 



The rope attacliment depicted in Fig. 81, due to Adam- 
son & Co., is such that if the whole length of rope is run 
off, as when working over a pit iii the floor of the shop, the 
eye and its fastening will sustain the load, without assist- 
ance from fiictional rope contact with the drum. A recess 
cast in the drum receives the eye, and the turned pin in- 
serted through the drum-end fits into a hole in the steel eye- 
piece, aromid which the rope is bent. 

Fig. 84. — Block and Hook for Small Loads. 

A\Tien the load is lifted at a high speed, or when the 
height of lift is small, there is a possibility of frec|uent over- 
winding taking place, and the limit switch, or overwinding 
de\'ice,* which interrupts the current may not prevent the 
blocks being brought into violent contact, particularly 
when light loads are being handled, as the momentum of 
the gearmg is sufficient to cause a certain amount of run- 
ning after the switch is opened. In such cases it is advis- 
able to use taper barrels so that the load can be lifted at the 

Fig. 85. — Block axu Hook foe .Mfwl.m Loads. 

maximum speed at the commencement of the lift, and, as 
the lift proceeds, the speed is decreased until the load nears 
the top of the lift, when the speed is very .slow. In this 
way the load may be more easily handled and " mused " 
near the top of the lift. 

The top block fixing which carries the .sheaves or com- 
pensating pulley is arranged with a universal joint, and is 

* Limit switches will be described in a later section of the article. 

suspended from a stiff cross-beam riveted to the sides of 
the trolley frame. 

Typical designs of the block and hook are shown in Figs. 
84 to 87 inclusive. The constructions (Figs. 84 and 85) by 
Broadbent & Sons are for light and medium loads respec- 

Fio. S6. — Block and Hook for Heavy Loads. 

tively. It will be seen that the block pulleys are con- 
nected to the hook cross-head by double joints, so that 
they must hang truly in line with the rope no matter at 
what angle the rope may leave the barrel. 

The block and hook (Fig. 86) by the Nuremberg Crane 
Co. is suitable for the heaviest cranes, and that shown in 

Fii:. 87. — Usual Design op Block for Small and Medium Loads. 

Fig, 87 by the same firm is suitable for cranes of small and 
medium capacity. 

The details are shown so clearly in the several drawings 
as to require no elaboration. 

In order to enable the hook and block safely to withstand 
the severe forces induced by the load slipping or surging, 
it is necessary to use the best material which can be obtained, 
and to proportion the parts in such a way as to keep the 



working stresses low. Either the very best selected York- 
shire scrap iron or high quaUty mild steel should be used, 
and the working stresses adopted should not exceed 3 tons 
per square inch in tension, and 1-75 tons per square inch in 
shear. The bearings of the sheaves are proportioned to 
limit the pressure on the axle-pins to 0-5 ton per square 
inch, and care is taken to ensure thorough lubrication. 

Table XVIII. — I'est Showing the Extra Strain upon a Hoieling Sope 
loith a Few incha of Slack Chain. 

Load weighed by machine 

Load Ufted gently 

Load lifted with 3 in. of slack chain. 

Tons. Cwt. 








From the Impact Tests, by Cradock & Co., summarised 
in Table XVIII., we may conclude that an elastic con- 
nection should be provided between the hook and block in 
all cases where there is any likelihood of .shock. 

(2*0 he continued.) 



{Concluded from page J.) 

Summary. — A description is here given of the main features of the 
electrical installation for the largest steel-making plant in the world. 
Blast furnace gas is used for a large gas engine power station. One 
of the most interesting features is the electrical equipment of the rail- 
mill, the roll trains being direct coupled to the largest induction motors 
•ever made, of 2,000 and 6,000 h.p. capacity. 

Table and Transfer Motors. — In the rolling mill proper there are 
21 tables and two transfer.?, all of which are controlled by automatic 
magnetic torque-limiting control. The eight operators stand on 
elevated platforms or pulpits. Some of the controllers are mounted 
on the operating pulpits and others on special platforms located near 
the motors which they control. These tables and transfer motors 
are all of the so-called mill type. Tables running constantly are 
equipped with shunt-wound motors. Those doing considerable 
amount of reversing or frequent starting and stopping have series- 
wound motors. The transfers are simple chain di'ive, having two 
sets of dogs for moving the rail sidewise, and the control is entirely 
automatic. When the operator throws his controller to the forward 
position, the transfer chain makes one-half revolution, depositing 
the rail in the proper place. Then the motor stops automatically. 
The next motion, for transferring the following rail, is made by the 
operator putting his controller to the " off " position and again 
throwing it to the " on " position. 

An interesting feature of the auxiliary drive is the lifting table at 
the three-high 40 in. blooming mill. This table has a total weight 
of '256.0001b., partly counter- balanced by means of a cylinder con- 
taining air at 500 lb. per square inch pressure, and is lifted or lowered 
40 in. in three seconds. The operating motor is 250 h.p. 250 volt 
direct current, 100 revs, per min. compound wound. The control, 
like that of the table motors, is entirely automatic, and is manipu- 
lated by the operator simply tlu-owing his master controller to the uj) 
or down position, the accelerating, running, retarding and stopping 
being taken care of automatically. 

There is also a tilting table at the tliree-high roughing rolls similar 
to the lifting table, but of considerably less weight. This table 
gives one complete stroke of 2() in. either up or down in 1-5 seconds. 
It is driven by a 150 h.p. 250 volt 100 revs, per min. compound- 
wound motor, and is controlled like the lifting table. 

The hot saws, five in number, are driven individually by 40 h.p. 
750 revs, per min. induction motors. The saws are 40 in. in diameter 
and make 1.440 revs, per min. All five are raised and lowered at 
one time by a crankshaft operated by a 25 h.p. series shunt- wound 
mill-type motor. The control is similar to that of the lifting table, 
except that if the operator throws his control to the first ))oint thc 

* Abstract of a Paper read before the American Institute of Electrical 

saws lower and stop in thai |)osition. It is then necessary for him 
to bring his control t<j the Hrst point on the reverse in order to 
the saws ; then the latter come up to the top and again stop auto- 
matically. In regular operation, however, the operator throws to 
the second point ; upon which tlie saws lower, cut the rail and again 
rise, stopping automatically in the upper position. 

The cambering machine is driven by a 40 H.P. 750 revs, per min. 
induction motor. On the hot beds, four in number, there is a push- 
up for shoving the rails off the delivery table on to the beds, and a 
pull-up for dragging the rails from the beds on to the receiving table 
in the finishing mill. These " push-ups " and " pull-ups " are driven 
by 75 H.P. series mill-type motors, the controllers of which are also 
automatic. From the receiving table the rails are delivered in both 
directions to the finishing department by feed tables similar to those 
in the rail mill. Because of tlie continuous running of these feed 
tables the controllers are the ordinary hand-operated type. 

For delivering the rails from this table to the straightening beds 
" kick-offs " are used. These are simply bars lying normally below 
the surface of the table, but raised at an angle so that rails are lifted 
and then slid off by means of a cam on a motor-operated shaft. The 
straightening presses, 18 in number, are driven by 10 h.p. 7.50 revs. 
per min. high-resistance rotor induction motors. The drill presses. 
18 in number, are driven by 10 h.p. 750 revs, per min. induction 
motors with ordinary squLrrel-cage rotors. 

All of the induction motors in the finishing department are stan- 
dard, and are controlled by means of a triple-pole double-throw 
switch, which is connected to a five-wire system. The two extra 
wires are taps taken off the main transformers, thus furnishing low 

Fig. 1.— General Electric Co.'s 6,000 h.p. Induction Motor in 
Rail Mill. 

voltage for starting. This system does away entirely with the com- 
plication and trouble accompanying individual starting compen- 

The loading beds outside are covered by two special electric cranes 
which transfer the rails from one part to the other or load them in 
cars, tlie rails being handled by means of large special magnets. On 
the south side of the runway of these cranes is also a small monorail 
crane, whose sole purpose is to deliver rails to the cold-saw bed. 

The cold saw, a tooth saw 42 in. in diameter making 1,800 revs. 
per min., is driven by a 100 h.p. 750 revs, jier min. induction motor. 
This saw is capable "of cutting an 85 lb. rail in 22 seconds, the U»id 
varying between 50 h.p. and 100 H.P., according to the part of the rail 
that is being cut. 

3Iotors for driving the Bolls.— As mentioned earlier in the PajK-r. 
although electric motors have been used for some time to drive rolls, 
the motors usetl in tliis plant are several times larger than any motors 
of their type previously built. Their use for this purpose nuirks a 
new era in the industrial application of electric power. The main 
rolls of the mill arc driven by six iiuluction motors, having a com- 
bined capacity of 24,000 H.P.," made up of tlie following units : Two 
of 2,000 H.p. at 214 revs, per rain., one of 2.(KK1 H.P at GS revs, jxr 
min., one of 6,000h.p. at 88 revs, per min., one of O.lXXIu.r. at 83 revs. 
))cr mill., and one of 6.000 h.p. at 75 revs, per min. One of the 
0,000 H.P. motors is showni in Fig. 1 and 2.000 h.p. motors in Fig. 2. 

In the construction of these motors the parts were made extremely 
heavy and rigid, following out as far as possible the practice which 



has proved successful in the construction of steam engines for similar 
duty. The stator frame is of the box-type construction, and is spUt 
into four sections for ease in handling and transportation. The 
rotor spider is of cast steel, and is made up of four sections with two 
arms per section. The sections are bolted to disc hubs which are 
pressed on the shaft. 

As the flywheel efTect of the rotors necessary to overcome the ex- 
cessive loads in rolling can only be determined accurately by actual 
trial, it was deemed advisable where possible to construct the motors 
so that the flywheel effect could be altered after the motors had been 
put in oijeration. This was accomplished in the 6.000 h.p. and the 
•2,000 H.r. motors at 68 revs, per min. by attaching to the rotor 
spiders heavy cast-steel rims which could easily be removed and 
exchanged for rims of different weights. On account of their tri])le 
speed, the two 2,0(>ii 
H.P. 214 rev.s. per min. 
motors have sejiarato 
flywheels w e i g h i n tr 
lOO.tXtOlb.each. These 
Hywheels are built up 
of riveted boiler plates, 
■which do not permit of 

The end thrust which 
may result from a dia- 
gonal fracture of a 
spindle or roll is fre- 
quently sufficient to 
^vreck either the mill 
or the motor unless 
special precautions art- 
taken. This problem, 
which is extremel\ 
difficult to solve when 
an engine is used for 
driving the rolls, is 
very easily solved 
when electric motors 
are used. A device 

termed a mechanical fuse is attached to the pedestal by two break- 
able rods. These rods are so proportional that they will break only 
when the end thrust exceeds 150 tons. When the rods give way 
under this j)ressure the rotor is free to move longitudinally away 
from the rolls, thereby relieving the thrust. To prevent injury to 
the brush rigging it is so arranged as to move freely with the brushes, 
alwaj's maintaining their proper position on the collector rings. 

The bearings are self aligning with oil-ring lubrication. They 
can also be lubricated from an independent oiling system. Pro- 
vision is made for water cooling in case of emergency. The coils, 
which are assembled in open slots, are very rigid. In order, how- 
ever, to prevent any possible vibration due to excessive fluctuations 
of the current, the coils are also firmly laced to a rigid supporting 




. 17.50 

; 1500 

' lOOO 

Fig. 2. — 2,000 H.p. iNDrcrioN JIotors in Rail JIill. (General Electric Co.) 









1 — 1 — — , "■" 




■::^,i,r Factor | 




- UO 




-5 ''J 





S- Kn 


? "" 








i in 













Characteelstkj Cubn-es of 6,000 n.i-. 
Induction Motor. 


The electrical characteristics of the motors are sho«n in Figs. 3 
and 4, which represent the results of tests of the 2,000 h.p. motor at 
214 revs, per min. and the 6,000 h.p. motor at 88 revs, per min. 
Reference to these curves shows that the power factor and efificiency 

H.P. (normal rating, I 

40deg. rise) 2.000 2,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 

Speed (r.p.m.) 214 68 83 88 75 

No. of poles 14 30 44 34 40 

Weight complete, lb.1390,000 .578,000 749,000 749,000 783,000 
Flywheel effect (lb. atl 

1 ft. radiHs)ofrotor.l354,000 8,9.50,00011,600,000 11.600,000|14,100,000 

Air gap (total), in. ...| 0-28 0-40 | 0-40 0-40 0-40 

Breakdown torque,H.p| 6,800 5,100 i 18,500 | 20,600 16,400 

are near their ma.ximum at the rated output of the motors, and that 
high values are maintained throughout the complete operating^ 
range. Further particulars of the motors are given in the table. 

The two 2,000 h.p. 214 revs, per min. motors were received at the 
Gary works conijilete except the flywheels, which were built up and 
turned after the installation of the motors. The three 6.000 h.p. and 
one 2,000 h.p. 68 revs, per min. motors were assembled and wound 
in position. The 2.000 h.p. 214 revs, per min. motor, with its con- 
trollers, was tested before shipment, but the controllers for the re- 
maining four motors were first assembled at the works. 

Only two minor troubles have developed so far in the entire in- 
stallation. On starting up one of the 6,000 H.P. motors one section' 
of the rotor resi.stance overheated, but investigation proved this 
trouble to be due to a stray piece of arc-lamp carbon. In starting 

up another of these 
motors trouble deve- 
loped due to a broken 
gi'id in the rotor re- 

Contriil jar Roll-train 
Motors. — In designing 
the efjuipment for 
these 2,000 h.p. and' 
6.000 H.p. 6,600 volt 
induction motors, not 
only were the sizes of 
the motors to be con. 
trolled beyond any- 
thing previously at- 
temptecl. but the spe- 
cifications |)resented 
many novel features, 
for most of the motors 
the service recjuired a 
very large flywheel 
effect. Because of 
the well-known char- 
acteristics of the in- 
duction motor, it was 
clearly recognised that there would necessarily be large fluctua- 
tions in current, even though the flywheels were very large, 
unless some means were employed for automatically introducing 
resistance into the motor circuit whenever the load was sufficient 
to cause even as small a change of speed as 2 or 3 per cent. 
It was desirable that the automatic features be adjusted so as to 
operate continuously, regulating the current taken by the motors 
so that the demands on the source of supply for any one motor would 
be uniform ; the motor and its flywheel meanwhile accelerating 
and decelerating at a point just below synelu'onism to meet the 
power demands of the rail mill which it was driving. 

The large current in the secondary circuits of the motors necess'- 
tated separate contactors. Rheostats were arranged in multiple 




= .500 




S 4 



i £/»>« 












— - 

— . 





















1 Slip 


1 — 









Fig. 4. — Characteristic Cirves of 2,000 h.p. 214 revs, per min. 
Induction Motor. 

delta, and the successive value of the resistance was made such that 
as each contactor closed the rush of current through it would b& 
approximately one-fourth of the intake of the motor. This arrange- 
ment prevents the rheostats or contactors being called upon to carry 
anj-where near their full rated current, and gives the whole control 
system a conservative continuous rating. 

The control apparatus for each motor consists of : Preliminary 
control apparatus, which includes the oil switches, reversing switches, 
series transformers, preliminary relays, &c. Secondary control 
(Fig. 5), comprising the rheostats, contactors, regulating panel, &c., 
and, thirdly, the master controller. 

The motors and the controlling apparatus are placed in a separate 
room, which is sci)arated from the rolling mill proper by a ])artition. 



The master controller, however, is in the rolling mill. Under these 
conditions, therefore, the operator must depend chiefly on the auto- 
matic features of the control, which are .so far away that he must 
judge of their correct working by the behaviour of the rolls while the 
steel is passing through them. In case of emergency, provision is 
made for the motor attendant to shut down the motors independently 
of the master controller. 

The 0,600 volt current enters through the triple-pole main oil 
switch ; from thence it passes through a number of oil switches which 
determine the direction of rotation. These switches are inter- 
locked, making it impossible for them to be operated unless the main 
switch is open. Additional interlocks prevent them from being 

driven mill in the world rolling rails directly from the ingot without 
re-heating. Tliere are nine passes in the blofjming mill. The first 
two passes are two-high rolls 42 in. [litch diameter running at 6 revs, 
per min., and are connected to one of the 2.000 H.F. 214 revs, per 
min. motors through gear reductions. The next two passes are 
identical with jiasses one and two. except that the rolls are 40 in. in 
diameter and make 10 revs, per min. and are driven in the same 
manner. The next five passes are made in a 40 in. three-high train 
direct connected to a 6.000 h.p. 75 revs, per min. motor. Tlie lifting 
table for this train has already been described. The bloomfis then 
cut in two by means of the bloom .shears, operated by'a 75 H.P. 
induction motor. 

Fic:. 5. — Control Evuii'MEXT for 6,000 h.p. Motor. 

closed simultaneously. This group of preliminary control appa- 
ratus also includes the necessary relays to open the circuit in case of 
overload and to prevent the secondary control from being operated 
in an injurious manner. 

The arrangement of the secondary control rheostats in multiple 
delta is shown in Fig. 6. Direct current at 250 volts was adojited for 
the control of this secondary apparatus, and the voltages so ar- 
ranged that each contactor coil is subjected to a pressure of only 
about 15 volts. This pressure is so small that the arcing is insig- 
nificant. To compensate for the different number of contactors in 
circuit at different speeds a balancing resistance equalling the re- 
sistance of the contactor is cut in or out of circuit inversely as the 
contactors. This keeps the current in the contactor circuit approxi- 
mately constant at about 5 amperes, and results in a simple arrange- 
ment of contacts on the regulating device. The regulating device 

Fio. 6.— Di.\GRAM OK Skcosd.\ry Control of Rail-mii.l Motors. 

consists'of two concentric groups of buttons, one connected to the 
contactor coils and the other group to the contactor resistances, 
the two groups being cross-connected step by step by a simple arm 
controlled automatically. Should the 250 volt supply fail, a weight 
attached to the grooved pulley on this arm serves to return the 
mechanism to the off position. The master controller, which 
operates both the preliminary control and secondary control ap- 
paratus, has two handles ; one is a reversing handle and the other 
is for applying and shutting off the power. 

Rail Mill. — The rail mill has a capacity of 4,000 tons of finished 
rails per 24 hours. It is not only the largest, but also the only motor- 

The next train of rolls, which comprises a three-high roughing mill 
with passes 10, 11 and 12, is operated by means of the tilting table, 
the second edger or pass 16 and leader or pass 17. This train is 28 in. 
pitch diameter and direct connected to a 6,000 H.P. motor running 
at 63J revs, per min. The next pass is the 28 in. two-high former, 
direct connected to a 2,000 h.p. 68 revs, per min. motor. 

The third roll train consists of the dummy, or pass 14, the first 
edger, or pass 15. and the finisher, or jiass IS. These rolls also are 


28 in. pitch diameter, and the train is direct connected to a 6,0<Xt H,P. 
88 revs, per min. motor. 

A diagram of these passes, and particulars of the size, &c., of the 
pieces leaving the various passes, is given in the Paper. To supply 
power to the train motors of this mill there are two circuits, each of 
10,000 kw. normal capacity at 6.600 volts. One circuit feeds the 
three blooming-mill motors : that is two 2.000 H.P. and one 6,000 H.P. 
The other circuit feeds the other three motors ; that is. two 6.000 H.P. 
and one 2.000 n.p. The estimated combined load with the mill 
working at full capacity, with voltage and amperage of each of the 
circuits, is shown in i"ig. 7. This cycle, which is 31S9 seconds. 



indicates an exceedingly variable load, the total variations being 
from a minimum of 4,3(l0 h.p. to a maximum of 19.010 h.p. with an 
average of 12,025 h.p.. which makes the load factor on the six-train 
motors almost exactly 50 per cent. The curve was developed to 
provide a basis for estimating the size of the storage battery neces- 
sary to take care of the fluctuations and keep a constant load on the I 
generating station. 

Conchisiotis. — One of the most satisfactory conclusions, so far as 
the Indiana St?el Co. is concerned, that can be drawn at the present 
date is that, so far. all of the apparatus described in this Paper 
which has been tried has been practically a perfect success. 

In the original design of the plant considerable attention was given 
to the question of underground versus overhead transmission. In 
view of some later developments, although it might have been pos- 
sible to put in underground service, which would not have greatly 
exceeded the cost of overhead construction, yet the latter has given 
no trouble. All of the 6.600 volt feeders are protected by multigap 
lightning arresters, while the 22.000 volt has both multigap and elec- 
trolytic lightning arresters. The latter were not installed until after 
the former had been operated for some time, and since the installation 
of the electrolytic lightning arresters there has been no discharge 
over the multigap. nor have there been any bad effects from lightning 
either in the plant of the Indiana Steel Co. or at other points on the 
line, which are protected in like manner. 

A comparison between the estimated horse-power and the observed 
horse-power required for the various passes in the rail mill shows 
some discrepancy ; but because the steel rolled was colder than it 
would have been in actual practice, since all of the machiner}- is new 
and is not operating so quickly as it should, and because, also, of the 
lack of adjustment of the rolls, it is believed that the power required 
will be very little, if any, in excess of the original calculations. 

After the roll-train motors had been started it was discovered 
that the stopping of them was an important featme. The 2.000 h.p. 
214 revs, per min. motor, when disconnected from the rolls, required 
two hours to come to rest, while the 6,000 h.p. 83^- revs, per min. 
motor required 1 hour 37 minutes to stop. This time consumed 
would mean corresponding delays in case of breaking of the main 
spindle, which, of course, could not be countenanced. In order to 

stop these motors within a reasonable length of time, direct current 

at 250 volts was introduced into one phase of 

the winding, through an external resistance. 

after the motor had been disconnected from 

the 6.600 volt line. By this device the 2,000 

H.P, 21-t revs, per min. motor was stopped in 

2 minutes and 55 seconds, and the 6,000 h.p. 

motor in 1 minute and 42 seconds. During 

this time the first .section only of the resist- 
ance of the rotor was closed. This device is 

being put in permanently, and a 6.600 volt 

switch connected to one phase, the other 

side of which will be coimected to the 250 

volt line through a permanent resistance, and 

this switch interlocked with the main 6,600 

volt oil switch, so that both cannot be 

thrown in at the same time. 

Probably no industrial application of elec- 
tricity has been the result of more careful 

study on the part of the engineers in charge, 

or has marked a more general adoption of 

electric power than the one just described. 

Although manv of the motor applications 

are not new, this plant is unique in respect 

to the number and variety of the applica- 
tions and the size of many of its units. The 

rail mill now in operation, driven by induc- 
tion motors with a combined capacity of 

24,000 H,P., and having a normal output 

of 4,000 tons of steel rails per 24 hour day, 

is without a rival. The operation of the 

plant will, therefore, be watched with more than usual interest, 
both by steel mill engineers and electrical engineers. Its success 
will greatly accelerate the application of the electric motor in 
this industrial field. 


This week we give some illustrations of work performed by the 
London Wireless Telegraph Company R,E. during the Easter holi- 
days at Kneller Hall, When the Territorial force was created five 
wireless companies were formed — one for each army command, Tlie 
fimction of these companies in war would be to keep up communi- 
cations between the advanced posts of the army and the head- 
quarters of the commander-in-chief. For this reason they must be 

Fi(i. 1. — Intekioh of the ■■ Wireless" .St.ition used by the 


mobile, so that they can act with cavalry or horse artillery. Each 
company will consist, for the present, of two'portable stations, each 
station being carried on a waggon which consists of a limber and 
main carriage. These waggons are horsed with a six-horse team and 


Gennano-Amcrican Patent Treaty. — The United States 
Senate has ratified the new patent treaty between the United 
States and Germany, which provides fertile reciprocal protec- 
tion of patents taken out in Germany by Americans and in the 
United States by Germans. The existing law is also amended 
so that the obligation of manufacture in either country where 
the patent is obtained is abolished, and the patented article 
can be manufactured in another country and imported. 

View of the Exterior of the Station, showinu the Antenkae and 
Mast Equipment, 

carry fom- men on the boxes. The mast is in sections and is also 
carried on the waggons. None of the wireless companies are yet 
equipped with apparatus of any kind, although it is expected that 
some equipment will be issued before the end of this year. 

The London company have been fortunate enough to get training 
in' the stations of the Lepel Wireless Synd., these being situated at 
Slough and Twickenham. Further, one of the officers of the London 
Wireless Company R.E. is having a portable station made by the 
Lepel Wireless Synd. for the use of his company. The men will 
therefore have the advantage of learning the system, and the 
operators will be able to train for speed and efficiency. 

In the (ierman army the greatest importance is attached to 
the science of wireless telegraphy. Thee they have no less than 12 
companies carrying portable apparatus, besides several fixed 



stations at towns such as those f>£ Jletz and Strasburg. Up to 
the present they Imve used the Telefunken system, but in this 
year's manoeuvres the Lepel system, which has many salient 
advantages, is to be tried in conjunction with the Telefunken 
system. The English regular army lias only two companies carry- 
ing portable stations, and one fixed station at Aldershot. Up to 
now they have been using spark telegraphy, but lately they have 
purchased installations from the Lepel Wireless Synd. {continuous 
wave .system), and there is every indication that the continuous 
waves will come into extensive use for military and shipping pur- 
poses, not only in this country but on the Continent. 

There is no doubt that two companies are quite inadequate for 
the work of our regular arm}', and therefore it is one of the best 
points of Mr. Haldane's territorial scheme that five wireless com- 
panies are included. Tlierc is a great keenness in the ranks of the 
London Wireless Company, which is now over strength, and there 
are still a great number of applications for enlistment. As soon as 
the others are equipped no doubt the same keenness will be shown. 


The three-phase motor, although, of course, a very useful di'iving 
apparatus in many ways, for a long time sufi'ered from the fa^t 
that to regulate its speed was no easy matter, and in consequeno3 

The motor, on which the tests were made, had an output of 
15H.P., and was specially built for driving a large lathe. It wa.s 
capable of running at four normal speeds — viz., 500, 750, l.OfJO 
and l,.50O revs, per min. At all these speeds a constant output of 
15 H.P. could be obtained, or a constant torque of 15 kg. on a brake 
lever 1 metre long. The motor was supplied with current at 
500 volts, the frequency being .50 cycles. 

The curves in Figs. 2 to 7 represent the characteristics of this 
motor for the six different positions of the speed regulator. Fig. 2 


FlO. 1. — OkRUKON 5(10 II. r. 'rHRKK-Pu.^SK V.\l!I.\lll.K .SrKlU) .MoTOK 

its employment for work in which a range of speed was desired was 
not possible. This in itself led to certain complications, for the 
current had often to be transformed from tlu-ee-phase to continuous, so 
that the necessary speed regulation of the motor could be obtained. 

In recent years, however, these difficulties have been overcome 
in several ways, one of the most successful being by altering the 
number of poles on the stator. The Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon were 
among the first to make motors of this type. Since their first 
introduction by this firm very considerable progress has been made, 
and in the following article we give a series of test curves which 
were obtained with one of the Oerlikon standard types of three- 
phase variable speed motor. We illustrate such a motor having au 
output of 500 H.P. , which is installed at the Sandviken mines in 
Sweden, in Fig. 1, 

Fig. 2. — Theee-Piiase Motor Characteristic. Four Poles. Series 

Connections, 1,500 revs, per min. 

Note. — In all figurefi:!. — Power factor; tl.— Efficiency ; III. — Input in watts; 
IV.— Torque i V.— Carrent; VI.— Slip. 

shows the results obtained when there are fom- poles,' the connections 
being in series. In Fig. 3 the motor also has four poles, but the con- 
nections are In parallel. Figs. 4 and 5 show the conditions with 
six poles, the connections being in .series and parallel respectively. 
Fig. gives the results obtained with eight poles, and Fig. 7 
with twelve poles. The stator has two separate windings, wliich are 
embedded in 72 slots, thus allowing four and eight or six and twelve 
poles to be respectively obtained. The rotor of this motor is of the 
squirrel-cage type. 

The stator windings corresponding to a lour 
or eight-pole arrangement consist of a set of 
four groups of coils per phase, which can he 
interconnected in three different ways. In 
two of these ways the speeds obtained cor- 
respond to a four-pole arrangement, the only 
difference between the two being that in one 
case the fom' groups of one phase are in series, 
while in the other case they are In parallel. 
The third way of combining the connections 
gives an eight-pole arrangement. The con- 
nections for six and twelve-pole conditions 
can be similarly arranged, the windings then 
having six groups of coils per phase. The . 
test curves shown In Figs. 2 to 7 give all the 
electrical data obtainable by means of any of 
the connections referred to above over a range 
of load from no load to full load. 

A comparison of the results obtained between 
no-load and full load for each stator winding, 
for both series or parallel connections, and 
when using either the smaller or greater 
number of poles, show that (1) the no-load 
current, when parallel connections are om- 
ploj-ed at the same speed with the smaller 
number of poles. diM\s not differ considerably 
from the no-load current obtained with 
double the number of poles. Whilst with 
series connections the no-load currents with 
tlie smaller nmuber of poles are only about 
a quarter those with the double number of 
poles. (2) The ''current at maximum output, and, in fact, the 
maximum output itself Is nearly four times greater with the 
smaller number of poles when parallel connoetions are used than 
the current and corresponding out|)Ut with double the number of 
poles. In the of the series connections, however, the current 
and output is nearly the same with the smaller numl)er of poles as 
with the double number of poles. 

The corollary to this is that it is posssible to do without the par.illel 
connections with the lower number of poles— i.e., with four and six 
poles, when the motor is being used for a constant outi>ut at the 
different speeds corresponding to the individual steps. This is par- 
ticularlv the when the motor Is used for driving tools, where a 
constant power gi\ es a greater torque at lower siieeds. On the other 
hand, the use of parallel connections with the smaller number of poles 




— I.e., four and six — is desirable when it is necessary to maintain a 
constant torque at all speeds. 

The Oerlikon Co. recommend the use of parallel connections when 
this type of motor is used for driving pumps, printing presses, roll- 

rosyX W. M Kj. /}. S-'/o 

1.0 /^5 | [ I I [ [jm I [ I [ \X]ll] I I / I I ^^'" 


60 120 
to 80 
20 'lO 



- ^ - 7 



* ^2/ 






^^"A^ ^ 

-.^Z'^^^'t J' 







— - 







Fig. 3. — Fofk Poles. Parallel Connections, 1,500 revs per min. 

ing mills, hoisting gears or traction installations. The test results 
obtained with tliree-phase motors, either for a constant output or a 
constant torque, are given in the following tables for the machine 
under consideration — i.e., for a motor of typ^ 360 having an arbi- 

1,0 25 








— -J 


































r - 








1 ■ 
















20 >10 

10 20 


Fu;. 4. — Six Poles. Series Connections, 1,000 revs, per min. 

trarily chosen output of 15 h. p. and an arbitrarily chosen torque of 
10 kgm. and 20 kgm. This constant output of 15 h.p. corresponds 
practically to the continuous output of the motor when it is running 
with the eight-pole arrangement of connections. If the connections 

Table I. — Data for 15 h.p. Oer/ikon Three-phase Varlahle f>peed Motor 

rmininrj on a 500 volt circuit : frequency 50. 

A. — Data with Constant Output. 

Groupiiii; of poles 



Four poles, parallel 

connections 1,475 180 

Four poles, series 

connections 1,445 IS'5 

Six poles, parallel 

connections 978 205 

Six poles, series ] 

connections 920 171 

Ei^'ht poles 715 19-2 

Twelve poles 447 230 





































B.— Data with Constant Tokv''e. 
I. — ToewueIOkom. 

Grouping of pole?. 

Speed, Current 
r. p.m. amperes. 

Four [K>les, pnr.allel connections 1,470 

Four pole.-i, series connections .:. 1,425 

Six pole.s, parallel connections... 980 

Six poles, series connections .. 935 

Bight poles 727 

Twelve poles .....".!!!... 465 

11.— TORQCE 20 Kl 

Four poles, jarallel connections 
Four ])oles, series connections... 
Six poles, parallel connections... 
Six poles, series connections ... 

Eight poles __ 

Twelve poles qiO 







90-5 0-94 



88.0 0-85 



72 0£6 



820 0f2 



73-0 0-735 



are changed to a four or six-pole arrangement the output is propor- 
tionately increased, while a twelve-pole connection proportionately 
lowers the output. The outputs at each speed for whicji th,e motor 
is designed correspond to a constant torque of 10 The starting 



1,0 loo'^ 

0,5 50 



_ ^ ._ 2 zz^ 

/ ,/' ^ '='■><! 

' ^ "U^C-^ j^ 

7/ "^if ^ 

/ -^i^-^^ ^'''r I 

/ -S^ .^""^ 

,e:^§ ^ —'^'^ 

^^'^ _l " 

s= % 

Nkg. imp 

^100 200 





80 IP 

Fig. 5. — Six Poles. Parallel Connections, 1,000 eevs. per min. 

conditions of the motor are indicated in Table I., which shows the 
maximum starting moment for each pole arrangement and the cor- 
responding current in amperes. The torque in kilogrammes when 
running on a brake lever cf 1 metre length is shown, and the cor- 
responding current in amperes is also given in the Table. 

In this kind of work the proof of the utility of such a machine is 

rf)S(f KW. 
1.0 10 

0,.'i ;'fl 

. .^ 

-'^ -^^^ IL ~~~^ 

Z y.^- - g^^„._ 

^ y J^^ . - 

// '''' F^--''3 

~P ---"^ ^ — — !^ — -"^^ra 

/ ^ .- -".I- — — r:— - _ — — '^ 



I 50 S-% 
30 15 
10 5 

5 10 15 eo 25 MIP 

Fig. 0. — Eight Poles, 750 revs, per min. 

given by the wideness of its application, and we understand that 
the excellence of tliree-phase motors for machine tool driving is 
being so recognised by one of the largest Swiss tool manufacturers 
that about 40 of these motors have already been installed in the 


5 10 15 ' 201P 

Fig. 7. — Twelve Poles, 500 revs, per min. 

works. The ironworks at Sandviken in Sweden, as mentioned above, 
are driving one of their rolling mills with an Oerlikon three-phase 
variable speed motor of 500 h.p., which is illustrated in Fig. 1. This 
motor works with a constant torque, and its outputs at four speeds 
are given in Table 11. The efficiencies and power factors of a motor 
built to run on a circuit of 500 volts and a frequency of 50 cycles 
at four speeds are given in Table III. . 

Table II. — Data for 500 H.p. Oerlikon Three-phase Variable fJpeed Motor, 

500 H.p. 
400 II. p. 


.. 367 1 
... 294 

250 ii.p. 
200 II.P. 

r. p.m. 

Table III. — Jifficienciea and Power Factors of an Oerlikon Three-phase 
Variable Speed Motor running on a .WO Volt .'lO Cycle Circuit. 

Speed, r.p.m. 


Efficiency at full load 93^ j 90% I 89% 

Efficiency at half load .". 90% | 87% 86% 

Power factor at full load 0'90 85 082 

Power factor at h.alf load ' 0-85 080 ! 074 








The advantages of the operation of large motors with heavy fluc- 
tuations in load and especially of large haulage gear by means of a 
Ward-Leonard motor-generator set are in themselves sufficiently 
well known to account for the rapid introduction and extensive em- 
ployment of the system. On the other hand, it may, however, per- 
haps be less familiar that this system a distinct disadvan- 
tage, the surmounting of which has up to the present been attempted 
in vain. 

With the Ward-Leonard system the motor is brought to rest by 
completely cutting out or short-circuiting the excitation of the 
starting machine which supplies current to the motor. As a rule, 
it is, however, not always possible to bring the motor completely 
to rest by this means owing to the presence of remanent magnetism 
in the starting machine, even after the excitation has been cut out 
or short-circuited. This remanence suffices to induce a small E.M.F., 
which, however small, is still sufficient to produce heavy currents, 
on account of the low resistancs of the dynamo, motor and leads, 
thus imparting an undesired motion to the motor. 

This circumstance signifies great unsafely of operation and also 
decreases the capacity of the plant owing to the difficulty experi- 
enced in effecting an accurate stopping. The controlling — (.e., start- 
ing-gear of haulage — is, for example, on account of obvious reasons, 
mostly connected with the braking device in such a way that the 
braking or releasing of same can only take place when the control 
lever is in its middle position in which the excitation of the starting 
dynamo is cut out or short-circuited as the case may be. When 
the control lever is in this position, as already pointed out, sufficient 
remanent magnetism is still left in the starting dynamo to pro- 

Devk.'E to remove kemanent magnetism in Ward-Leonard 


duce an E.M.F., which, in turn, causes a flow of current from 
the starting dynamo to the motor> .so that the latter, inslead of 
coming to rest when the brake is released, runs forwards or back- 
wards in accordance with the preceding excitation. Should the 
motor further possess compensating poles, which is usual in the case 
of haulage motors, rolling-mill motors, &;., this phenomenon will 
become even more aggravated. 

This difficulty has up to the present mostly been surmounted by 
leaving it to the discretion of the operator as to how far it is neces- 
sary to push back the control lever in order to counteract exactly 
the remanent magnetism in the starting dynamo, which prevents the 
motor from coming to rest when this lever has been brought to its 
"off '" position. Tliis procedure is naturally only a very incomplete 
and unsafe one, as it is entirely dependent upon the skill and atten- 
tiveness of the operator. Even if the operator has become perfectly 
initiated into this manipulation, he will, in each instance, still be in 
doubt again as to how far the control lever will have to be pushed 
back so as to neutralise exactly the remanence in the starting 
dynamo and bring the haulage mott)r completely to rest, owing to the 
fact that the density of the field due to the remanent magnetism 
depends upon the previous excitation, which varies considerably in 
accordance with the working conditions, thus even evading the 
operator's positive decision. 

The Felten & Guilleaume-Lahmeyerwerke. A.-G., of Frankfort- 
on-Main, have now patented an invention (D.R.P. 2(18,285) which is 
found to remove completely the above discussed difficulty and at 
the same time is characterised by great simplicity. It consists, as 
shown in the diagram, of a winding, K, mounted on the field-magnet 
of the starting dynamo A, through which the armature current of 
the dynamo flows and which is connected up in such a way that it 
tends to remove the magnetic field still present, owmg to the rema- 
nence. This winding has been rated in such a manner that upon 

cutting out or short-circuiting the main excitation F, the magntism 
still present is neutralised. If. then, the control lever for 
stopping the motor is put into its "off" position, by which means 
the main excitation F of the starting dynamo is cut out, the cur- 
rent generated by the remanent magnetism flows through the wind- 
ing K in such a direction that a complete demagnetisation of the 
field is attained so that ths motor positively comes to rest. 

To attain the desired action this winding need only consist of a 
few turns, so that under normal working conditions of the generator 
it scarcely exercises any influence at all, and therefore only causes' 
extremely low lo.sses. 


The first annual report of the Governing Body has ju^t been issued, 
and refers to the year ended .July 31, 1908. A brief statement of the 
measures taken in the matter of the incorporation of the College, for 
which a Charter was granted on the 8th July, 1907, is first given, 
followed by a list of the members of the Governing Body. Four 
temporary .sub-committees or Advisory Boards, consisting of certain 
members of the Organisation Committee, together with a limited 
number of persons, outside the Governing Body, have been formed. 
These committees made valuable reports on the matters committed 
to them, which are now receiving the careful consideration of the 
Governing Body. 

The actual transfer of the Royal College of Science and the Royal 
School of Mines to the Governing Body of the Imperial College dates 
from January 1, 1908. but the Board of Education, at the request of 
the Governing Body, untlcrtook to conduct the current work of these 
institutions up to the end of the financial year (March .SI. 1908). In 
arranging for the continuance and development of the work of the 
Institution, the Governing Body have had the following matters under 
its careful consideration: (1) The standard of admission required 
from students entering theu first year courses in the session. 1908-9, 
together with the tests required by way of entrance examination. 
(2) The possibility of harmonising the first year courses of the con- 
stituent Institutions of the Imperial College, so long as provision con- 
tinues to be made by these institutions for work of this standard. 
(.3) The provision of fourth year courses of a more advanced character 
than had hitherto been attempted. 

Among the additions to the Imperial College staff are : — Professor 
of Zoology, Mr. A. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.; Professor of Jletallurgy, 
Mr. W. A. Carlyle, Ma.E., M.Sc., M.I.M.M. ; Professor of Physics, 
The Hon. R. J. Strutt. F.R.S. ; Assistant Professor of Botany. >Ir. P. 
Groom, M.A., D.vSc, F.L.S. 

Although not falling within the period to which the report relates, 
it is mentioned that a donation of £4,000 from Mr. C. Hawksley has 
been promised towards the provision of a Laboratory for the study of 
hydraulics, in memory of his father, Thomas Hawksley. M.Inst.C.E., 
the well-known hydraulic engineer. It is with pleasure that the 
Governing Body are able to report that the Council of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers are prepared favourably to consider their co- 
operation in the equipment of an electrical engineering laboratory at 
the Imperial Cullcgr. in memory of the late Lord Keh in. 

Appendixes to the report give further information concerning (1) 
the membership of Committees : (2) donations and bequests to the 
Imperial College ; (3) members of staff ; (4) statement of student.s 
enrolled; (5) prize distribution and Rector's addresses; (6) fourth 
year special advanced courses. The total number of students 
enrolled in the Imiicrial College of Science and Technology was 4oti in 
the Session 1908-1909 (to Nov. 11. 19(18. only), as compared with 
294 in 1907-8, and .■?II3 in I9<>() 7. The convsponding figures for the 
City and Guilds College «crc 4.VJ. 4;)8 and 4.-.7 respectively. 


(Oopicsof the imdermentioned works cao he h,»d from rv Bleclricmn offiOT. post fr«« 
on receipt of published price, adding 3i. for books published under 23. and 5 par cent 
for books publishel njtt. Add 10 per cent, for abroad or for foreiun books.) 

" Science Abstracts." Vol. XII. Part 3. March, 1909. Section 
.\. Phvsics : Section B. Ekctrical Engineering." (London: E. & 
F. N. Spon.) Is. (id. each. 

" Einfiihrung in die Elektrotechnik. " By Dr. C. Heinke. (Leip- 
zig : S. Hirzel.) M.13. 

'• Berechnung und Konstruklion clektrischer Schaltapparate.^' 
Bv Prof. R. Edier. Vol. VII. of " Grumlriss dcr Elektrotechnik." 
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Altliougli tlie comljiiuition of a destructor with an elec- 
tricity generating station has now been attempted for a 
good many years, the value of the combination is still a sub- 
ject of some controversy. At one time it may have seemed 
that the capabilities of the destructor were small. Refuse 
was, no doubt, destroyed in a more or less ethcient manner, 
and it was thought something of an achievement to attain 
this result without nuisance, an}' idea of obtaining useful 
work beyond that of cremation being given no tiiought. A 
great improvement, however, soon took place. The intro- 
duction of forced draught, whetlier by fans or by steam 
jets, made a great change, and along with more perfect 
combustion came the desire of attempting to utilise the 
waste heat. But one most important lesson had to be 
learned, namely, that the sanitary requirements of a de- 
structor must be paramount— that, in fact, a destructor is 
essentially a sanitary appliance, and that its functions 
as sucli must receive no interference. This point cannot 
be too much emphasised ; but assuming that the destructor 
accomplishes its work satisfactorily — that the refuse is 
burnt perfectly, and therefore no nuisance is created — then 
we may very well incpiire whether the resulting waste 
heat is not sufficient to perform some useful work. 

It is well known that the quality of refuse varies accord- 
ing to the locality and with the different times of year. 
Taking, however, as au average figure, 1 ton of refuse per 
thousand inhabitants per day — a quantity which must be 
regarded as somewhat high— and the possibility of pro- 
ducing, say, 70 units per ton, then it follows that a destruc- 
tor should be able to generate something like 20 units i)er 
inhabitant per year. In a general way we might say that 



the possibilities lie between 15 and 20 units pet inhabitant. 
At present the number of units of eleetrical energy used 
per annum on networks wliich do not supply tramways, 
but merely the ordinary lighting and motor load, amounts 
to something like 20 to 30 units per inhabitant per year. 
On the face of it, therefore, the outlook of the destructor 
from the electrical point of view is distinctly promising. 
When it is remembered, however, that refuse must gener- 
ally be burnt continuously, and cannot well be handled 
intermittently to meet the exigencies of a lighting load, 
and that on Sundays a destructor is not worked to any 
serious extent because there is no collection of i-efuse, then 
it will be realised that a destructor'is not a very useful 
adjunct to electricity stations dependent simply upon a 
lighting load, (lur readers will find this point emphasised 
elewhere in a Paper read by Mr. J. A. Eobertson before 
the Glasgow Local Section of the Institution of Electrical 

Where there is a suttiQient motor or tramway load to 
enable a generating station to take up all the steam gene- 
rated by the destructor throughout the 24 hours the case 
is distinctly different. Under such conditions the destruc- 
tor may be certainly beneficial, though there is always a 
difficulty in arriving at the true value of the steam. A 
destructor in itself, when coupled up to a generating 
station, does not improve the steam consumption per unit. 
The effect of the additional boilers and steam pipes cannot 
usually be found in an easy manner, but in the case of 
Greenock the geuei'ating station had been run a few months 
before the destructor was put to work, and it was found 
that there was an increase of 10 per cent, in the steam 
consumption per unit generated when the destructor steam 
was utilised. In this particular case, also, it was compara- 
tively easy to arrive at a valuation of the destructor steam. 
The amount of coal that was being used previously was 
well known, and thus any saving in coal could be easily 

In passing, we might remark that although the state- 
ment of results in terms of units generated per ton of 
refuse may he very suitable in any particular station, yet 
from the point of view of comparing one station with 
another it is desirable that results should be expressed 
rather in terms of the amount of steam per ton than as 
the number of units per ton, for tlie latter depends also 
upon the class of generating plant as well as on the efficient 
use of the refuse. 

Generally speaking, we tliink it will be admitted that 
the refuse destructor as an adjunct to the smaller class of 
■generating station with a tramway load, or a fair motor load, 
is, if properly designed, a distinct gain. On the other hand, 
as a station becomes larger such assistance becomes much 
less pronounced. The destructor can only increase in 
proportion to the population, whereas the growth of the 
generating station depends upon the more extended use of 
electrical energy for various purposes,and the station should 
increase rapidly in size in any suitable area quite irrespec- 
tive of increase in the sun-ounding population. We can 
well imagine that as a generating station expands the 
destructor plant may become somewhat of an impediment 
rather than an advantage. For this reason it appears to us 
that, generally speaking, the services of a destructor are 

more desirable as an aid to sewage pumping j^lant than to 
electrical generation. Here the load is more or less con- 
tinuous : as the population increases both the sewage 
works and the destructor increase simultaneously, and the 
latter continues to give the same assistance, which ls 
unaffected by other industrial C(mditions of expansion. 


(Copies of the uadermeotioneJ works can be had from The Electrician OfBce, poet frc* 
on receipt of published price, adding 3d. for books published under 2a. Add 10 per 
cent, for abroad or for foreign books.) 

Essays Biographical and Chemical. By Sir William Ramsav, 
K.C.B. (London : Archibald Constable & Co.) Pj). 247. 78. 

This book consists of a very interesting series of biographical 
essays of chemists and physicists, which takes up about half 
of it, and a series of essays upon various chemical subjects, 
which fills the other half. 

Although as chemists we can hardly at the present dav con- 
sider ourselves the foremost nation, yet as pioneers we were 
second to none. And it is of interest to notice that some of 
our London chemists (Boyle, Cavendish, Davy and Graham) 
were among the very foremost of these pioneers. The author 
de.scribes the work of these men and their lives in a very 
sympathetic style. Davy was most extraordinarily am- 
bitious, Graham was retiring, as was Cavendish, who was pain- 
fully shy, and Boyle seemed best to hit the medium between 
the extremes. All these men, however, were of extraordinary 
genius and ability, and their work was of a most accurate and 
enduring character. 

One of the most interesting personalities which Sir William 
describes is Joseph Black, of Edinburgh. Black was the first 
to carry out quantitative measurements, and thus exploded 
the phlogistic theory. He also determined the latent heat of 
fusion of ice and the latent heat of steam. The numbers 
obtained by him show a very great degree of accuracy, con- 
sidering the very meagre means which he had at his disposal. 
It is not, however, only his work which is noticed, but in a 
very sympathetic spirit Ramsay shows us the man. He was 
a person of simplicity of character, who never said a hard word 
or made an enemy, and was, consequently, loved by all who 
knew him. 

A short note of Lord Kelvin is also given, but we consider 
this the least satisfactory biography in the book — it is all too 
short and the work done by Kelvin was all too great. 

The second portion of the book is entitled Chemical Essays, 
and treats of a number of subjects, such as the Becqueiel rays, 
the aurora borealis, radium and its products, What is an 
element ? and the last essay is on the functions of a university. 

Sir William Ramsay considers that the most important 
function of a university is to attempt to answer the question 
asked often with painful iteration by the child — " Why '1 " 
This, of course, is in essence another way of saying that the 
function of a university is research. The essence of research 
is observation. Faraday noticed that if a magnet approaches 
a coil of wire an electric current is induced in the wire. The 
results are electric light, electric traction and the enqjloyment 
of electricity for all sorts of motive power. 

Perkin noticed an uninviting black product by tlie oxida- 
tion of aniline. Further investigation showed a brilliant dye. 
To-day there are hundreds such. 

A Swiss schoolmaster— Schonbein — noticed the action of 
nitric acid on paper (cellulose). To-day the chief power for 
blasting and firing guns and ordnance is nitro-cellulose. 

Yet in this country tiieone thing not understood is research. 
How many of our universities or polytechnics cultivate re- 
search and how many of our inaiuifacturers will recognise 
its vast importance ? We iieartily recommend the book as 
being instructive and also interesting— not always synony- 
mous terms. F. M. Perkix. 

The Proper Distribution of Expense Burden. By A H.vmiltox 

Chukcu. (London: " The Enjjineering Magazine.") Pp.116. 
In this work, the contents of which appeared originally as a 
series of articles in the columns of the " Engineerinu Magazine," 



a most successful attempt has been made to deal thoroughly 
with the question of establishment expenditure, and its 
interconnection with costs in factories, not merely as regards 
the output as a whole, but of each piece of work carried out, 
and of each process that takes place, before the finished 
product issues from the sales department. A volume which 
deals so thoroughly with details as the one before us is of 
distinct value at the present time, when the keen competition 
in the engineering, and particularly in the electrical engineer- 
ing industry, renders close attention to costs vitally important 
if the finished product is to show a proper percentage of profit. 
The main object of all efforts in the direction of ascertaining 
costs is that they may be filed so as to constitute a record 
which may be referred to when the article is finished, and 
which will form, further, a valuable guide for future work. 
The true method of cost finding appears to be the examining of 
all the various processes through which the work passes, 
determining their costs by comparison with the known costs of 
similar work, and adding that proportion of expense burden 
which each article should bear. Mr. Church shows how this 
proportion should be ascertained, and goes to the root ideas of 
cost finding, laying down broad and thoroughly reliable 
principles by which safe and accurate figures may be obtained 
for machine, piece and job costs. The author rightly says that 
these principles will properly distribute all expenses of manu- 
facture, marketing, and management, so that the truth may be 
ascertained without trouble as to the profit or loss of any line of 
product, and changes in manufacturing cost from time to time 
be instantly detected and the cause discovered. Amongst the 
subjects dealt with are the interlocking of general charges with 
piece costs, showing the elements which compose job, prime, 
shop, and inclusive costs and selling price ; the methods of 
distributing expenses to individual jobs ; the scientific machine 
rate and the supplementary rate ; and the apportionment of 
office and selling One of the best chapters in the 
book is that which deals with the classification and dissection 
of shop charges. The book may be thoroughly recommended, 
and the author deserves credit for the painstaking way in 
which he has dealt with this complex and important subject. 

G. B. B. 

Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. By Vivian B. Lewks. (London: A. 
Constubleft Co.) Pp. vi.— 237. 

In preparing this extremely readable Ijook the author has 
utilised matter that had already appeared in lectures and Papers 
given before various institutions, but where such matter has 
i>een used it has been brought u\> to date. We congratulate 
(lie uutlior on the icsidt, and the excellent literary (juality 
wliieh has l)een attained without detriment to the techjiical 
information ttat snch a technical book should contain. 

The author has not entirely excluded the discussion of solid 
fuel, from which in many cases liquid and gaseous fuels are 
made, but gives a general sketch of the whole subject and its 
relation to the power problems of the day. 

Chapter I. deals with combustion, flame, smoke, the atmos- 
phere, and also the efTcct of smoke in inducing the formation 
of fog. Chapter II. discusses the cycle of animal and vegetable 
life, and the action of the sun in preserving the lialanee of 
oxygen in the composition of the atmosphere, formation of 
peat and coal, and the various theories as to the formation of 
petroleum. The compositions of the principal natural fuels 
are given. Chapter III. de.sci'ilies various calorimetiMs and 
the methods of using tlicni foi' the dctciiniMatioM of the caldrilic 
value of a fuel. Chapters I\'. and \'., on licjuiil fui'i, descriljcs 
various burners and furnaces, and discusses the advantages of 
such fuel for naval use. The manufacture of coal gas, its en- 
richment for lighting, and its use for heating and power form 
the subject matter of Chapters VI. and VII. Water gas and 
producer gas are discussed in Chapters VIII. and IX., with 
numerous rations and descriptions of plant. A brief 
discussion is given of suction producers and gas erifiines as 
compared with steam plant for power purposes. 

In Chapter X., on the fuel of the future, the auUior deals 
with the future of the fuel problem and the probable lines on 

ing the energy essential to life and pro.sperity. The super- 
session of steam as a motive power by the internal combustion 
engine is predicted, also the development of the alcohol motor, 
and the growth of a great agricultural industry for the pro- 
duction of alcohol for fuel when excise restrictions are removed. 
A short bibliography is given, which should be useful to 
engineers who may require fuller information on any special 
branch of the subject. A. !^. 



(Continued from page S.) 

Summary. — Information at present available upon tlie desirable pro- 
perties of paper from the insulating point of view is very meagre. The 
authors attempt to fill this gap by giving the results of their experience 
in dealing with .such papers from the chemical point of view. The com- 
position of manila and other papers is briefly discussed. Tests to which 
papers should be subjected are considered, and a number of tables of 
results are given. The effect of moisture is dealt with at some length, and 
the authors finally express their opinions on changes taking place when 
papers are in contact with the atmosphere and when they are protected 
from it. ' 

Mineral matter is to be avoided in cable papers. In deter- 
mining the ash in a cable paper one almost invariably finds 
even in the best papers 1 or 2 per cent, of ash. We should 
always expect to find this quantity of ash in a good manila 
paper, although paper when very " soft-sized " and made 
entirely from chemical wood pulp might contain less ash. 
There is always a certain amount of normal ash in fibrous 
material, and the 2 or 3 per cent, found in manila is merely 
the normal ash resulting form the fibre itself, together with 
the small amount of materials that arc used to effect the sizing. 
The addition of mineral matter, such as china clay, to cable 
papers to give anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent, or more 
of ash should not be resorted to : it is quite liable to reduce 
the strength of the paper as well as its lasting qualities. Such 
paper should, in our opinion, be rejected by the cable manu- 

On examining details of strength tests No. 1 to 12, Table A, 
it will be noticed that there is considerable variation in strength 
tests of individual tests A and E, but it is found in practice 
that five under each set is sufficient, and that if a further five 
tests be made in confirmation the average of the two sets of 
figures will come very close together. The greater strength 
in the Y than in the X direction is universal, and the ratio of 
Y/X is found to be a useful figure. 

It is only in hand made paper that Y/X =1-0 and only in 
a few eases. The greater bulk of hand-made paper Y/X = l-3. 
In papers produced on fast-running machines such as com- 
mon news Y/X may= 100 at times, and perhaps averages 10. 

The summary of strength tests in the two directions, together 
with the mean of the two directions, is given in Table B, and 
in column 10 is giveu the ratio Y/X. With the ordinary 
run of commercial papers of fair strengths we seldom find such 
high figures for Y as is to be found in many of these papers, 
about the normal figure may be taken as falling somewhere 
between 1-7 and 2-0. In this case seven out of 12 samples 
come above 2-0, the average of these papers being 2-19, 
one paper being about 3-0. We regard this as being some- 
what exceptional. It indicates, of course, a more than usiuil 
(liffcrriii-i' in till' stirngtli of the |i,i|]<Ts in (lie two dii'cctions 
of Ihc well. It will lie ndticcil also lli;it the percentage of air 
space ranges on an average coiisiih lalily omt 50 per cent., in 
fact, mon' like 55 j)er cent., and only one falls below 50 per 
cent. In this respect they resendile the ordinary run of un- 
loaded commercial papers of which one of us has determined 
the air space volume of some hundreds.* If a paper is sufficient- 
ly loaded with mineral matter the air .space volume becomes re- 
duced from, say, fJO per cent, to 29 percent., and consequently its 
capacity for the absorption of hydro carbon in a similar ratio. 

♦••The ('. 13. S. Units" (R & F. N. Siwn), t'ros.s, llcvan, Beadle 
and Tindall. 

Bpadle, " Fibrous Constituents of Paper." Technics. (George Newnes 



Paper to bo impregnated for cables should be regarded not as 
the insulating medium but rather as the medium wliich holds 
the insulator ; consequently, it is required to have as great a 
power of absorption as possible consistent with the necessary 
strength, durability and other physical qualities. 

Table A herewith contains details of the actual breaking 
stress tests on the individual strips of paper. Direction X 
is when the pull is applied on a strip cut across the machine 
direction, and direction Y is when the pull is applied on 
a strip cut along the machine direction, or direction of the 
reel. It is usual to take the mean of these directions as repre- 
senting the,strength of the paper, but in this case we are dis- 
posed to think that, as the strips are cut in the direction of the 
reel, the strength in the direction Y is a better criterion from a 
cable manufacturer's point of view. 

Table A. — Details oj Slrciigtli Tests. 



No. 1. 



Test .\ 

Iti-S • .. 


„ B 

KiO .. 


,. c 

13-8 .. 


., D 

.. V2-2 .. 


„ E 

14-2 .. 


Mean of both diiections in 

lb. per inch width 20-95 

' 430 

Mean 17-6 41-7 

Mean nf botli directions in 

lb. jier inch width 29-G 

No. 2. 

Test A .. 


„ B .. 


.. (' .. 


,. V .. 


„ E .. 


No. 3. 
Test A . 
„ B . 
„ C . 
„ D . 
., E . 



Mean 29-7 
Iilcan of both directions in 
lb. per inch width 

No. 4. 
Test A 
„ B 
„ C 
„ D 
„ E 

15 4 

Mean 17-4 
Mean nf both directions in 
lb. per inch width 

No. 5 

Test \ 

.. 1? 


40- 1 






Mean 17-8 32-7 

j£"an of both directions in 

lb. per inch width 25-2 




No. n. 

Test A .. 


,. 1! .. 

38 -S 

„ (' . 


.. I) .. 


.. E .. 


Mean 33-7 

Mean of both directions in 


lb. per inch width 4l30 

No. 7, 
Test A 
,. B 
„ C 
,. D 
„ E 






Mean of both directions in 

lb. per inch width 29-8 

No. 8. 

Test A ... 14-5 ... 30-2 

.. B ... 13-5 ... 43-3 

„ C ... 16-8 ... 41-3 

„ D ... 13-5 ... 44-8 

., E ... 17 1 ... 40-8 

Mean 151 41-3 
Mean of both directions in 

lb. per inch width 28-2 

No. 9. 

Test A ... 230 ... 42-6 

„ B ... 230 ... 410 

„ C ... 21-2 ... 35-2 

„ D ... 23-3 ... 45-8 

.. E ... 22-0 



Mean of both directions in 

lb. per inch width 31-8 

No. 10. 

Test A ... 10-4 ... 23-8 

., B ... 80 ... 25-2 

„ C ... 10-4 ... 22-2 

., D ... 10-2 ... 20(i 

., E ... 8-9 ... 25-2 

.Aft-an 9o 23-4 

Mean of both directions in 

lb. per inch width Ki-S 

No. 11. 

Test A ... 20(1 ... 3418 

„ B ... 21-8 ... 380 

„ C ... 21-9 ... 37-5 

., D ... 200 ... 350 

„ E ... 190 ... 250 

Mean 20-5 

Mean of both directions i 

lb. per in 
No. 12. 
Test A . 
.,15 . 
.. C . 
,. 1) . 
,. E . 


•h width 

1 IJO 


Mean of both directions i 
lb. per inch width .... 
No. 13. 

Test A 

.. B 

.. f 

.. D 

,. E 

13 1 


Mean 12-3 
Mtan of both directions in 
"lb. per inch width 

311- 1 






However, as the mean strength of the two directions is tho 
general figure adopted by nearly all makers and users of paper, 
wo do not care to depart from general custom, and furthermore 
one has to take into consideration the stresses and .strains to 
which the strips of paper are subjected, at the moment they are 
lapped round the conductors, as well as any .subsequent action 
to which the paper or cable may be subjected, tending to wear 
out or break the paper when the cable is reeled, unreeled, &c. 

A point might with advantage be here referred to ; there is no 
difficulty in taking any direction for the tests on the paper from 
the wide reels, but when once the paper is cut into narrow 
strips, only one direction is available, namely, the ■" machine." 
or running direction. As the strips being only, say, two inches 
wide, we cannot make tests in the cross direction. In order, 
therefore, to compare paper stripped from cables with the paper 
in reels one is obliged to compare strips in the machine direction 

The individual figures of the tests will give some idea of the 
limits of variation of strength in different parts of the web, &c., 
the strips having been cut as far as possible equidistant from 
one another, and across the direction of the web of the large 
reels as supplied to cable manufacturers. 

On page 60, column 5, we have the percentage of air space, 
from this an opinion can be formed of the relative powers 
which these papers have of absorbing hydro-carbons, assuming 
that the air space becomes entirely filled. Column 6, page 60, 
gives the actual relative thicknesses of the papers in mm. 
Columns 7, 8 and 9 are merely summaries from page 59. 
From columns 10 and 11, column 12 is calculated. This 
gives the actual relative strengths of the paper substance elimi- 
nating the question of thickness. A figure useful for comparing 
the strength of paper with that of other materials. 

The volume percentage was determined by the system known 
as the C.B.S. units, which the authors have found of great 
service.* The following brief particulars will, perhaps, serve 
to show how this is carried out. A sharp steel punch is con- 
structed so as to punch discs, of such a diameter, as to give an 
area of 1,000 sq. mm. This area is such that the thickness 
readings in mm. of ten discs, measured together by means of a 
micrometer, expresses the volume of the paper in cubic centi- 
metres without calculation. This is true, no matter what num- 
ber of discs one takes. The discs so measured are weighed, and 
the weights in grammes divided by the volume in cubic centi 
metre gives us the grammes per cubic centimetre, which we 
call the ■■ apparent specific gravity." As in the case of good 
cable papers the weight of ash is nominal, it may bo neglected 
in the calculation. The |)orceMtago by vohiiue of fibre sub- 
stance is obtaineti 1)V ilividing the grammes ])er cubic centi- 
metre by 1-5 (('.c, the specific gravity of the fibre, substance 
which is not subject to water at variation), and dividing by 
100. This figure deducted from 100 gives the percentage 
of air space as given in column 5, Table B. 

We have been asked to issue a printed form of certificate, 
which wo have done, and used for cable papers. Th.' following 
is a common form as u.sed for the purpose of a general exami- 
nation : — 

Mark or Xo 

Weight of five discs 0-520 gramn>es 

Thickness of five discs 0-(i70 mm. 

tJiammcs per cubic eentimctro 0-77l> 

Percentage of fibrc by volume ,50-7 |H'r cent. 

Percentage of airs i)ace by volume 4.'*-3 iK-r eonl. 

Breaking strain in lb. per inch width Y ... 540 
., X ... 21 It 

Mean of X and Y 37 5 

Breaking strain in grammes per width of 

25 mm l(i.9,87 grammes 

•Sectional area in mm. of strip bi-okon 2-l>S mm. 

Breaking strain in square mm. of .section ai-oa ti,342 grammes 

.Ash in paper 2-tiO jier cent. 

Colour of reddish white 

Sizing slightly -sized 

Approximale Composiiion. — All liempstock. but fibres are very 
eoai-se, and piper contains dirty p.iiticlos which might interfere with 

* -'C.B.S. Units" (E. & P. N. Spon), Cross, Bevan, Beadle and 

S. Tindall. 



Table B. — Snmmnnj of Slrength Tests and Volume. Percentages, <tc. 

of five 









Mean of 

12 papers 

2 discs. 


of five 


per I 
cubic ,- 
centi- ! 
3 i 

Percentage by 


ness of 

2 discs. 


651 I 



645 , 



698 ] 
651 ! 
705 i 









Breaking strain 
of strip of paper 
I in. wide, in lb. 

















31-8 1-83 
16-5 I 2-48 




stress in 

grammes per 

width of 25 






12,606 , 


area of ■ 






stress in 

grams per sij. 

millimetre of 

sectional area. 







In Germany paper-testing is conducted under the elaborate 
system of the Konigl. Techn. Versuchsanstalt, Berlin, of which, 
through the agency and influence of Prof. Sell and C. Hofmann, 
a department has been organised exclusively for the work of 

The mechanical properties of papers are considered to be 
represented by data of (1) Tenacity, i.e., actual resistance to 
tensile strain ; (2) "Elasticity," or rather elongation up to the 
point of rupture ; (.3) Resistance to rubbing. 

Tenacity finds a convenient expression in terms of " break in 
length," i.e., the length of a strip of paper, the weight of which 
would be equal to its breaking weight. This expression has the 
advantage that it is independent of the width of the paper, 
which may, therefore, be left out of consideration. Further, 
since the expression " breaking length " is calculated on the 
basis of weight and not of dimensions, and since paper is made 
and sold by weight, this expression, as a commercial standard, 
eliminates and discounts the factors of thickness, bulk, loading, 
&c., and becomes a common measure for the strength- value of 
aU papers, proportional to the number of strength units per lb. 
of paper. On this basis Ciermany has adopted the following 
" normal " standards :— 

Table Showiii// the Various Classes into which Paper is Divided liy the 
Testing House. 

length in 

Ave. elongation ' 
in hundredths of [ 
original length 
(per cent.) 





No. of 



Very great 


Rather great 


The following is the result of high-class manila pai)er, made 
in the British Isles as officially tested by the Berlin Testing 
House, Sept. 14, 1904 :— 

Composition Pure Manila Paper. 



Breaking length, i Elongation. 


11,450 metres , 2-8 per cent. 
4,450 ,. 7-8 


7,9.50 ., 5-3 ., 

Length of samples tested 180mni. 

Width „ „ l.->mm. 

Temperature of room where tests were 

carried out 17'C. 

Humidity of air 65 per cent. 

Resistance against crumpling Extremely great. 

Number of double bendings More than 1,000. 

Glue Impermeable to glue. 

Insulating Paper. 


Breaking length, j Elongation. 


. Lengthwise of machine. 
Crosswise „ 

7,650 metres 
2,900 „ 
5,275 „ 

2-3 per cent. 
6-0 „ 
415 ,f 

Length of samples tested 180 mm. 

Width „ „ ■.. 15 mm. 

Temperature of room where tests were 

carried out 17°C. 

Humidity of air 65 per cent. 

Resistance against crumpling Very great. 

Number of double bending.i More than 1,000. 

Glue Permeable to glue. 

Under ordinary atmospheric conditions a cable paper made 
from manila and other suitable fibres, would contain about 
10 per cent, of moisture in an English climate ; on a dry summer 
day it might be only 7 or 8 per cent. ; in damp and foggy 
weather as much as 12 or 15 per cent. ; before a fire it would 
nhdergo contraction and would sink down to perhaps 3 or 4 per 
cent. Bleached fibre such as cotton and linen contain only 
about 7 per cent, under ordinary circumstances, as against 
10 per cent, in the case of manila, &c. 

Cable manufacturers should regard 10 per cent, as the normal 
moisture content of their paper, as received from manufac- 
turers, and expect to find a reduction of 10 per cent, in weight in 
desiccating their paper. 

Columns 11, 12 and 13, Table B show the data and figures for 
calculating the breaking stress in grammes per square millimetre 
sectional area, which really represents the specific strengths of 
the papers as against the ordinary way of expressing the 
strengths of papers as pounds per strip of 1 in. wide, which latter 
method is all very well in its way, but it does not take into: con- 
sideration the thickness of the paper. In order to determine 
the " actual " and " specific " strengths of the papers, it has 
been found by us advisable when reporting to cable manu- 
facturers to report both sets of figures. 

It will be noticed that the " actual " strength of the strip is 

greatest with No. 6 {20.838), and least with No. 10 (7,474), 

whereas the specific strength is greatest with No. 3 (4,600), and 

least with No. 10 (2,491). Of course the actual strength of any 

particular make of paper can be increased by increasing the 

thickness, but by this means beyond certain limits the specific 

strength is found to be diminished. Paper of greatest specific 

strength is generally found to be that of moderate, so 

that if one wants to impart strength in the way of paper, and 

at the same time build up considerable thickness, this is best 

done by working several ply of paper on ; rather than by a 

single ply of thick paper, coiled so as to overlap. 

I In connection with this matter, one has also to consider the 

I question of cost, and in the manufacture of paper a paper of 

' moderate thickness is perhaps the cheapest per pound to pro- 




duce ; and very thin papers cost considerably more per pound. 
Furthermore, extra thick papers are somewhat unwieldy to 
manipulate. The advantage of several ply is also that the 
layers can be done alternately, right handed and left handed, 
and when it is a case of impregnated paper the bulking is per- 
haps greater, and there is greater space for the impregnating 
material, which in some cables lies not only in the interstices 
of the paper itself, but also in between the strands of paper, in 
between the paper and the conductor as well as in between the 
actual wires of the copper conductor. In other words, impreg- 
nating material is now freely used, not only to saturate the 
paper, but to fill up all the available air space inside the lead 

(To he continued.) 


The twenty sixlli report of the Comptroller-General of 
Patents, which has just been issued, shows a diminution in the 
number of applications for patents in the year 1908, "JS.SOS, 
compared with 28,915 in 1907, which latter figure was also 
smaller than that recorded in the previous year 1906, when 
the high-water mark of 30,030 applications was attained. The 
number of specifications, provisional and e:)niplete, shows a 
small decrease compared with 1907, but the inimber of patents 
sealed was 16,28t, an increase of 12 over the previous year's 
total ; in fact, the highest figure recorded during the 11 years 
of which particulars are given in the report. The number of 
designs register<d was also a maximum, viz., 2i,380, com- 
pared with "21,039 in 1907, whilst the number of trade marks 
showed a diminution, only 5,9(i5 lieing registered, against 
6,255 in the previous year. We give below an abstract of the 

The receipts from patents fees were £262,890, compared with £205,012 
in 1907, a decrease of £2,122 : from designs fee.i £5,189. compared with 
£5,47.'J, a decrease of £284 ; and from trade marks fees £17,358, compared 
witli £18,447. a decrease of £1,089. The receijits from the sale of Patent 
Office publications were £11,898, compared with £11,457, an increase of 
£441. The total receipts were £297,335, compared with £300.389, a 
decrease of £3,054. The total expenditure on behalf of the office was 
£179,531, compared with £170,230, an increase of £3,301. The prin- 
cipal increase was in the amount paid for salaries, which was £118.520. 
compared with £106,869. The number of reader-s who made use of the 
library in 1908 was 152,221, compared with 148,198 in 1907, an increase 
of 4,023, or 2-7 per cent., and the largest number I'pcorded in any one 
year. The number of volumes added to the library was 6,059, of which 
1,231 were volumes of jiatent specifications or journals (Knglish and 
foreign) and 151 were trade catalogues. The remaining 4,677 volumes 
were text-books or periodical publications relating to scientific and 
technical subjects, and of these 3,562 were obtained by purchase and 
1,115 by donation. The number of works in the library at the end of the 
year was 37,647. and the approximate number of volumes (exclusive of 
duplicates) was 119,000. The new " relative "' system of shelf classifica- 
tion of the library has been extended from A A to B J. Its progress has 
been delayed by work in connection with the printing of the author 
catalogue. The system of keeping deposit accounts at the sale branch 
for the of Patent Office publications continues to grow in favoui'. 
During the year II new accounts were opened, and the total number of 
depositors is now 308, of whom 33 live in London, 110 in other parts of 
the United Kingdom, and 165 abroad. 

The new provisions in the Patents and Designs Act, 1907, have been 
largely made use of. In those cases in which the examiner has reported 
disconformity between the complete and provisional specification-, it is 
now possible for the Comptroller to cancel the provisional specification 
and treat the application as having been made on the date on which the 
complete specification was left. This prt)vision has been made use of in 
265 cases. Sec. 16, which allows the filing of .i sintdc cr>mp|nlc specifica- 
tion and 1 he grant of a single patent in rcsi>eil I'f the inventions described 
in two or more cognate provisionals, encourages applicants to devise and 
develci]! sUght improvements upon their prioi inventions, wliicli pcrhaji^ 
would not have justified the expenditure incurred in filing separ.ite ap- 
))lication9. This section has been largely a(!o|ited, and in 164 cases 
complete specifications have bten filed respect in of cognate provisional 
specifications. Under .see. 10, 768 applications for patents of addition 
v/ere filed : and under .sec. 20, which enables patents lap.sed in innse- 
(pience of the unintentional mm-payment of renewal fee.s within tlie ])ro- 
scribed period to be restored by order of the Comptroller, (il applica- 
tions were made during the year, and 33 hearings were held. In 27 eases 
the patent was restored, 5 apjilieations were withdrawn, and 29 are 

Under sec. 27, which provides for the revocation of patents worked 
exclusively or mainly outside the United Kingdom, 15 applications were 
made. Two of these were abandoned : in 2 cases the patent was revoked 

and 11 cases are pending. The copyright of 93S designs, or 4-3 per cent. 
of the whole numljcr which would otherwise have expired, was extended 
for a period of five years. 

The sum received from renewal fees was £1.54,388, compared with 
£155.127 in 1907, a decrease of £739; and that from sealing fees was 
£15,912, compared with £16,071, a decrease of £159. 

The number of applications of both provisional and complete sjjecifica- 
tions fell off in 1908, those accomj)anied by ijrovisional specification.s 
being 19,495, compared with 19.568 in 1907, a decrease of 73, and those 
accompanied by complete specifications 9.103, compared with 9,347, a 
decrease of 244. The complete specifications filcrl upon previous pro- 
visionals were 8,643, compared with 9,482, a decrea-^c of 839, due to the 
fallmg off in the number of applications of earlier date. (Jnly once before 
since the 1883 Act came into force — viz., in 1898 — has there been a 
simultaneous decrease in both kinds of applications and in the complete 
specifications filed after provisionals. The total number of s eciScations 
received was 37.241, compared with 38,397 in 1907, a decrease of 1,1.56, 
or 3 per cent. The applications received from women inventors num- 
bered 572, compared with 560 in 1907. There were 1,459 applications 
made by way of communication from abroad, of which 736 came from 
the United States of America, 415 from Germany, 52 from France. 33 
from Switzerland, 30 from Austria-Hungary, 27 from Canada, and 23 from 
Italy. The applications made in this country under the provisions of the 
International Convention of 1883 by inventors living in other States of the 
Union numbered 2,326, as against 2,286 in 1907. Of these, 877 were 
received from Germany, 607 from the United States, 536 from France, 
87 from Belgium, 62 from Sweden, 42 from Switzerland, 31 from Italy, 
27 from Norway, 17 from Australia, 16 from Denmark. 8 from Spain, 7 
from New Zealand, 5 from Japan. 2 from Brazil, 1 from Ceylon, and I 
from Cuba. None were received from Mexico, the Netherlands, Portugal, 
San Domingo, Servia or Tunis. 

An appendix shov.s the number of applications and complete sjiecifica- 
tions received in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908, subject to the provisions 
of sec. 1 of the Act of 1902 and sec. 7 of the Act of 1907. and the result 
of their examination. The latter section, which is a re-enactment of 
sec. 1 of the Act of 1902, has now been in operation for four years, and, 
during this time, 64,902 complete specifications have been examined ii 
accordance v/ith its requirements. After the lapse of four years, ii 
which a very large number of eases have been considered, it is possible 
to review the general effect of the working of the section, and to determine 
how far the anticipations of the Committee appointed in 1900 to inquire 
into the working of the Patents Acts have been realised. It is satis- 
factory to record that, despite tbo dra.stic changes in jirocedure intro- 
duced by the section, it is workuig with smoothness, and an estabUshed 
practice, well understood by patents agents and their clients, has been 
arrived at. It has been recognised that the main object of the official 
examination of applications is to check the issue of invalid patents, and 
to ensTU-e as far as possible that all patents issued shall be bijted upon 
specifications which are neither misleading nor insufficient. The position 
of the genuine inventor is thus strengthened, and the patent system is 
prevented from being misused by adventurers as a means of encroaching 
on the rights of the public. Applicants and patent agents have been 
encouraged to confer personally with the examinei's at each stage of the 
progress" of their cases, and not less than lO.OttO such interviews have 
taken place every year since the introduction of tlie 1902 Act. It is 
noticeable that since the introduction of the present system of examina- 
tion many more apphcations than before have been abandoned volun- 

It is seen from an appendix that, in spite of the decrease in the total 
number of applications received in 1908, those from England and Wales 
were more numerous than m 1907 by 615, and thise from other parts of 
the United Kingdom were almost equal in number. The applications 
from Australia, New Zealand and Canada show a decided decrease, and 
there is a general decline in the number received from foreign states, the 
l)rincipal exceptions being Fiance, Holland, Russia. Switzerland, the 
Argentine Rei)ublic, Brazil, Jlexico and South .America. The apphca- 
tions fnmi Germanv decreased by 277, and those from the United States 
of America by 442. A table civen .shows the nationalities of the in- 
ventors to whom patents were granted during the last five years, the com- 
municator of the invention being reganled for the purpose of this return 
as the patentee. Out of a total number of 1(),2S4 patentees in llKtS, 
2,819 were resident in the United States of .America. 2,516 in Germany. 
822 in France, 334 in Austria-Hungary, 200 in Switzerland. 166 m the 
Australian Commonwealth. 159 in Belgium, 155 in Canada. 139 in 
Sweden .md 134 in Italy. Another table shows the numlH-r of patent.s 
issued in 1907 to nali.inals and foivigncrs ivsiH-ctivcly in the I'niliHl 
Kingdom, ibe I'nitcd States. (Jermany, .-Vuslria-llungary and Switzer- 
land. " ... 

Patents were sealed uptui 16.060. .u- .m-5 percent., .if the ai>pheations 
made in the year 1!H)7. and out of I2.:U6 patents sealed u|xm the applica- 
tions made ii'i the year 189.5. 471. or 3-8 per cent., wcr- mainlavncd for the 
full ]ierio(l of 14 years. 

riic total number of patents which expired in 19(K8 was l.">,943. and the 
total number of new patents .sealed was 16.284. Thus the number of 
patents in force was incivased during the year by 341. 

Durins: the last 10 vears the nuu'il)er of hearings »\vm opp<isitions to 
the grant of i)atonts was 1.342. anil the number of api>eals to the Uxw 
t)fficcr in these oppositions 247. of which 43 weiv withdrawn or aban- 
doned and 20 are still outstanding, while in one case the application for 
the patent was abandoned. The number of appeals heard by the Law 
Officer in these cases during the last 10 years was. therefore. 1S3. In 23 
of these appeals the decision of the Comptroller was reversed, in 56 



varied, and in 104 supported. During the same period the number of 
liearing.s upon oppositions to amendments in speciiieations was (M. and 
the number of appeals 23, of which 3 were withdrawn and 3 are out- 
standing. In the remaining 17 appeals which were heard by the Law 
OflSeer the decision of the Comptroller was supported in 13 instances, 
varied in 2 and reversed in 2. 

There were 971 hearings during the same decade under sec. 73 of the 
Act of 1907 and the corresponding provisions of the earlier patent acts, 
and 25 appeals, of which 4 were withdrawn and 3 are still outstanding. 
In 15 of the remaining 18 cases the decision of the Comptroller was sup- 
])ortod and in 2 it was reversed. The remaining case was referred back 
to the Comptroller. 

In 1908 5,226 hearings were fixed, but 2,009 of these were rendered 
tmnecessary by reason of the abandonment of the application or amend- 
ment of the specification by the apjilicant. In all of the remaining 3.217 
case^ formal decisions were given by the Comptroller, with the result that 
in 2 cases only was there an appeal to the Law Officer. 

Four petitions for the extension of terms were lodged during 1908. 
In 1 case the patent was prolonged for 10 years, and of the other cases 2 
were abandoned and 1 was dismissed. There are now 5 patents in force 
which have been prolonged beyond the normal period of 14 years, — viz.. 
15.159 of 1888, 8,700 of 1892, 1,272 of 1894, 10,274 of 1894, and 17.112 
of 1894. 

The names of 10 patent agents were added to the register durmg the 
year, the total number on the register on December 31st being 258. 

As in former years, the subject of locomotion in general occupies a pro- 
minent position in the titles of applications for patents made during the 
year 1908. This may bejregarded as principally due to the continued inter- 
est taken in the motor'car and in subjects more or less directly connected 
therewith. The large number of applications made towards the end of 
the year in connection with valves for internal-combustion engines is 
probably due to the interest taken by the public in performances of the 
■■ Knight "' engine. Electrical subjects have in general fallen off in 
numbers, with the exception of the incandescent lamp and the galvanic 
battery. The development in railway signals of purely automatic 
systems and systems for giving signals in the locomotive cab still con- 
tinues, but a new feature has to be noticed in the form of controlling 
apparatus for stopping trains in the event of excessive speed. The in- 
creasing importance of indiarubber in the industrial world is shown by 
attention being given to processes for the regeneration of waste rubber 
and the synthetic production of rubber or rubber-like products. Tung- 
sten and like refractory metals have recently been made available for 
manufactures by new methods of working them in alloy-like combination 
with ductile metals, which are afterwards removed by heating the 
finished article. 


The number of designs applied for during the year amounted to 23,867, 
exclusive of 1.040 sets of designs. In the previous year 24,219 single 
designs and 709 sets were applied for. The number of designs refused 
registration on account of their similarity to designs already registered 
was 000. During the year 847 applications for registration of designs 
(including the above-mentioned 600) were objected to by the Comp- 
troller. The objections, other than those on account of similarity to 
de.signs already registered were chiefly on account of want of subject 
matter or want of substantial novelty. 

TR.4DE Marks. 

The number of applications made in 1908 for the registration of trade 
marks (including 101 applications made to the Cutlere' Company o"f 
Sheffield) was 10,645, as compared with 10,796 in 1907. The receipts 
from various sources on account of trade marks amounted to £17,358.8s.2d. 
including the sum of £2,745. 2s. for renewal fees. The notices of opposition 
to the registration (jf trade marks lodged during the year numbered 262, 
and the number of cases heard under sec. 14 of the act was 66. 

A number of appendixes are attached to the report, and 
give in tabular form the particulars referred to in the report. 



We have received the following copies of reports by Mr. 
W. M. Mordey to the London County Council and other cor- 
respondence in reference to the workiuj; of the "fi.B." system 
in the Mile End-road : — 

82, Victoria-street, S.W., JIarch 6, 1909. 
Prkliminaby Report on Trial Runs. 

I have had a car out on the track twice — viz., this morning from 1:30 
to 3:30, and yesterday momuig (March 5th) from 1:30 to 3:15, and have 
nm in all 16 double joumey.i, equal to about 16 miles, using both tracks. 

On the first occasion the condition of the track was very trying, there 
being a good deal of ice glazing on the studs and rails, and the ordinary 
leakage l>eing large, re.siilting partly from the tracks having been sprinkled 
with salt, apparently shortly before the run started. 

This morning the conditions were less trying, as it was luA freezing .so 
hard and the road was cleaner: also the effect of the salting of the pre- 
vious morning was less noticeable. 

Although some adju.stments require to be made, I am satisfied with the 
result of these two trial runs. 

The arrangement for stojjping the arcs, which are the most c(jmmon 

cause of live studs, works well. It has been tried both with the resis- 
tance and with the condenser devices described in my report, and was 
apparently equally successful with either. Further trials will be neces- 
sary to determine, amongst other things, the best proportions to use. 

A crucial test of this arc stopping device was made this morning. After 
running several journeys with the device in use, during which the car left 
no live studs behind it, I disconnected the device and ran three single 
journeys without it. during which the car was frequently stopped by the 
detection of live studs. On again connecting the device the running was 
continued without interruption. This afforded satisfactory proof that 
the device was acting effectively. A speed estimated at 24 miles an hour 
was attained. 

The new collecting arrangement on the car seems to be much better 
than the old one. It takes less than half the energy, and gives a per- 
ceptibly stronger and more certain action of the studs. 

I shall i-un again on Monday night, and have aiTanged for Mr. Trotter, 
of the Board of Trade, to be present informally. W. M. Mordey. 

82, Victoria-street, S.W., March 10, 1909. 
Further Report on Trial Runs. 

The car has now been run on the altered track four times — viz., on the 
mornings of the 5th. 6th, 9th and 10th instant, and has run about 39 miles 
in all. 

The state of the track has varied from an icy condition with freshly- 
scattered salt on it to a fairly clean condition without salt, and at a tem- 
perature well above freezing. Under all these conditions the trials have 
been satisfactory. The arc stopping device recommended in my report 
of October 1, 1908, is quite effective. On disconnecting the device 
numerous live studs occur even in the driest state of the track that has 
so far obtained. 

It hardly seems necessary to make further tests under present con- 
ditions. I should like, however, to make some further trials with the 
road in a very wet and muddy condition. I do not, however, expect them 
to get as much leakage or as many live studs as on the salted road on the 
5th inst. 

If there is no rain soon it may be possible to make trials by leaving the 
road uncleaned and watering it, but I would prefer the natural rain- 
formed mud. Subject to further trials under these conditions, which I 
do not expect will cause any difficulty, I am satisfied with the result of 
the trial runs, and confidently recommend the Council to have the v/hole 
track overhauled in the same way, and the necessary cars equipped to 
run the full service. 

Mr. Trotter, of the Board of Trade, who accompanied me during the 
run on the 9th instant, expres.sed himself satisfied v/ith the result. He 
was particularly pleased by the effect of disconnecting the arc stO])ping 
device, and of finding that live studs then occurred frequently, and that 
they ceased as soon as the device was .again connected. I have no doubt 
he will have reported favourably to the Board of Trade. 


82, Victoria-street, S.W., March 23. 1909. 

This morning I attended a run of the car from about 12:40 a.m. to 
3:40 a.m. The weather was warm and the road was in a rather wet and 
muddy condition. It was, however, much less muddy than I expected it 
to be. A very slight drizzling rain was falling. 

Seven double journeys were made and various short runs. With two 
exceptions the running was satisfactory, and the effect of the condenser 
was proved, as before, by running without interruption when it was on 
and by the large number of live stud stoppages when it was off. 

The two exceptions were as follows : — 

In the first place, one stud was always found to be alive and difficult 
to extinguish, the condenser often failing to put it out. I, therefore, had 
it taken up, and found the top of the stalk was broken. 

The second exception was more serious. A horse received a shock 
from a stud on the short length of line east of Fairfield-road. The horse 
fell, and its knees were cut from the fall. The horse did not seem to be 
otherwise injured. 

This short jiiece of line has not been used at all m these trials, the car 
never having been taken over it. On testing, it was found the stud was 
alive, and evidently not an arc, but from a contact. On running the car 
over it (jncc or twice it cleared itself, and then worked normally. On 
faking it ii|i ii \i.i^ fninid to be in good order, and there was no indication 
of thecau^r ut ilifnilt. The '• G.B." Company offered an explanation, 
which is quill' |ii.ili:ilily the true one. They suggest that a small drop 
of hardened pitch r>r other material had got into the fork of the stud and 
caused sufficient sticking of the armature to prevent it from returning 
when, by the ordinary vibration of the road, it was lowered a little to- 
wards the cable, and so by a succession of small downward movements 
it was finally caused to make contact. I think this defect, which is one 
of newness, is very unlikely indeed to recur.* 

The ollection was very much better than on any of the previous trial 
runs, the car nmning almost sjiarklessly, even at the higher speeds. It 
was found possible to run well with only one collector in use. 

The mud did not interfere with the running, although it was evident 
that it was the of a good many live studs. W. M. JIordev. 

82, Victoria-street. S.W.. .March 31, 1909. 
FiKTHEK Report o.n Trial Runnings with the ■O.B." System. 
In accordance with the request made to me by telephone to-day, that 
I should send you a report on the trial runumgs. I may say that I have 

* It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to explain that this fault would not 
have occurred if the line had been in use, as then the ordinary working of 
the stud would have kept it free. 



sent reports or letters in the nature of reports on the six sliort runs which 
have been carried out. These were dated March 6tli, 10th and 23rd 
respectively. These runs were very short and in some ways incomplete. 
The reports were made in order to let the Council know at the earliest 
possible moment the progress of the trials. 

Although they left certain points still tcj be cleared up by further runs, 
they afforded, in my view, sufficient ground for the opmion that the 
main or essential difficulties — namely, those which led to the stopping 
of the service — had been removed, and to enable me to recommend the 
Council to put the line into a condition to give a public service. 

I desire that the reports or letters above referred to should be taken 
as part of this report, to which I wish to add the following : — 

These six short runs liave shown that comparatively little preliminary 
running will be recjuired to get tlie line into working order. An examina- 
tion of the records of those runs shows that on the last run, with the ex- 
ception of the accident to a horse on a section of the line which had not 
been tested or run over, no defect of any kind was met with, except one 
stud,' which was found to be broken. Two or three such broken studs 
have been found during the previous runs. 

It will be remembered that in my original report of October 1, 1908, 
I said that I did not consider it necessary for the purposes of this trial 
that cast steel should be substituted for the cast-iron stud heads, but tliat 
a small number of such steel stud heads should be tried. This has not 
been done, as I have not insisted on it. It was not essential for the pur- 
poses of this trial. I think, however, it would be well to use steel heads 
in oi'der to avoid the occasional breakages which would otherwise occur. 

The arc stopping device, as already reported, has proved to be effec- 
tive. I have been informed by Mr. Trotter, of the Board of Trade, that 
he considers it a very satisfactory solution of the difficulty caused by arcs, 
and that, together with the alarm device previously fitted, it affords an 
adequate provision against danger to the public. This is satisfactory 
in view of the original reference to me to report in accordance with the 
terms of the Council's resolution of July 28th-29th, " on the possibility 
of rendering the system efficient with due regard to the safety of the 

I may explain that both the arrangements for arc stopping mentioned 
in my original report were tried. On the first run and part of the second 
run the resistance v/as in use. It was quite effective except at cross- 
overs. At those points 11 live studs were found in all, due to short- 
circuiting by the brush. By adjustment of the resistance and width of 
brush this could probably be remedied, but it is not necessary to go into 
that, as the difficulty does not exist with tlie condenser which was after- 
wards used. 

The trial runs have not been sufficient to enable me to finally determine 
the amount of capacity of the condenser necessary to deal with the worst 
possible conditions, but that is a matter that can easily be determined 
by some further trials. Experiments were made showing the need, for 
such cases of excessive leakage, of a larger capacity than I at first thought 
necessary. The excessive leakage was due to very severe climitic con- 
ditions, probably accentuated by salting of the tracks. I have already 
reported that on the occasion of the first run I found the track l\ad been 
salted shortly before the trial started. The '■ G.B." Company has reported 
to me that on the morning of the 17th inst., shortly after the trial at- 
tended by members of the Council, the track was being salted, the salting 
not being continued beyond Burdett-road. They were informed by the 
man in charge of the work that he had been engaged on this work for some 
time. If this informaticm is correct, it accounts for the very great amount 
of leakage which I found during all the funs. I am glad this salting was 
done, as it ensures that the conditions were abnormally severe, but I am 
surprised that I was not informed of it. 

Some difficulty was experienced with the collector, two stoppages 
being due to breakages of cast iron links. The " G.B." Company agrees 
with me that these links should be of steel, and are preparing a design 
in that materia!. A further difficulty with the collector was caused liv 
the support of the chain working loose. This is a small and easily 
remediable mechanical defect. It led to considerable sparking on the 
surface of the road. When it had been put right, as it was on the occa- 
sion of the last run, the collection was admirable and sparkless. Success- 
ful trials were then made with one of the two collectors out of action, the 
result being so good (liat it may prove on further experience possil)le to 
dispense with half the collector equipment, and so simplify and lighten 
the car. This woidd alvo slightly bssen the cost of the special work anil 
reduce the cost of ec(uipment of the Bow-road to Cambridge -road from 
the figure given in my estimate of the 18th ult. of £4,313 to about £3.20t». 
I prefer, however, to leave this matter o)jeu for the moment. 

I have already reported that a speed of probably fully 24 miles pi'i- 
hour was attained without difficulty. Apart from other questions, this 
is about twice the speed which, I was informed by the Council's officials, 
it was possible to run with the original equipment. 

The fact that in even six short runs under very trying conditions wc 
had got the line into satisfactory working order (with the exception of 
one stud which was f..und to have a mechanical break) sliows how coiii- 
jiaratively little ]>reliminary running is likely to be necessary to get the 
whole line into satisfactory order. I was ])repai-cd from the first for a 
considerable longer period of trial before demonstrating this. I lliiid; 
it highly satisfactory, and may remind you of the long period of tlu-.'C 
months of preliminary trial (in actual service) allowed by the Lincoln 
t:or]iorat ion to cnn b)r- the contractors to remedy small defects of construc- 
tion and to eliminate the weaknesses incidental to all new work. 

With regard to the shock experienced by a horse on the untried and 
untested part of the road, two things are satisfactory — one that the 
ownersof the horse have reported, as I have already inforined you, that 
it is satisfactorily recovering, and shoidd be at work agam in a few days. 

The other good pomt is that, although the stud was fully alive and all the 
conditions very favourable to a severe shock, the horse wa-s not killed, 
trom Its appearance and condition immediately afterwards, I should have 
said that, except for its knees, which were bruised a-s by an ordinary faU 
It was none the worse for the shock. This experience, regrettable as it is' 
seems to show that the risk of fatal injury to horses is much less than I 
have supposed. I have already reported that this accident would not 
have occurred if we had taken the precaution of running over this short 
length of line. 

During the preliminary construction work a large number of the 
earthenware Tpieces— more than 100— were found to be slightly cracked 
or broken, but only in one case had any dirt penetrated into the T-piece. 
I, therefore, did not consider these slight defects were serious, as they 
had been down a long time without developing faults. In any further 
overhauling I should not consider it necessary to replace them. 

With regard to the special work, a suggestion wa« made to me by 
Mr. Fell that this should be dealt with before proceeding with further 
overhauling. I do not think this necessary, and, therefore, did not 
it at the outset, partly because I wi-hed to limit the expense of the trial, 
and partly because a sample turnout^ — namely, that at Burdett-road— 
had already been equipped with satisfactory results in the manner neces- 
sary for the other special work. This Burdett-road junction, I gather 
from the correspondence, has given satisfactory results in working. X 
look upon this special work as of a character that presents no problem 
such as that which has already been disposed of. 

Mr. Fell also mentioned the question of the hammer blows due to horses 
possibly making the studs momentarily ahve in the same way that they 
can be made alive by the blow of a hammer. This matter attracted my 
attention at the first, and it was only after a long series of careful ex- 
periments, made with the help of the Council's officials, that I was able 
to satisfy myself that no danger would arise from this cause. Until I 
made those tests I held the view that Mr. Fell has very naturally ex- 
pressed. Fortunately, also, there is the 3J years' experience at Lincoln 
which confirms my experiments. There, although the traffic is thin, there 
are plenty of fast trotting horses and heavy vehicles, and yet there ha-s 
never been any case of such effect as I at first feared. I am sure Mr. Fell 
will agree that these tests and this experience dispose of this difficulty. 

In my opinion, after a very short time, the stoppage of a car by the 
action of the alarm would be very infrequent indeed. This alarm .seems 
to be quite effective, and I may remind you that this occasional effect 
has always been known in connection with this system, and was within 
your knowledge before the adoption of the .system. So far as I know, 
no other surface-contact system has so adequately provided for giving 
warning of these occasional defects. Their existence does not appear to 
me to constitute a reasonable cause for anxiety or to be inconsistent 
with " due regard to the safety of the public." W. M. Mobdev. 

On the 5th April the following letter was forwarded to the 
Council by the company : 

Hamilton House, Bishopsgate-street Without, London, E.G. 
Aldhate to Bow 

Gentlemen, — It would seem from reports in the Press and elsewhere 
that your Highways committee has been led to advise the Council 
that the use of the " G.B." system on the above route be abandoned. 
Some months ago you appointed Mr. W. M. Mordey, the president of 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers, tc advite you, as an expert, on 
the suitability of the " G.B." system. Later we contracted with the 
Council to put in order a ear and a piece of the above route. The two 
main provisos of our agreement wore :— 

1. That the work should be carried out to Mr. Mordey's satis- 

2. That the trial runs should be of such a nature and extent as 
Mr. Mordej- should deem necessary or expedient. 

It would seem unjust that the Council should come to any decision 
either to retain or reject our system until Mr. Mordey had reported 
that the trial runs and his investigations there.if «ero complete. 

On Wednesday last the solicitor to the Council read to us p;irts of 
a letter from Mr. Mordey in which he asked for more trial runs. It is, 
therefore, seen that the second proviso of our contract is unfulfilled. 
We should, however, remind you that Mr. W. W. Thompson told the 
Council, on March 9 last, that Mr. Mordey had informed him that tho 
experiments up to that time were '•eminently sjitisfactorv. ' 

On the last — or sixth — trial run a horse (now well and at work) 
received a shock from a stud which had not been tested oratanj time 
run over by the car, and, tlierelore, was not included in the trial runs. 
A like accident could not happen in service conditions. We mention 
these facts that the truth may bo known in place of the Press account 
of the incident. 

It seems that the system is about to bo condemned on the advice of 
the Council's officials'; but we can hardly think that any practical- 
man would seriously say that it is possible justly to condemn any 
system after only six preliminary runs, or in all about 12 hours' ex- 
perience. There were no faults." beyond mere details of adjustment, 
found during any of tlie runs, and before the trials ended these adjust- 
ments wore made and the system worked [lerfectly. The official view 
is, therefore, the harder to understand. 

Apart from all other things, it w;is an implicit if not .•\n explicit 
provision of our contract that if your export adviseil the abjindonment 
of the system, then it should be abandoneil, but if he advised its re- 
tention, then it should be retained. Our belief that the Council will 
not knowinglv set aside the spirit of their bond with us is the founda- 
dation of this'letter. The " G.B." ScRiACE Cosi.\cT Co. 




We conclude our account of this matter by the insertion of the 
following very lengthy communication from the Company to Mr. 
Mordey. By so doing we place our readers in possession of all the 
information at our command : — 

Hamilton House, Bishopsgate-street Without. London, E.G., 
W. M. MoRDEv. Esq. October I. 1908. 

Dear Sir : We have received a letter from the Clerk to the L.C.C. dated the I8th ult. 
a copy of which he informs us has been sent to you. We have replied to him as per copy 
enclosed, and, in accordance with the promise made therein, we now proceed to give you 
what information we can respecting the surface-contact system laid in the Bow-road and 
the special equipment on the cars running thereon. We do not know how far you have 
been informed of the earlier history relating to the Bow-road installation, but it appears 
to us desirable that you should have some information respecting matters which are 
largely responsible for the exceedingly unsatisfactory state of affairs to-day. 

Early in June last year, after a visit of the Highways committee to Lincoln, our en- 
gineer. Mr. Bedell, was asked to call upon the chief engineer of the Council, and was 
informed by him that the Council would not consent to place a contract direct with us for 
any line to be equipped on the "" G.B." surface-contact system, nor would such contract 
be placed with the firm who had worked with us in installing the line at Lincoln. Mr. 
Bedell then submitted the n^me of another firm who would be willing to do the wcrk 
and leave £9.000 in the Council's hands as a guarantee of the proper working of the system. 
This firm was also refused, and Mr. Bedell was referred to Messrs. Dick, Kerr & Co.. with 
whom, however, we could not come to terms on a royalty basis, as they required pre- 
ferential termc from us, and we had been informed by the chairman of the Highways 
committee that any arrangements made must be such that the Council could be sure 
of tenders in open competition. 

The final arrangement made by the Council was to enter into a licensing agreement 
with the patentees for the use of the patents. The price first asked was cut down from 
£800 per mile to £500 per mile, on our being informed in the committee's presence that no 
technical assistance would be required from us. remuneration for which was included in 
the higher figure. We mention this to show that we have been placed by an arrange- 
ment made purely to suit the Council in a position where it has been exceedingly difficult 
for us to obtain a working knowledge of what was going on. This arrangement apolied 
both to permanent way and csr equipment. We very soon learnt, however, that our 
technical assistance would be required, although it was not proposed to pay for it in most 

As far as the track was concerned, all we were at first asked to do was, for a fixed sum 
per mile, to supply the contractors with men who had experience of laying our system, 
and who should teach their men how it was done ; but the car equipments were dealt 
with in an entirely different way. 

As early as June, 1906. we had been shown some of the Council's cars, with a view to 
seeing whether our collecting gear could be fitted to them. We considered that it could. 
but that considerable alterations to the car would have to be made. We stated this 
opinion in a letter to the chief officer dated June 25. 1906, and again referred to it in ours 
of July 31. 1906. On July 16. 1907. we again quoted the chief officer for car equipments 
at £99 each, instead of £75. which was our original quotation when we supposed that we 
should be given the whole contract for both car and track work. We, however, agreed 
to reduce this figure when we learnt that, through a mistake, insufficient money had been 
voted for the car equipments, and we eventually took a contract for them at cost price. 

Before this contract was entered into we were asked to prepare drawings of the equip- 
ments, and to prepare a wooden model to be fitted up under a car. all of which we did. sup- 
plying our technical assistance and labour free of cost. We experienced much difficulty 
with the design because drawings of trucks. &c.. with which we were furnished were 
difficult to get and unreliable. We also were informed that the alterations we had thought 
could be easily effected on the cars were not supposed to be possible : the design was. 
therefore, cramped unnecessarily and. far from what it might easily have been. In these 
circumstances we were naturally unwilling to take any responsibility for the design, 
much of which had-been imposed upon us by the officials of the Council. We. therefore, 
had to insist that the terms should be such as apply to agents merely, and that no guaran- 
tee as to satisfactory working should be included in the contract. We explained this 
position clearly before the contract was entered into. On December. 21. 1907, the chief 
officer wrote instructing us to proceed with the 48 car equipments. On January 1, 1908, 
we wrote the chief officer asking whether he wanted any alterations made to the con- 
tract drawings. He replied that he couldn't and wouldn't take any responsibility in the 
matter. To this we replied that, as we could know nothing about the special brake gear 
involved, he must really decide the matter. All this delay and correspondence was due 
to the fact that the conditions expressed in the contract for car equipments were not 
frankly accepted by the chief officer and he still tried to make us responsible for the work- 
ing of the systeni. altered and crippled as it then was both in track and car equipment. 

On February 3. 1908. we were instructed to proceed with only one of the 48 equipments. 
Early in March the first equipment was delivered, covered in wood and erected on a car 
in a rough temporary manner, as it was quite understood that it was for experimental 
purposes only that this first ^quioment was hurried through. The collection with this 
magnet was found to be very bad at first. This was due to the short collection chain 
getting a periodic swing, which caused it to leave the studs after it had come in contact 
with them. We found that this defect was cured by deadening it with rubber buffers. 
There remained, however, a more serious defect — the magnet was not strong enough to 
work the studs properly. The Council's officials tried placing a conduit yoke round the 
stud to see if it-worked more forcibly, but found, of course, that the yoke magnetically 
short-circuited it and prevented its working at all. They also tried the effect of removing 
the outer pole of th" magnet, as they held the theory that it was worse than useless' 
This experiment resulted in the .magnet failing to work many of the studs altogether. 
We ourselves found that the gunmetal piece we had been made to insert in the outer pole 
was chiefly responsible for the weakness, and. as-there was no real reason for this piece 
of gunmctal. it was bridgedwith iron, and after this the strength of the magnet was about 
ncmil. There was. however, a great exception taken to the swinging polar extension, 
which, although in s+rict accordance with the contract drawings, was considered objec- 
tionable on account of the attention it would require when changing over from conduit 
to surface-contact lines. As we know nothing of the L.C.C.'s service requirements or 
the time available for changing over, we can express no opinion of this matter. The 
swinging pole was removed, and without it the magnet was too short for continuous 
collecticn, and during the Easter holidays the officials began the manufacture of double 
magnet equipments — i.e.. two magnets on each car. 

On April 22nd we wrote to the chief officer concerning the relative merits of one and 
two magnet equipments, and on 24th the chief officer wrote us a letter from which it ap- 
peared that he was suffering from some misapprehension of technical facts connected 
with the system, but at the same time considered our engineer's presence to be super- 
fluous when trial runs were being made. On April 27th we a^-ain wrote explaining many 
technical points germane to the system which did not appea. to be perfectly understood. 
On Ihe same day we wrote another letter dealing with the comn\ercial aspect of the case 
and we would suggest that you refer to these letters, as they deal with many aspects of 
the matter not easily condensed. 

We were not consulted as to the design of the magnets which the officials had made, 
and when we were permitted to examine them we found that they were badly designed 
and constructed in almost every v/ay. The section of the sores was not sufficient to carry 
the fljx for the pole bars, with the r*»sult than even when many more than the normal 
number of cells were used to excite them there was still insufficient magnetic force to 
operate the studs properly. In many places the iron parts of the magnets were much too 
clos^ to members of the trucks to be at all safe. The wood protection was much less 
efficient and of an even more temporary character than on the experimental magnet first 
used, and iron screws passing into the metal of the magnets were used to fix the wood. 
The bulk of the scrap iron collected by the magnet found its way to the screw heads and 
caused short-circuits, and though we frequently suggested their reolacement by brass 
screws we could never do more than get them covered with compound— a quite inade- 
auate substitute. Although we had found in the earlier runs that the insulated sus- 
pension bolts required shielding, no shields were provided The collector chains, also, 
were not buffered. There were many other matters, too numerous to mention, -n which 
these magnets were defectiv*. 

The result of running the cars equipped with these magnets was naturally disastrous 
both to the equipments themselves and the studs, to say nothing of the ridicule which 
v/as thus brought upon th? system, which was supposed to be on its trial. 

The patentees felt so strongly that somethine ought to be done to put matters right 
that they took the pxtreme step of laying a formal complaint through their solicitor 
before the Council, when it was proposed to hold a B.O.T. inspection. This step had the 
effect of delaying the inspection for a short time, but nothing material was done in the 
meantime to put things right, and a service was started under conditions which, if not 
' speedily remedied, could but end in a fiasco. 

We will now revert to the equipment of ihe track. After receiving the order from 
the contractors for theUnefor materials for the " G.B." road equipment, we sent them 
drawings of the parts that we werejgcing to supply, we also gave them our ideas as to the 
method they should adopt in draining the conduit at the lowest points into catch pits, 
which were not included in our order for material. The design of cable access box which 
we submitted was objected to by the Council's officials, who drew out one of their own. 
This design was sent to us. and we wrote to the contractors on August 26. 1907. object- 
ing to some points and pointing out the superiority of our design. One of these points 
was the inadequacy of the grease joint, as it was necessary that the box lids should be 
tight in order to secure efficient ventilation. It has proved in practice that this objec- 
tion was well founded. Another objection to the design was made verbally to the chief 
engineer's assistant in that the depth of the box was such that the metal work of the lid 
would be flush with the top of the paving, and might possibly come in contact with any 
scrap iron carried by the magnet and cause partial .-^hort-circuits. We were informed 
that it was L.C.C. practice to arrange their street boxes in this way. It turned out in 
practice that partial short-circuits occurred on these boxes in nearly every case. This 
was a very unfortunate thing for the system, as it gave rise to widespread adverse comment. 
The violence of the arc was such that we thought it impossible that the path of the cur- 
rent was through the concrete to the rails, a circuit of comparatively high resistance, 
and when the frames of the boxes were lowered and the paving in ths lids raised we dis- 
covered that in very many cases a tie-bar or the earthing strip from our insulator pins 
was in close proximity to or actually touching the frame. It is needless to say that 
warning had been repeatedly given against fixing earthed metal of any kind near the 
access box frames. With respect to draining the conduit, we informed the Council's 
officials of the method we adopted in Lincoln — that is. running a pipe from the lowest 
point into a closed galvanised-iron tank buried in the roadway, and having a vertical 
pipe coming up to the road level and covered with a stop cock box cover, through which 
it could be periodically pumped out. The design of drainage sump got out by the L.C.C, 
officials was quite different ; the sump itself was to be made in concrete and the cover 
was not airtight. 

The patentees wrote to the chief engineer on September 28, 1907. disapproving of 
the design and recommending the Lincoln system as superior in every v/ay. The sumps, 
however, were put in to the L.C.C, design, and the result was seen in several dangerous 
gas explosions. The concrete walls of the sumps were useless for the purpose of excluding 
the gas in the road, and the badly fitting sump lids and inadequate grease joints of the 
access boxes made it very difficult to obtain efficient ventilation, so that the blower in 
the car sheds had to be kept running continuously. At Lincoln half an hour a day is 
found to be quite enough. Extra cable insulators at access boxes on work were 
put in contrary to our recommendation. Some of these have already been the cause of 
dead earths on the line. It is matter for regret that almost the whole of the track work 
was completed before the Council had a trial car ready to run. Many, if not all. the 
mistakes made would probably have been discovered and rectified, and a greater willing- 
ness shown to take our advice, had only one car been ready when, say. the first J mile 
of track was completed. As an illustration of this, we may mention the case of the re- 
sistance studs at special work. It was assumed that single magnet equipments would be 
used on the cars, and the resistance studs were arranged accordingly, but double-magnet 
equipment were finally decided upon, for which quite different special work is required. 
the large number of resistance studs at each junction rendering it desirable to insert a 
resistance in a part of the line cable, as we designed the Burdett-road special work to be, 
instead of a resistance to each pair of studs. The ordinary studs could have been set 
further apart in order to suit the double-magnet equipments and a saving of expense 
would have resulted. 

When the first car equipment was completed we found it necessary to advise the chief 
officer that it would be dangerous to run a trial until the conduit was ventilated. We 
had informed the engineers' department at the beginning of the work that it would bs 
necessary to instal a blower to ventilate the conduit, but this had not been done. The 
warning we gave to the chief officer was not unnecessary, as was proved by the blowing 
up of several box Hds at some of the later trials. 

On June 25th a service of three electric cars was started. At the chief officer's request 
we supplied, at our own expense, two men who could teach the Council's employes how 
to extract studs and generally deal with the track. The troubles whicn were experienced 
were numerous. Short-circuits and partial shorts between the magnets and the car 
were of frequent occurrence, and their effect on the studs was of course very damaging. 
Large numbers of the studs tripped the safety breakers on the car.^. and could not after- 
wards be located, and yet others which sparked on the detector brushes remained undetec- 
ted, as the action of the safety breakers, which we believe were of L.C C. design, was very 
unreHable. Our men noticed that the pitch round the granite stud blocks had sunk 
away in many instances, and that the passage of a v/atering cart caused some of the studs 
to trip the safety breakers. This led ^s to suppose that considerable leakage must be 
taking place through the dirt immediately surrounding the studs. 

Many studs which remained alive after the cars had passed were extracted, but were 
quickly removed to an L.C.C. depot, where we cojld not examine them, so that we were 
able to gain littie reliable knowledge concerning the cause of their failure to act. 

On July 8th we ceased to be able to obtain any information whatever, regarding the 
behaviour of the system except such as the public generally might glean, for our men 
were on that day ordered to have nothing further to do with the trams. We were greatly 
astonished at this, as it had been arranged with the chief officer that they should bs 
employed for three months, and no warning was given that their services were to be 
dispensed with. We wrote to the chief officer on July llth. saying that now we were 
excluded from the works we thought it desirable that v/e should give him our opinions. 
already verbally stated from time to time, respecting the working of the system as far 
as we had been able to see it. We had already quoted the Council for double magnet 
equipments, the desigrs for which we had got out at our own expense, and a draft con- 
tract for the supply c* these had been forwarded to us through our solicitors, As these 
magnets differed in many ways from those already on the cars we think it fair to assume 
that the Council's officials did not regard their own design as satisfactory. 

We wrote to the chief officer on July 1 5th stating that the methods adopted for testing 
the safety breakers in the car sheds were inadequate ; also that one of the cars was 
running with a magnet coil short-circuited or inoperative, and that this had been pointed 
out two days before and remained unremedied, also that the men were using neat pitch 
to reset the studs which they extracted. This is an illustration of the way in which the 
most ordinary precautions for the safety of the public and the requirements of the svs*em 
were neglected. With unreliable safety breakers Hve studs were left undetected in the 
road. With a broken down magnet every stud over which it passed was liable to be 
damaged and possibly rendered unsafe. With hard pitch used round the studs loose 
stud heads and broken T pieces follow as a natural sequence. 

On July 17th we received a letter from the chief officer saying that, inconsequence of 
accidents to horses and persons, in addition to other defects in the working, it was decided 
to stop the service and cut current off till further notice. In reply we wrote on July 20th 
approving the decision to stop the service, and presuming that this step was to give time 
for our recommendations to be complied with. We then made an off°r to th" chairman 
of the Highways committee either to take over and keep up both car and road equipment 
for a fixed sum per car-mite, payment to commence after both had been put in order by 
us, or to take exciu.sive charge of the roadway, it being understood that we had no com- 
mercial interest whatever. On the 22nd we received a letter from the chairman of the 
Highways committee stating that The committee had decided to abandon the scheme. 
We wrote in reply that the system had not had a fair trial, and at the same time wrote 
to the Clerk of the Council offering to take over the road and put it right and maintain 
it for 12 months if the Council would equio cars to our desipn to run on it, and only if 
satisfactory a charge not to exceed £2.500 to be made. On the 27th we received a letter 
from the clerk saying that our offer had been placed before the Highways committee but 
that they could not recommend the Council to accept it. 

We wrote the chief officer on July 20th reminding him of a telephone conversation 
that took place on the 10th rerpecting some tests to ascertain the leakage current through 
the mud which he had promised to have made, as on the previous day a considerable 
number of the .^^tuds opened the .safety breakers on the cars. The road was abnormally 
muddy that day, and we thought it possible that the extra leakage caused by the mud 



might be sufficient to maintain an arc for th? liin-^ ntc?33ary to alb .v the safety biaiili to 
fjet on the stud, if the switch piec; of the latter was not workin- quite freely. We 
reminded the chief officer in this letter that though he had asked us to be present when 
he tests took place, and we had been constantly telephoning to the assistant who had 
the matter in hand, who assured us that we should be given due notice, yet the tests 
took place without our being informed, and we would hke to know the results. We have 
never received these particulars and they appear to us to be so important that we should 
bs much obliged if you could communicate them to us. 

On July33ih we received a letter^from the Clerk of the Council informing us of the 
Council's decision to go on experimenting with the system durmg the recess and to expert to inquire into the matter. We wrote in reply, ^on August 6th. setting 
out our view of the line the inquiry ought to take and this letter has doubtless been 
communicated to you. sine; then we have tried several times by writing to the Clerk to 
elicit technical information which would have enabled us to give you the full and detailed 
statement you asked for in your letter to the Clerk, copy of which was forwarded to us 
on August 26th. As this technical information is still withheld, w? can only ^ive you a 
statement partly based on knowledge and partly on surmise of what took place. 

We have thus far dealt with some of the circumstances which culminated in the inquiry 
upon which we understand you are now engaged, though as yet we do not know the 
scope or precise nature of that inquiry. Our ignorance on these points must be our 
excuse for laying before you many things which, were we better instructed, we should 
have been able to omit and also possibly foromitting other matters upon which you would 
have wished information. We propose next to deal with the defects as far as we know 
or can surmise them and the treatment we should recommend for their elimination. 

Line Leakage. — We gathered, although we could never obtain any definite information, 
that the line leakage was very variable and that three or four dead earths occurred. 
We consider that anything over 0"1 amperes per section after the current has been on 
for half an hour indicates that water is present in the conduit or access boxes and that 
sumps shojld be pumped outer low points not drained should have sumps provided. In 
the case of dead earth, we believe the cause has always been that one of the insulators 
near access boxes on special work (which were not put in in accordance with our design) 
had broken down. 

Resistance 5/«rf5.— Several cases of these becoming alive were observed. In the 
first few instances this was due to current leaking from the resistance wires to their lead 
covering at the end in the resistancs pit, an arc being maintained meanwhile between 
carbon and cable. The cure for this is to employ reliable wiremen when making the 
connections with the resistances. With regard to the later instances of these studs 
becoming live, we were excluded from obtaining any information, and we think that 
for the most part nothing was done to ascertain the cause ; but from a few remarks 
made to us by assistants to the Council we gathered that in one or more instances it had 
been found that the resistances themselves had gone to body. This defect would follow 
inevitably if the wire on the head side was the one that became earthed, because then 
the full current which the resistancs could pass would flow through it till something 
burnt out and so broke the circuit. During the trial runs there were no men present 
supplied with the tools for removing stud heads, so anything of this sort that might go 
wrong was left to burn itself up completely. 

There is another explanation that would account for the trouble, viz. : the officials 
told us that 40 amperes would be enough to allow to move their cars ; we thought this 
rather low and got them to agree to 50 amperes as the amount to be passed by the resis- 
tances, and on our own responsibility we ordered them with such a resistanc3 that they 
would pass about 60 amperes. The cars, however, frequently refused to start with this 
current, and consequently, instead of the resistance remaining in use for a few seconds 
only, cars used to stand over them taking full current for minutes at a time, while attempts 
were mad? to bar them along. Doubtless the resistances overheated and may even have 
fused. The remedy for this trouble is to construct resistances to pass enough current to 
move the cars. The whole matter of resistance studs is only of academic interest now 
that double magnet equipments have been decided upon, since our arrangement of 
resistance in the line cable used at Burdett-road would become universal throughout the 

Lwe Studs.— These can be divided broadly into two classes : {a) those which were left 
alive and remain so till remedial measures v/ere taken, and (b) those which tripped the 
breaker but became dead by themselves. For reasons already explained we can have no 
detailed information to go upon, but as far as our observations have carried us we think 
that in class (a) the causes of failure have been : — 

(1) Dirt, grit, sand, cement or pitch adhering to the working parts of the stud. Caus-:. 
^Stud not clean when put in or in some few instances the T piece was broken, admitting 
foreign matter to the stud. Rer»?dy. — Greater care and cleanliness during initallation. 

(2) Clearance between switch pieces and liners of fork not sufficient in all positions of 
the former, and had escaped the L.C.C. inspector's notice. /??wfrfy.— Greater care in 
inspection and use of a minimum clearance gauge. 

{3) The woodite eyes in 'he switch pieces have broken in a few cases. Cause.— The 
woodite overheated in turning ; this defect was net observable on inspection, but such 
eyes absorbed moisture and became liable to break after studs were set in the road. 
Remedy. — Replace breakages with a material such as box-wood boiled in paraffin, which 
is not liable to be affected in this way. 

(4) Studs were burnt up, the inside working faces roughened, copper clips fused, carbons 
loosened, flex fused. &,c. Cause.— DeiecXs in car equipments producing large leakage 
currents of hundred of amperes, which on a slowly moving or stationary car would burn 
up any stud which could be so designed. Remedy. — Use only properly designed car 
equipments' and substation breakers set only a little above the normal maximum 
section load. 

In class (b), which is far the larger division, the conditions were more complex and 
varied at different times. (1) There is nodoubt but thatmanyof these studs werecaused 
by the magnets which were in use for some lime on the cars being too weak to induce 
the carbons to make proper contact. v/ith the cable : the resulting heat sometimes pro- 
duced a light fusion between the iron of the cable and the carbon, which, however, broke 
down under the current taken by the safety brush, and so made the stud dead as soon 
as the car had passed. In some few cases this latter action may not have taken place 
and then the stud would form a (fifth) division in class (a). Remedy.— Ust only properly 
excited magnets on the cars. 

(2) There appeared to be reason to suppose that m certain conditions of the road 
surface some of the studs in (*).were due to an arc being maintained between the 
carbon and the cable long enough to cause the stud to trip the safety breaker. We 
mentioned this possibility to one of the officials and suggested that measurements of 
insulation resistance between stud heads and rails should be made. This official informed 
lis a few days afterwards that he had found no case in which the resistance was less than 
12.00C ohms, even after a watering cart had just passed over the street. This served 
to indicate that the surface leakage could not possibly be the cause of the trouble. It 
WAf found, however, that there iwas an unmistakable synchronism between the appear- 
ance of studs of tbis class and rain storms. We were very glad to hear, therefore, from 
the chief officer that he would be willing to carry out tests by which the road leakage 
under all conditions could be measured, but we were greatly surprised to find that we 
had been excluded from witnessing the tests, and still more so when it became apparent 
that we were not to be told even the results of the measurements. We venture to think 
that this course was hardly calculated tp lead to a rapid solution of the difficulty, for 
years ago, when our system was in the experimental stages, we considered the possibility 
of an arc being maintained between the carbon and the cable and devised a simple and 
efficient-means of eliminating this trouble. This arrangement we tested on our experi- 
mental track at Ilford. and found no single instance of a stud tripping the breaker or 
remaining alive, although leakages up to 15 amperes stud to rail were artificially pro- 
duced, and we think we can promise that if you would care to see the experiment we 
could demonstrate the fact to you. although our plant at Ilford has been standing idle 
almost continuously for three or four years. We found In all our experience that there 
existed in practice no fear of sufficient road leakage to prevent the efficient working of 
the studs, and so our method of obviating it has not been called into requisition. 

We have not sufficient information even now to say definitely that it is required, but 
if, as we think possible, studs of the description of class (b) (2) did really exist on the 
Bow-road, then we unhesitatingly say that our method of dealing with the trouble will 
prove a perfect solution. A precisely similar phenomenon would be produced if. as we 
have some reason to believe, the dirt on the switch pieces prevented their free move- 
ment, and that consequently many were much less than their standard distance from the 

Stud Heads.—'We believe that 1 or 2 per c^nt. of these have beep found broker, by the 

traftic dunng th^ nine months they liavc been in the road. This ssemi to indicate that 
it would be better to replace them when they break with drop forged steel heads, since 
experience shows that constant vibration plays a more important part than the mer** 
weight of the trafllic. 

Ventilation.— \t is important that the means u.-3d should be such that the whole of 
the air in the conduit is changed at least once in two or three days. The badly designed 
access box covers and sumps installed in the Bow-road render it doubtful if this condi- 
tion was met. We believe tests were carried out by the Council's officials, but we were 
not favoured with the results. 

Car Equipments.— ^These were so defective and the defects so apparent that the only 
recommendation we need make is that they should be entirely scrapped, and new ones 
fitted of good design, materials and workmanship. It will then be found that the huge 
amount of energy they consumed for excitaton is reduced to about 5 or 6 per cent, of 
that used to drive the cars. The weight of accumulators carried is reduced in like pro- 
portion, and the damage to studs and equivalent from constant shorting is avoided. 

We think the facts already related are in themselves sufficient to explain how it is that 
while at Lincoln the "G.B." system runs well, efficiently, and to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, yet when what was supposed to be the same sy.stem v/as tried in Bow-road 
it failed signally ; but lest we should have overlooked some natural physical reason for 
this it would be well to consider what difference in the general condition, if any. exists 
between the two routes. The routes are similar, in that they are flat and -Arith few curves. 
The amount of general traffic over the lines is much greater in London than in Lincoln, 
but certainly no heavier per vehicle. The car service is much more frequent in Lincoln 
than it ever was on the Bow-road. The energy required to drive the L.C.C. cars is mors 
than is required for the Lincoln ones. The London streets are. if anything, better kept 
and freer from mud than in Lincoln. The greater amount of traffic may be and probably 
is the cause for some of the stud heads breaking, but this has been a small matter and 
plays no part in the failure ; it is. more-over, a thing easily rectified. The greater fre- 
quency of the service would have a beneficial effect on the maintenancecosts per car-mile 
run. but would otherwise not affect the working of the system. The reason for this is 
that the wear on carbons and cable sleeves is a diurnal matter. The first few cars in 
the morning, after the line has been out of use for a few hours remove the damp and 
oxide from the carbon and sleeves, and after that there is practically no wear or loss of 
material till next morning. If will therefore be seen that the cost of maintenance of 
the hne is but little affected by the frequency of the service. The larger amount of energy 
used by the London car has had no effect on the working of the system whatever, so far 
as we have been able to discover. 

With regard to the cleanliness of the streets we think that, although to all appear- 
ances there is Httle to choose between Lincoln and London, actual experience and measure- 
ments of stud leakage currents might show that, although the quantity of mud in the 
two places differs little, yet the chemical composition and therefore the conductivity 
may not be at all alike. If. therefore, we postulate, for want of definite knowledge. 
that the London mud has a much higher conductivity, then all that is needed to meet 
this, the only conceivably important condition, pecuHar to London, is to use our arrange- 
ment for preventing class {b) (2) studs. 

There is. further, the possibility that there is more scrap iron lying about the Bow- 
road than in the Lincoln High-street, but in view of the number of engineering works in 
Lincoln this does not seem likely. If. however, this is the case it would have no detri- 
mental effect on magnets efficiently covered. 

There is one aspect of the possible leakage through the Bow-road mud which we trust 
will not escape investigation. It is that during the earlier trial runs there was an almost 
total absence of slruds-in class (&), and we think certainly none in class ib) (2), although 
during most of these earlv runs the mud was in about the best condition, as far as damp- 
ness is concerned, to produce a large leakage. Yet. during the hot dry summer weather 
a shower of rain caused great inconvenience. It seems, therefore, necessary to postulate 
either that the stiffness of action of the dirt-covered switch-pieces was increasing as time 
went on and that there was therefore less-average gap between carbons and cable. O' 
that the mud formed by rain falhng on the dust after the road has been dry has a much 
higher conductivity than the mud that is met with throughout the greater part of the 
year. We think there are physical reasons why one would expect this result. Thi: 
matter seems to us to require careful investigation before any reliable figures of roai 
surface leakage can be obtained. 

If there ^re &ny matters with which we have not dealt already, or upon which you wish 
further information, we hold ourselves at your disposal either to answer questions which 
you may address to us or to meet you and discuss the points. 

The '-G.B." Surface Contact Co. 

(Signed) B. H. Bedell, En^nneer. 


Summary. — After showing the liinitaticms of tlu^ ordinary mcthci;U 
for finding the acliuil induction in tlie teeth, the author pro'ceds to show 
liow the general equation combining th? appirent and rv>al llux densities 
can be used in connection with the magnetisation curve in ([ue^tion for 
grapliically [ieternjinijig .the required ampere-turns. 

In the de iign of dynamo machines it is of groat im])ort)mce to know 
how to accurately calculate the magnetising current, because on this 
a numb?r of characteristics such as leakage, overload capacity, 
armature reaction, &c., depend. The magnetising current, or rather 
the M.M.F. required to produce the flux, depends on the magnetic 
reluctance, and this again in the case of iron depends on t!ie induc- 
tion, which effect becomes veiv considerable at high densities. In 
order to utilise the material of a machine to the fullest extent, the 
designer is compelled on the one hand to work with the maximum 
possible flux, and im the other to make tlie ampere-turns per 
centimetre of the armature circumfercnc as high as is allowable 
with respect to armature reaction, heating, commutation. Ac. 
One result of this is to reduce the tooth dimensions to such an 
extent — in order to mike room for th- windini; — that densities 
of 24,000 lines per square centimetre frequently occur, con- 
sequently a considerable jjerccntage of the ampere-turns is 
required" for the teeth alone, and it becomes of great importance 
to be able to calculate the actual llux d-nsity in the same. 
.Since, however, the magnetisation cm-ve cannot be accurately ex- 
l)ressed by any simiile fornuiln. recourse must be had to graphical 

Now parallel to the tcetii there is an air .section formed by the slots, 
and assuming the latter of constant width — ,»s usually they arc — the 
section of the teeth increases the further it is taken away from the 
axis. This, of leads to a variation in the llux dcnsit.v in the 

* .Abstracted ffotii the '" Eleklroteehnischc Zeitschrift.' 



teeth, and at the same time a varj-ing value of /i, tliis latter ijuantity 
being an unknown function of the field strength. 

The u.sual method for finding the ampere-turns is tu calculate a 
fictitious density in the teeth at any particular section, by assuming 
that the whole flux at this section passes through the teeth, and none 
tlu'ough the air {i.e., slot). This fictitious or " apparent" density, 
as it is called, is then corrected in accordance with the ratio of the 
taoth dimensions, in order to obtain the actual flux density in the 
teeth. Previously this correction was applied by cb-awing a series 
of cmves with the actual flux density as a function of the apparent, 
for different ratios of width of tooth crown to width of tooth root. 
That this is not correct, however, can easily be seen, since the actual 
density must obviously also depend on the reluctance of the air path, 
■i.e., on the width of the slot. 

Both Lumec and Arnold have .shown how the correction for the 
slots can be made. The latter determines a series of curves to 
represent the apparent and real densities, for various values of 
ki=iiiT section/iron section, whence the necessary ampere- turns can 
be directly determined. In this method, however, the series of curves 
only holds for the given magnetisation curve, and must be drawn 
afresh for any other. In addition to this disadvantage, it is also 
often necessary to interpolate, which may well lead to inaccuracies in 
many cases. 

In the following a graphical method is described, whereby the 
actual flux den.sity in the t«eth can be found in a convenient manner 
from any given magnetisation curve. The symbols used are mainly 
those employed by Arnold. Let 
4',= flux per pole entering armature ; 
?i= total armature length ; 

6i= ideal pole breadth, measured in direction of the circumference. 
Then the mean flux density in the gap is 

H=*„,7i6i (1) 

and the apparent density in the teeth 

B,.= H<,?,/2W, . . . c . . (2) 
where /, = tooth-pitch at armature circumference ; 

s= width of tooth at depth x from circumference ; 
l—ifcj= coefficient of thicknes^, of paper insulation between 
armature plates ; 

l=coTe length of armature including pa])er insulation. 
Then from (2) 

HtJ, = -B,zkJ. i (3) 

This is the total flux per tooth, and is constant all along the tooth. 
i.e., from x—o to x=h, where ^ = depth of the tooth. Now if b = 
slot-width, * = 6 -f 2= slot -pitch at x, then the flux in (3) can also be 

K^zU+H.r{hli + {li-l)z + {,l-ki)lz}. » . (4) 


slots ducts paper 

total air section at position x, 

where H = actual density in air at the section taken tlu'ough teeth 
at X, and B. = actual density in the teeth at this position. 
If then we write 

B._=B,^^-f/fc3Ha- ; ■; s . ! 8 

we get from (3) and (4). as given by Arnold 


9 s I g 

" ZIK, 

This expression can be transformed as follows : Let 
t=z + b 

._h^_ total core length ) measured along 
~ W~ active core length [ the axi.s. 
h slot-width 
^~2~ tooth-width' 

3 3 



/. h + z " 

t,= \-l= . X-1 


= yX-)-\-l 

Thi.s 7 is the coefficient k. used by Lumec. The difference between 
this and Arnold's coefficient is then 

k3-y=y\ + \-l-y^{l + y)(\-n 
This difference vanishes when X= 1. In general this is not the case, 

Now let equation (.5) be written in the form 
Then since Hx the flux density in air equal-i the field slrenglh 

We can write 

H,.= — AW/cm. 

B.-„=B,.-t3Hj <i : . 


Now the assumption that the flux in the teeth, and in the slot, is 
the same wherever the section x is taken, is not strictly corrects 
Such an assumption \\'ould only hold when the flux entered the teeth 
from an infinite distance. The proximity of the pole, however, at a 
distance S from the tooth, causes more flux to enter the sides of the 
teeth, especially at the upper portions. Nevertheless the error 
introduced by the above assumption seldom exceeds ,} per cent, in 
practice, so that it is unnecessary to introduce any complications into 
the calculation. 

Now equation (8) represents a straight line, which cuts the ordinate 
axis, representing flux densities, in the point B . The point of inter- 
section with the abscissa axis, representing field strengths, is at the 
point H„=B, /fcj. Whilst the inclination of the line to the horizontal 
is given by tan oc =*,•.. Then the actual tooth density B,__ must l.'e 
on this line. Further, we have B.. =/ (H), the magnetisation curve 
on which B.. must also lie, and the point therefore which satisfies 
these two conditions will be the intersection of this curve with the 
straight line. 

The graphical determination of B, is therefore as shown in Fig. 1. 

Calculate B..,= -y'X, and draw through B.. a horizontal to cut any 

chosen vertical in the point a. With regard to the scale for h^, it is 

convenient to take this ordinate at H = 1,000, or when the abscissa 

axis represents A W/cm. as in Fig. 1, we draw the ordinate at 


q77I:=; 796 ampere-turns per centimetre. We now set off belowa the 

length ab = k^, with 1,000 or 796 as unit, as the case may be. Then 
the point c, where B. 6 produced cuts the magnetisation cmve, gives 
the actual induction B_. . whilst the abscissa at c gives the necessary 
ampere-tuins per centimetre. 






































100 200 300 400 -500 600 700 800 '. 00 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 

Fia. 1. 

In this way the ampere-turns required for the teeth at a given flus: 
density can be found from any given magnetisation curve. Since k 
varies according to where the section through the teeth is taken, see 
equation (6), it is clear that llg=B,Jks must be determined for each 
position, provided strict accuracy is required, although it will usually 
be found that the point of intersection of the several straight lines falls 
only slightly below the axis, as can also be easily demonstrated by 
extending the above equations further. Also for each particular 
gap density, these straight lines must be determined, but a little 
experience with the method will soon enable the designer to shorten 
his work by adopting convenient constructions, by means of which 
the ampere-turns under the several conditions can be found. 

The total ampere-turns for the teeth can, of course, be then deter- 
mined by means of any of the well known rules, e.g.. when the 
difference between the maximum and minimum is not too great, it is 
sufficient to find auK and aw. them from Simpson's rule 


, +4ow.. +a»\ 




The most casual visitor to the Building Exhibition which was 
opened at Olympia on Saturday last and which will remain open 
till May 1, cannot help being struck by two things. One is the wide 
range covered by the exhibits, and the other is the high degree of 
artisticness in the arrangement of the stands and in the goods dis- 
played. A wide range of exhibits can, of course, be obtained at any 
trade exhibition by including apparatus and equipment which do 
not come strictly within the scope of the trade exhibiting. But this 
has not been done at the Building Exhibition ; in fact, Mr. H. G. 



Montgomery, the promoter, is careful to point out in liis preface to 
the catalogue, that every exhibitor not connected with the building 
trade has boon rigidly excluded. This action, far from proving a 
deterrent to the success of the ExhibiUoii. has. it is claimed, made it 
more popular than any similar undertaking. 

As regards the position held by electrical work we may first point 
out that on this, as on former, occasions extended use has been made 
of the electric light for illuminating the stands and Exhibition gcnc- 
rall}". In many cases metallic filament lamps are combined with 
exceedingly artistic fittings and furniture, so that the lind en/nmhle 
has a very pleasing effect on the jaded eye of the Londoner. 

The purely electrical exhibits are few, but altogether they form a 
very representative show. Fii'st among the exhibitors may be men- 
tioned Messrs. R. Waygood & Co.. of London, who are showing their 
well-known lifts. Their exhibits include an electric passenger lift, 
which is doing yeoman service in conveying visitors to the gallery, 
working models of an electric " ])ush button" and sus]Hiuled 
hydraulic lift, together with a model wharf erane and patent rope 
grip for use on either electric or hj'draulic cranes. The model « harf 
crane, which is a counterfeit presentiment of a much larger one that 
is actually worked by hydraulic means, is interesting from the fact 
that while a derricking motion can be obtained the load moves in a 
straight line instead of along a parabolic arc, as is usually the case. 
Further, the jib is fixed solidly to the crane structure instead of by 
chains, so that any accident through the latter breaking is ijuite 
avoided. These two conditions are made possible by the use of a 
special counterweight arrangement. Another interesting piece t)f 
apparatus shown on this stand is the " Waygood " electric grip. 
This is an electrically-operated device which prevents the working 
rope being pulled, and the lift started, when any gate is open. It 
can be adapted to any kind of roi)e-controV!ed lift in any building 
where suitable electric power is available. 

Another exhibitor at the Building Exhibition is Messrs. ('. J. 
Thurspibld & Co.. of Birmingham, who are showing a number of 
tasteful and artistic fittings for use with the electric light. They make 
a speciality of designing fittings which will harmonise with the 
existing decorations, and some examples are sliown which are of the 
type that used to be in vogue in the 17th and 18th centuries. This 
firm are carrying out then- work in an exceedingly British sort of 
way, and we hops to return to the subject of their fittings in a later 

Me.ssrs. Tredegab & Co., of London, are to be commended for 
their efforts in bringing liefore the world at large the benefits to t>e 
obtained by using electricity in the home. Their exhibit, in fact, 
exempKfies the employment of electricity in the country house. 
The complete set includes an engine, dynamo and accumulaturs, 
together with the necess.xry switching arrangements. The engine, 
which is direct coupled to the dynamo, is of the vertical type, using 
petrol for fuel. It is fitted with water cooling arrangements, and 
the ignition is eflfected by means of a sparking coil. This engine, it 
is claimed, can be started with a minimum of trouble and needs very 
little attention. This last remark also applies to the dynamo, 
accumulators and switchboard, which are all designed on generous 
lines and seem well fitted for the work they will be called upon to do. 
This exhibit also includes some examples of Messrs. Tredegar's well- 
known wooden fittings for electric lighting, and it is interesting to 
note that these fittings are being used on other stands in the Exhibi- 

Messrs. Medway's Safety Lift Co, are showing examples of their 
standard work, including an electric passenger lift gear, which is 
self-contained on a strong cast-iron bed-plate. The type of control 
shown is the hand switch, but hand rope or automatic push button 
gear can also be provided. A special safety device is fitted with tliis 
latter which prevents the lift being moved if a gate is open. They 
are also showing a safety arrangement which can be fixed to hand- 
rope worked lifts. 

Messrs. Matthews & Yates, of Swinton. near Manchester, have a 
representative exhibit of their well-known " Cyclone," fans which 
are specially adaiited for use with an electric motor. The exhibit 
includes a small refuse handling plant, in which a fan sucks away saw- 
dust and chips from the wood working machinery, and conveys it 
to a dustheap. The " Cyclone " fans shown are very good examples 
of this firm's work, and are made in any diameter from 1 ft. to 16 ft., 
all parts being interchangeable. Electric motors for driving these 
fans are also a speciality. We hope to return to this subject in the 
special Fan Issue of our Industrial Supplement published next week. 

Another w-jll-known electrical firm which is exhibiting at this 
Exhibition, but which is not showing electrical gear is The India 
Rubber. Gutta Peecha & Teleorapu Works Co. Their exhibit 
consists of a display of indiarubber tiling, stair nosing and rubber 
goods generally, and includes the flooring of the stand which is made 
of handsome mosaic work all carried out in indiarubber. 


Electric Lighting Acts (Amendment) BilL— The (ila.sgow Cor- 

jioration have been recoiiinieiiilid liy their Parliamentary Bills commit- 
tee to endeavour to have new clauses inserted iu this bill for (a) pavin<i 
the local Acts of the Corporation and ib) providing that—" Where in 
.any area a local authority, company or person is authorised to supply 
electricity under Act of Parliament, or under licence or provisional 
order granted under the Electric Lighting Acts, it shall not, after the 
piissing of this Act, be lawful, without the consent of such local 
authority, com|)any or person, to supply, distribute or transmit elec- 
tricity within the same area unless such supply, distributiou or trans- 
mission is authorised by Act of Parliament or by licence or provisional 
order granted in terms of the Electric Lighting Acts." 

Telephone Plant Renewals. — In the House of Commons on Tues- 
day, the Postmaster* Jeneral stilted that ho believed there was now no 
substantial difference between the National Teleiihone Co. and the 
Post Office with regard to the terms for the continuance of construc- 
tion works which diil not involve the replacement of existing plant of 
the company which was not worn out, and he liojied it might shortly 
be possilile to cjnchide an arrangement with the company for the con- 
tinuance of .such works. Au arrangement for the continuance of the 
more numerous works which involved replacement of existing plant 
presented greater difficulties, but he (.Mr. Buxton) did not think it 
would be expedient to state the points of difference. 



Applications arc invited for the position of assistant to the mains 
engineer in the electric supply department of the Corporation of 
Birmingham. -Applicants must have had thorough experience in 
c.h.t. alternating-current work, including switchgear, transformers, 
&c., and be conversant with modern systems of h. and !.t. distribution, 
laying and testing of cables, &c. Commencing salary £150. rising to 
£250. Applications to the city electrical engineer and manager ( .Mr. 
R. A. Chattoek, M.I.E.E.). li. Dale End, Birmingham, by 4 p.m.. 
May 4. Sec also an advertisement. 

A .switchboard attendant is wanted by the Newcastle & District 
Electric Lighting Co., 38, Grainger-street West. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
See an advTertieement. 

As we go to press we learn that ilarylebone (I.,ondon) Council 
have appointed Mr. A. Hugh Seabrook to the jiosition of borough 
electrical engineer. An amendment in favour of Mr. L. L. Robinson, 
of Hackney, was moved, but the Lighting committee's choice was 
confirmed by a large majority. 

Mr. J. W. Beauchamp, who has been for the past five years deputy 
manager of Sheffield Corporation electricity department, has been 
appointed resident electrical engineer at Tunbridge Wells. 

Mr. E. J. Taylor has been appointed meter inspector to Belfast 
Corporation electricity department. 

Gloucester City Council received 248 applications for the position 
of city electrical engineer, but this number was reduced by the 
Electricity committee to the following five : — Messrs. J. W. Beau- 
champ (Shefiield). F. H. Corson (Blackburn), C. E. Savage (Wolver- 
hampton). R. N. Torpy (Wimbledon), and H. A. Howie (Dudley). 
In the meantime Mr. Beauchamp has been appointed borough elec- 
trical engineer at Tunbridge Wells. 


Proposed Bristol University.— Bristol City Council decided on 
Tuesday to conlribule in the proportion of Id. in the pound on 
the rate, or about £7.IMI0 pc-r annum, towards the support of the 
proposed University for Bristol and the We^t of England, for which 
over £200.000 has been subscribed, mainly by members of the Wills 

Technological Scholarships.— The West Riding of Yorkshirt> County 
Council otter minor technological scholarships (up to £50 each per 
annum) tenable by persons who have had practical experience of a 
trade for at least "one vear. and have concurrently attended day or 
evening classes, or bv pupils who are about to leave secondary 
schools. The scholarships will be awarded on the results of a written. 
practical and oral examination. Application forms and full particu- 
lars from the Education Department (Technical Branch), County 
Hall. WakolicUl. 

Institute of Chemistry.— Of 10 candidates who presented themselves 
for the recent intermediate examination, the following (i passed :— 

B. M. Brown. A. S. Dodd. T. S. Haines. 0. S. W. Marlow. 0. A. Smdey, 
n.Sc. and O. .1. .Stone. Two candidates pit-seuted themselves for the 
final ns.sii( ialesliip examination iu mineral chenii.stry luid one p«.ssed 
(P W Coiicland. R.Sc.) : in met.nllnrgienl chemistry, of two examined, 
one passed (H. T. Reevo) : and of five candidates in organic chemistry 



three passed (C. Gillins;. B.Sc. G. E. Johnson, B.Su., and J. Vales. JI.8f.). 
B.Sc). In the examination in the ehemistry of food and dings and of 
water six presented themselves and four passed — viz., T. Coekburn. 
C. E. C. Ferrey. P. A. W. Self, B.Se.. and F. F. Shelley. Three of the 
candidates (J. Yates T. Cookburn and F. F. Shelley) were examined for 
the Fellowship. 

Electrical Standardizing. Testing and Training Institution. — As the 

result (it tlie n cinl f.xaniinations at Karaday House the following 
sehcilarship awanl.s have bc?n made : — 

To Richard Willan. Widiies (Lanes.) Municipal Secondary School, 
a Faraday scholarship of 50 guineas per annum, tenable for three years ; 
to Cyril L. Underwood, Bedford Grammar School, an extra entrance 
seholarshi]) of :!.'> guineas ])er annum, tenable for three years ; to John 
R. S. Hawker. Goldsmiths College (New Cross. London), an entrance 
exhibition of 25 guineas jier annum, tenable for three years : and to 
Roger Brunton. AVcllingborongh Grammar School, a special entrance 
prize of 20 guineas. 

Aberdeen. — The Electricity committee have considered the report 
of llie city elcptrica! engineer (Mr. J. Alex. Bell) as to the present 
.system of charging for electric current, dejireciation. &c.. and the 
town clerk and the city chamberlain will report upon the powers of 
the Council a? to the formation of a depreciation fimd. Mr. Bell 
will bring up a fre.^h report showing what Hal rat<- of charging would 
meet the present situation. 

Australasia. — Mclbom'nc Chamber of Commerce recently jjassed 
a resolution expressing the opinion that, before the Government in- 
crease their telephone charges, a statement showing the results of the 
working and setting out a comparison with the expense of working 
telei)hone systems elsewhere should be issued to the subscribers and 
the public, to enable them to form an opinion as to whether their 
system is worked economically. 

The " Australian Mining Standard " says a trial is being made at 
the Biillarat West railway station with a 5 ton electric crane, and it 
is believed that if this is satisfactory electric cranes will also be in- 
stalled at other Victorian stations. 

It is firoposed to instal electric pumping plant in the deep levels of 
the New Chum Railway gold mine, Bendigo, to that in the 
Long Tunnel (Walhalla) mine, which has been found completely satis- 
factory, both as to costs and efficienc}'. 

Mr. Johns, resident engineer, has recommended Leonora (W. Aus- 
tralia) Council to purchase a 54 ii.i'. producer gas engine and a M kw. 
djMiamo at an estimated cost of £1,500, and to retain the present 
plant for peak loads .and emergencies. An independent expert has 
endorsed Mr. Johns' recommendations. 

Austria-Hungary. — The Hungarian Government have granted con- 
cessions for the construction of the following railways : — Vacz to 
Budapest and Gt^diillci (to be an electric line, estimated cost £375.000); 
Hiilak to Trencsentaplitz (electric, 3J miles, £27,792) ; Kerepes to 
Giidiillii (steam and electric, 8 miles, £256.250). The names of the 
concessionaires and particulars (in Magyar) can be seen at 73, Basing- 
hall-striet. London. E.G. 

Tlie British Consul-CJaneral in Vienna will receive communications 
from British firms who can equip a factory for a Vienna firm for the 
manufacture of incandescent electric lamps, or supply the machines 
and apparatus required. 

Barking. — During the past year the electricity department sold 
1.337.344 units of electric energy, an incroas of 2ii;t. !•()() over 1907-8. 
There is an increa.sed demand for power, espn'ially at t'reeksmouth, 
and it is anticipated that the undertaking will be self-supporting 
this year. The tramcars carried 1.280.420 passengers, against 
946,890; and the receipts wore £3.130, against £2.660. The 
financial position of this undertaking is, the chairman (jf the Council 
reports, still un.satisfactory. 

Barnes. — The electrical engineer (Mr. C. 8. Davidson) recommends 
the Ccnmcil to allow the London Cieneral Omnibus Co. to for 
]M)wer 20 per cent, of the electric current supplied to them, thus 
re lucing the aver.age price to 204d. per unit. 

Mr. iiavidson is to report upon the eflTect which .a reduction of 
25; per cnt. in the charges for public and private lighting and of 
12j percent, for p<wer from October next would have on the elec- 
tricity undertaking. 

Belfast. — The city electrical ch'gincer (Mr. T. W. Bloxam) has been 
asked to report upon the question of the charge to be made for elec- 
tricity supplied to the tramways de))artmcnl'. and to ascertain from 
other craporations owning combined lighting and tramway jjower 
stations tlie basis of their charges. 

Bermondsey (London). — The Electricity and Street Lighting com- 
mittca recently prejiared a report on the work'ng of the refuse 
destructor department, in which figures of the cost of refuse destruc- 
tion in other town^ were given. The committee recommended that 
no alteration be made in the system of dust destruction, and this was 
aire 3d to by the Council. 

Birmingham.— .\ de|)utation from the Tra<le.=! Council has waited 
upji t!i" Tr.iruways committee to urge that the Corporation should 

construct their own li'amway rolling stock instead of obtaining it by 
tender. The committee have promised to consider the matter. 

Cardiff. — By the casting vote of the Lord Mayor, it has been 
decided not to engage an expert to report upon th? slate of the tram- 
way track. 

City of London. — The five members of the Streets committee, 
who recently visited certain continental cities in order to collect 
information as to street lighting, have returned. 

In an interview with a Press representative some of the members are 
reported to have stated that they had nothing to learn in the matter of 
street lighting from any of the cities visited except Berlin, where the 
Council propose to expend £50,000 per annum for a period of seveji 
j-ears in perfecting the lighting arrangements. " In .addition to a chief 
engineer, a gas engineer, and an electrical engineer, the municipality 
employs six chemists, the chief of whom, a member of one of the 
universities, has been making experiments with gas and electric light- 
ing for some considerable period." In addition to Berlin, the deputa- 
tion visited Brussels, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Dresden, Munich, Vienna 
and Paris. 

Devonport. — The Town Clerk has issued summonses against the 
Devonport & District Tramways Co. for the recovery of penalties 
for the discontinuance of the service on the leased lines. The 
summonses are returnable before the borough justices, and will be 
heard to-day, Friday. 

Dunster. — Somerset County Council have give n the Mineliead 
Electric Supply Co. permission to use overhead cables for supplying 
electricity to Dunster. 

Edinburgh. — The Electric Lighting committee have approved the 
provisional estimates for the year ending May 15, 1910. 

The estimated expenditure is at £65,560, against £65,900 last j-ear. 
The revenue is estimated at £130,060, against £131,360. The ordinary 
expenditure, together with interest and sinking fund contributions 
will amount to £127,650, and the estimated balance available for 
appropriation is £2,400. 

Electric Traction on the Congo. — It is reported that M. Thys has 
been sent out to examine the rapids and fails of the Lower Congo in 
order to decide whether sufficient power is available to generate 
current for operating the Matadi-Leopoldville railway electrically. 

Exhibitions. — We Iiave received further literature relating to the 
Buenos Ayres International Kxliiliitie.n (.f Railways and Land Trans- 
port, which is to take place from May to November. 1910. inclusive. 

Applications for space must be received by the Executive committee 
by July 31 next and goods will be admitted from April I to May 5, 1910. 
Applications to exhibit engines or other objects reejuiring foundations or 
special buildings must, however, be in by June 15, 1909, anel such 
exhibits must be delivered by Feb. 28, 1910. 

The Duke of Argyll will ]jerform the opening ceremony of the 
Imperial International Exhibition at Shepherd's Bush. The date of 
the opening (which has not yet been fixed) will probably be about 
May 18. 

Glasgow. — Last week the Corporation adopted the recommenda- 
tions of the joint sub-committee of the Electricity and Tramways 
committees in regard to the generation of electrical energy. 

Mr. .1. Dalrymple, general manager of the tramways department, 
and Mr. W. W. Lackie, chief engineer of the electricity department, 
in a report prepared by them, state that — 

During the winter of 1906-7, when the cjuestion of the production of 
electricity was raised by ex-Treasurer Stevenson, arrangements were 
in progress for connecting the Pinkston power station of the tram- 
ways department and the Port Duiidas power station of the elec- 
tricity elepartuient by means of two interconnector cables. This work 
was completed about 12 months .ago, and now an interchange of energy 
is given from one station to the other as and when required. This 
arrangement is working with complete satisfaction. In view of this 
inter-connection h.aving been made, and also of the fact that con- 
siderable extensions to the plant have been and are at present being 
made in the power stations of both departments, we consider that it 
is inexpedient to make any change in the existing arrangements. The 
object aimeel at in the proposed change is greater economy and 
efficiency. We submit, however, that this object is largely, if not 
altogether, attaineel by the above-mentioned arrangement of inter- 
connecting cables, which enables the two departments to co-operate 
in the use of each other's plant whenever this can be done with 
advantage. We are convinced that no sufficiently sub.stantial benefit 
could accrue by disturbing the present working arrangements between 
the Tramways and Electricity committees, unless and until some 
change of circumstances should arise in the position of the two depart- 
ments which might require the whole tjuestion of the production anrl 
distribution of electrical energy to be considered anew. Meantime, 
the practice of both departments is, as far as possible, being rendered 
uniform. We are .at jiresent looking into the demand at ditt'erent 
hours of the day and night and on different days of the week on the 
generating stations of both departments, and if further economy can 
be made as the result of this inquiry, we will arrange a regular inter- 
change of energ}', so as to ensure that the minimum of plant is run to 
meet the aggregate demand of the two departments. We therefore 
recommend that the two departments should be allowed to complete 
the work in hand along the present lines, and that they should con- 



tiniie to grant to each other, whenever required, the use of any of 
their available spare plant. 

Under these circumstances the subcommittee uiianimouslj- resolved 
to report that, in their opinion, the existing arrangements for the pro- 
duction of electrical energy should not be disturbed, and this view has 
licen endorsed by the Corporation. 

Greenock. — The Secretary for Scotland has sanctioned the pro- 
posal of the Corporation to borrow £25,000 for extensions of the 
electricity works. 
>!' In their report on the loan the examiners of accounts state (1) that the 
Capital expenditure has not been in any way excessive, havincr regard to 
■-the economical construction and effective value <if the undertaking ; 
(2) that the extensions for which additional powers are applied are neces- 
sary in order to meet obligations already entered into, and the natural 
calls on the undertakintr during the next two year-i : (3) that the general 
financial administration of tli? u:idertaking h'is b:'en conducte;! on a 
sound financial basis. 

Grimsby. — The Electric Lighting committee are dissatisfied with the 
increase in tlie assessment of the electricity works by £'2..374. and the 
Maclijnery, Users' Association has been instructed to rept)rt upon the 

Haniinersmith (London). — In view of ihc present position of the 
co))per market, the Electrical committee has been authorised to 
purchase 10 tons of cable. 

Handsworth (Staffs.! — Mr. H. Graham Harris has been appointed 
Boartl of Trade arbitrator to fi.x the amount to be paid by Hands- 
worth Council to the City of Birmingham Trarawaj^s Co. for the 
section of the cable tramway between Hockley and New Inns. 

Heslon and Isleworth. — The Electrical committee is considering 
an extension of the storage Ijattery at the electricity works. 

Hindhead. — In connection with the application of the Hindhead & 
District Electric Light Co. for a provisional order for Hamljledon. &c., 
the Board of Trade have decided against the application of the 
Council to reduce the maximum price from 8d. to Gd. per unit, as 8d. 
was tlie universal price, except in large towns. The villages of Witley 
and Thursley have been excluded from the order, and the area of 
supply extended in certain portions of Haslemerc. 

Hounslow Railway. — The new line which has been constructed by 
the Metropolitan District Railway Co. to Hestun-Hounslow and 
Hounslow Barracks will be opened on Hay 2. 

Inquest. — At West Ham on Monday an inquest was held on Albert 
Rawlins, who was killed at Stratford on the 16th inst. 

Deceased, who was employed by the G.E. Railway Co., was polishing 
the panels of a saloon carriage at Stratford, and a fellow workman named 
Nash handed to him a portable electric lamp. Deceased grasped it by 
tv/o fingers and immediately stumbled " as though he were drunk, and 
fell dead." Artificial respiration v.'as v/ithout avail. 

Mr. Maurice Vice, electrician-in-charge of the carriage department 
of the C!.E. Railway, said the pattern lamp in question had only been in 
use for six weeks, and in consec(uence of the advice of the Home Ofhce it 
was intended to discontinue them. Witness had tested the lamp, but 
could hud no leakage : the lamp and lead ajjpeareJ to l)e in good condi- 
tion. He was unable to account for the accident. He did not think 
deceased could have received a shock unless the " cage " had been alive. 
Witness did not think a shock of 250 volts serious. On many occasions 
he had had a shock of 450 volts. 

Dr. T. Inglis said deceased vi-as a perfectly healthy man and there was 
no external sign of injury, but in his opinion death due to syncope 
caused by electric shock. Electro-medical experts agreed that a voltage 
of 250 was never serious to a healthy man. 

A verdict of accidental death returned. 

Liverpool. — Owing to the unsatisfactoi'v results of running first- 
elass passenger tramcars. the City Council on Wednesday adopted a 
recommendation of the Tramways committee to open the upper 
decks of the first-class cars at ordinary penny fares. 

Tlis report of the auditors of the Corporation tramway accounts 
(M?ss.-s. Lvwis & Mounsey) for the past year has been issue.!. 

The traffic revenue was £663,143, and the total receipts (including 
£7,594 from advertisements) £574,977, a decrease of i'8,080 compared 
with 1907. Expenses were £401,181, an increase of £2,447. The 
revenue balance stood at £173,795, added to interest on loans, &c. , 
making £190,012. After meeting inteiest on debt, .'inking fund, &c , 
the available balance is £74,574, wliich was absorbed liy the allocation 
of £49,716 to reserve, renewal and depreciation, and £24,853 in aid of 
general rate. The capital expenditure is £2,031,291, which has been 
reduced by £308,062, leaving the net capital expenditure at£l, 930, 602 
All the non-recurring expenditures are, in the view of the auditors, 
adequately met by the several .-iinking funds. The assets are stated to 
be £2,606,830. 

Motor Car Regulations. — The Local Gover.iinent Bcjard have issued 
a circular on the decision of the High Court in Burton v. Nichol.son. 
stating that thi^ Board have come to the eomhision that it is desirable 
to rescind both subdivision (3) and subdivision (4) of Article IV. of 
the Motor Cars Order of 1904. and to leave the niatteia at present 
dealt with by these subdivisions to be governed by the ordinary 
law applicable to other classes of vehicle.?. These regulations will be 

found on pages 200 to 202 of "The Electrician " Electrical Trades' 
Directory and Handbook for 190S). 

Manchester.— The estimate.; of the Tramways committee for the 
present year have been prepared, and the committee propose to grant 
to the relief of rates £(5ll.0()() (jut of the profits. 

The Electricity committee met on Wednesday to consider their 
estimates and decided to make a contribution of £12,000, as in the y ear 

1908, in aid of the general city rates. The past year's accounts 
showed a surplus of £33,3D4 (of which £12,000 had already Ijeen \>aUl 
over in aid of rates), and the balance (£2l,30J) was placed to renewals 
account. Compared with the previous year the sales of current showed 
an increase of 3,500,000 units (mainly on power sales) and a decrease 
of £17,848 in income. The lighting sales were temiMirarily affected 
by the use of metallic filament lamps. The majority ot the business 
premises in the city had already been fitted with the new lamps, and 
the result sliowed a considerable reduction in cost, amounting o:. the 
a\-erage to no less than 40 per cent. Owing to the general depres.'^ion 
in tr.ade the growth of the industrial power business was not so marked 
as in the previous year, but there are signs of consideiable development 
in the current year as the committee have recently concluded contracts 
with several well-known engineering firms for large bulk supplies. 

Mountain Ash. — The Council have now let contracts for the laying 
of distributing mains. &c.. and an agreement has been entered into 
with the South Wales Electrical Power Distribution Co. for supply of 
electricity in bulk. Current will be supplied to the Council at a 
pressure of 11,000 volts, which will be transformed and distributed l>y 
the Council. 

Oxford. — The City Council have decided to enter into an agree- 
ment with the promoters of the Oxford and District Tramways Bill, 

1909. whereby a combined conduit and overhead system will t)e 
adopted on the tramways instead of a surface-contact system. The 
conduit system will be installed on three routes, and the rental to be 
paid to the Corporation in respect of the tramways when electric 
traction has been adopted is £1,100 per annum fcr a fcried of 42 

Postal Telegraph Clerks Association. — At the annual conference 
of this as-soeiation. which was held at Southampton last week, the 
following matters were dealt with: — 

Pre-fS Tel<r/mins. — A resolution w;\s passed in favour of the work of 
transmitting all messages being performed by an establisheil stall of 
telegraphists placed upon a uniform se;ile of wages, and protesting 
against the departmental authorities encouraging ne«spaper proprie- 
tors to rent telegraph lines for the whole daj', and supplying theirown 

K'ojifeK's Labour. — Resolutions were .adopted iu favour of the .abjli- 
tion of Sunday duty by females in the trunk telephone elepartmcnl : 
and also in faxour of cejual pay for men and women for equal work. 

Poftal Te/i'irapli nnd Tifi pliouc .Sr rrin.^. — Resolutions calling for the 
appointment of a committee to inquire into postal, telegraph and 
telephone services, and the institution of an advisor}- board of the 
House of Commons for the assistance of the Postmaster General, and 
also in favour of a seven hours' day were adopted. 

Rochdale. — The total income of the tramways department (ineUid- 
ing the Hcywood lines) for the jiast j'ear was £57.270. a.bainst 
£.56,557 for the previous year. The gross profit was £25.417. and 
after meeting charges for interest (£11.432). sinking fund (£9.557) anil 
rent of leased lines (£1.862) there was a loss of £189. against £1.3.VJ in 

Russia. — The "Journal dc St. Petersbourg "' states that the 
Government has sanctioned the formation of the Oranicnbaum 
Electric Railway Co. to construct and work an electric line fn.m 
St. Petersburg to Oianicnbaum and Kra.snai.i Gorka. 

Saflron Walden.— The Council have declined to give a guarantee 
to the Board of Trade that they will carry out the provisions of their 
electric lighting oreler within 12 months. 

Shoreditch (London).— The salary of Mr. W. Weeks, assistant 
engineer, lias been increased by £25 per annum, with a further in- 
crease i>{ t!'_'5 in 12 luonlhs. 

South American Cable Rates.- The Western Union Telegi-aph Co- 
annomue that the follow ing reduced cable rates Avi!! come into effect 
on .May 1 : Bolivia. Cbili and Ecuador. 4--. 2d. per werd : Peru. 
Iquitos. .Masisea. Orcllaim. Rcquena. Cs. 2d. per wi ixl : all other 
placa's. 4s. 2d. per word. 

State Telephones in Canada.— The Saskatchewan Government has 
purchased the ImII teleiilmnc system of the provinci> as from May I. 

Sunderland. In moving the miiuites of the Electricity committe<« 
at last weeks Council meeting, which recommended the .sealing of 
an agreement with a lirm of millers for the supply of electric power. 

Aid. HiucE said the committee found themselves with a consider- 
able amount of Corporation machinery in Laing's yaitl and in a build- 
ing for which the Corporation ha<l to pay rent, and for which they got 
no return. In future thev would not put down Coriwration plant lu 
other people's premises aiid [wy rent ; the manufacturer must boai the 
loss in transmission. 

Mr. L.-v\\soN said the proposed agreement was the tliin celge of the 
wedge for an expenditure of £21, .302 for electric lighting cxten.sions. 
They wore losing on the lighting consumers and on shipyard cus- 




NOW READY. Vol. LXH. of "The Electrician" (1,028 

pages I, bound in strong cloth. Price 17s. 6d.; post free, 18s. 6d. Xow 
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tomers, r.nd the only customer out of which they were making any 
money was the Tramways committee. 

Mr. G. New said it wtis proposed to spend £340 and thereby gain 
valuable experience of supplying electricity in bulk which they had 
not before had. As to decreased profits of the electricity undertaking 
the price had been reduced to every consumer of electric light and 
only the results of shipyard extension made that reduction possible. 

The miputcj were approved. 

Tramways and Railway Assessment. — In consequence of tlie com- 
petition t)f (Uctric Irams and motor omnibuses, tlie North London 
Railway I'o. have served nuticc U|K)ii Shoreditch Borough Council 
requiring the reduction of the present assessment of the line from 
£21. 7(Xl gross and £15.5(K) ratable, to £17,256 gross and £11.0.56 
ratable. The Council have decided to seek to raise the assessment of 
the tramways in the borough from £7,400 gross and £3,000 rataljle 
to £14.400 gros5 and £10.200 ratable. 

West Ham. — The Education committee is to report on the method 
of lighting tlie infants' department of the Abbey school. 

Whitehaven. — The Council have decided to supply electric current 
to local electrical contractors for display piu'poses at l|d. per unit. 

Wireless Telephone Notes. — The sucesss of the experiments in 
wireless telephonic communication between the Eiffel Tower at Paris 
and Melun. which we noted last week, has decided the French 
Minister of Marine (M. Picard) to resume the experiments which were 
some time ago commenced, of endeavouring to establish wireless 
telephonic communication between the French fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean and the station at the Eiffel Tower, and also to establish com- 
munication between the French Northern and Mediterranean 
squadrons. It is stated that already communication has been success- 
fully made between the Rouges Terres and the Mediterranean 

From New York it is announced that another inventor has over- 
come " all the difficulties attendant upon the establishment of an 
efficient system of wireless telephony," and that a public wireless 
telephoni- sr rvice has been established between Portland and Casco 
Bay Nlands. distant about 10 miles. 

Wireless Telegraph Notes. — A new factory which has been estab- 
lished at Genoa, as well as the Marconi station at the extreme point 
of the ancient mole, have been opened. The factory and station 
adjoin, and at the former plant has been installed both for manu- 
facturing radio-telegraphic apparatus and for repairs. A section of 
the factory is set apart for the manufacture of telephones for on 
board ship, and there is to be a training school and a thorough equip- 
ment connected with the undertaking. 

It is announced that the Ceylon Government is about to establish 
wireless telegraphic eommimication between Colombo and Minicoy, a 
distance of about 500 miles. 

Wolverhampton. — The Electricity committee propose to extend 
the electricity stijjply mains at a cost of £700 to Messrs. Chubb & 
Sons' new works in Wednesficld-road for the su]>ply of cuiTent for 
power and lighting. 

Worcester. — An unopposed inquiry wa,s held last week into the 
Council's application for sanction to a further loan of £5,752 to cover 
excess expenditure, and to provide for extensions of the electricity 

Of the .sum applied for £«.52 was for expenditure, and of the 
balance £.3,900 was for mains, £600 for .services, and £400 for meters. 

The city electrical engineer (.Mr. Shaw) .said tliat the excess expenditure 
was due to the very large number of new customer.^. The out]nit last 
year showed an of 50 per cent. 

York. — A town's meeting was held on Friday to consider the 
question of the municipalisation or leasing of the tramways. 

The vice-chairman of the Tiamways committee (Aid. Meyer) ex- 
plained the provisions of the York Light Railways Order, and gave an 
analysis of the tenders received. There were three proposals — (1), 
complete municipalisation ; (2), the Corporation to construct the lines 
and then to lease the working : and (3\ the construction and working 
by a company. Ob being put to the vote, tlio second proposal faile<l 
to find a .supporter, and the municip.ilisation clause was then carried 
by a large majority. A re<iuisition for a poll w.-is handed in on behalf 
of those opposed to the municipal scheme. 

Football. — Birmingham Tramways Department won the final 
match for the municipal tramways shield at Aston Villa ground on 
Tuesday, defeating the Potteries eleven by one goal to nil. 



of the Big Blue Book, price 15s., or post free in the 
United Kingdom, 15s. gd. The new and enlarged volume 
brings a great mass of statistical and technical data 
quite up to date, and the Directorial Division has been 
thoroughly revised and amplified. 

All branches of Electrical Engineering and Industry 
are fully treated, and Electro-Financial matters receive 
every attention in the new volume, which aggregates 
more than 2,000 pages. The Directory Division is 
complete and thoroughly accurate, and has been com- 
pletely revised. All mere lists of members of Societies 
and Institutions (so easily and cheaply available) are 
excluded, as quite unreliable for Manufacturers' and 
Dealers' purposes. The full set of valuable Statistical 
and Engineering Tables, &c., have been very carefully 
revised and extended, and are now issu ed in handy book 
form. These are included in the 1909 Big Blue Book, 
making it the most complete work of the kind ever 


London County Council invite tenders for withdrawing about 
18 miles of l.t. lead-covered cables, now laid and jointed in stoneware 
ducts, and relaymg and jointing about 15 miles of l.t. lead-covered 
cables, &c. Tenders (upon official forms to be obtained from thfi 
Clerk of the Council, Mr. G. L. Gomme, County Hall, Spring Garden?, 
S.W. ) by 1 1 a.m. of Tuesday, May 4. See also an advertisement. 

WooDBRiDOE LTrban Council, who are desirous that a company 
should establish electricity works in the district, announced that 
they would support a company in an application for a provisional 
order and would enter into a contract for public lighting from 
April 1, 1912. The population is 4,600 and gas is 43. 6d. per 1,000 ft. 
Tenders by June 1. 

Stockport Electricity and Tramways committees require tenders 
for supply until March 31 next, of various stores, including cotton 
waste, castings, ironmongery, tubing, glass, oils, paints. &c. Forms 
of tender, &c., from the Borough and Tramways Electrical Engineer. 

Salford Corporation want tenders by 5 p.m., April 20. for the 
erection of private telephones at the Town Hall. Specification. &c., 
from the Borough Engineer. 

Manchester Tramways comniitfct want tenders by 10 a.m., 
May 4, for supply of a 40 to 45 b.h.p. chassis for motor tower wagon. 
Forms of tender, &c., from Mr. J. M. JPElroy. 

Whitehaven Electricity committee require tenders for c;i8tings for 
feeder pillars and lamp columns. Particulars from the Boi'ough 
Electrical Engineer. 

Kensington (London) Guardians require tenders by 3 p.m., 
April 29, for electric lighting of workhouse chapel and offices, Marloes- 
road. Specification, &c., from the Clerk. 

Chei-sea (London) Council want tenders by 5:15 p.m.. May 12. 
for su|)ply of electric light fittings, &c., for the Town Hall extension. 
Sjjccifications, &c., from the Borough Surveyor. 

Bexhill Council want tenders by noon May 1 tor 12 months' 
coal for the electricity department. 

Tenders are invited for the supjily of about 48,200 metres of lead - 
covered cable, of various dimensions, and for various voltages, and 
also for certain fittings and accessories for Copenhagen Municipality. 
Tenders to the Direktoren for Belysningsvaesenet. Raadhuset, 
Copenhagen, by noon of May S. Specifications. &c. (in Danish) may 
be seen at the Board of Trade, ''.i. Basinghnll-street. London. E.C. 


Corn cl ion. — In our last issue we staled tliat Watford Council had 
jilaced an order with the Lea Keenrder Co. for a CO2 recorder. We are 
informed that this is an error, as the instrument ordered was one of 
the company's ordinary V notch water recorders for measuring 
steam consumption and boiler feed water. 

Hammersmith (London) Council received six tenders (varying 
from £124. 10s. to £192. 5s.) for supply and fixing of additional panels 



for \hc main switchboard, and tho lowest (that of the Brit ish Westing- 
housa Co.) was accepted. The Council have also accepted the 
tender of H. F. Harrison for supply of 30 lanterns and brackets at 
14s. 6d. each in connection with the conversion from gas to electricity 
of the street lighting in Latimer-road. 

J. {;. Childs & Co., Hawthorn-road, Willesden-grecu, N.W., luive 
secured an order for one of their wind-driven electrical generating 
]ilants for shipment to the Canary Islands. 

Darlington Corporation received the following tenders for supply 
of 500 kw. electric generator, driven by an exhaust steam turbine : 

B, Thoms<iu-Hou.ston Co 

Willans & Robinson 

Siemens Bros.- Dynamo 


J. Musgrave & Sons 


Riehardsons, West-garth ... 


Brush Co £2.000 B. Thomson-Houston Co . £.3,505 

British WestinghoHse Co. . 2,070 Willans & Robinson 3,800 

C. A. Parsons & Co 2,850 

Bellies & Moreom 2.880 

J. Howdou & Co 2,9.'-)0 

Eraser & Chalmers 3,228 

Elec. Construction Co., 

£3,200, £3,320 and £3,370 

No tender has been accepted but the Electricity committee have 
authorised the engineer (Mr. J. R. P. Lunn) to present a reiiprt on the 
tenders, after he has visited Weymouth and Weston-super-Mare, 
where exhaust steam turbine plants are in operation. 

For the supply of a 300 kw. motor-generator set Brighton Cor- 
poration received the following tenders :- 

Phrenix Dynamo Mfg. Co. 

{accepM) £978 

E. Scott & Mountain 1,579 

Dick, Kerr & Co 1,494 

Brit.Thomson-Houston Co. 1,276 

Electric Construction Co... 1,256 

Lancashire Dynamo Co. ... 1,235 

Brush Co 1,223 

Schorch Electrical Co 1,200 

Siemens Bros. Dynamo 

Works £1,157 

Vickers, Sons & Maxim ... 1,15? 

Electrical Co 1,145 

British Elec. Plant Co 1,139 

Crompton & Co 1,130 

British Westinghouse Co... 1,117 

Bruce Peebles & Co 1,075 

Electromotors (Ltd.) .... 1,055 

General Electric Co 1,027 

The following tenders have been accepted by Newport (Mon.) 
Corporation: — 

Edison & Swan Co. and General Electric Co., carbon filament lamps ; 
Edison & Swan Co., radiator lamps ; Oliver Arc Lamp Co., flame carbons 
(other flame carbons are under test) ; Chamberlain & Hookham and Gilles- 
pie & Beales, d.c. meters ; Ferranti Limited, prepayment meters ; Elec- 
trical Co., two-rate meters. The contract for a.c. meters has not yet been 

Swindon Council have accepted the following tenders : — 
Crompton & Co., circulating pump, £109 ; Babcork & Wilcox, super- 
heaters, £175 ; Worthington Pump Co., softener pump, £31 ; H. Poolcy 
& Son, weighbridge, £79 ; Brooke, Hirst & Co., switchgear, £40 ; Ever- 
shed & Vignoles, megger, £23. 

Mountain Ash Council have entered into contracts with the 
British Insulated & Helsby Cables for cables, distributing mains, 
&c. ; with Ferranti Limited for high and low- tension switchboard and 
transforming plant ; and with Williams Bros, for erection of a sub- 

Wolverhampton Guardians have accepted the tender of the District 
Electric Co. for wiring the nurses' house extensions at £113, and that 
of the Premier Accumulator Co. for the maintenance of the battery 
at £37. 10s. per annum. 

Hackney Electricity committee report that Cowdenbeath and 
Edinburgh washed peas are being supplied to the electricity depart- 
ment at 10s. 6d. per ton, and as the most satisfactory results are 
being obtained from them the committee have accepted the offer of 
W. Cory & Son to deliver 4,000 further tons at 10s. 3d. per ton. 

Heston and Isleworth District Council have accepted the tender 
of J. M. O'Brien for annual maintenance of electric light fittings in 
the isolation hospital. 

Lowestoft Corporation have accepted the tender of Crompton & 
Co. for a 200 kw. set at £2,313. There were 20 tenders and the 
lowest was accc|)ted. 

Bermondsey (London) Council have accepted the tender of W. 
Geipel & Co. for supply of are lamp carbons for the year ended 
March, 1910. 

The annual contract for motors at Middleton has been i>laced ^^•ith 
Veritys Limited. 

Dartford Joint Hospital committee have accepted the tender of 
G. E. Beaven for wiring and telephone work at the new hosi)ital. 

Cleckheaton Council have placed an order with G. W^ Birkett for 
wiring the new Secondary School and Technical Institute. 

Newport (Mon.) Council have placed an order with Dick. Kerr & 
Co., for thi-ee tramcars a^ £2,140. 

Clacton Council have accepted the tender of H. Morris & Bastort 
for a 13-ton travelling crane at £105, 

Grays Council have ))laced an order with the Brush Co. for electric 
pumps at £379. 

Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works have received an order for supply of 
tantalum lamp? for St. Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore. 

Lowestoft Corporation have accepted the tender of the Lahmcyer 
Electrical Co. for the annual supply of cables. 

Commonwealth Tenders. — The following tenders have been 
accepted by Government Departments of the Australiaa Common- 
wealth : — 

The Postmaster General's Department, Brisbane, Queensland, have 
accepted the tenders of the International Electric Co. for trembling bells 
and visual indicators ; Siemens Bros. Dynamo Works for flat brass ; 
India Rubber Co. for condensers, galvanometers, pivots for Q. and I. 
detectors, platinum, resistance bo.xes and sounders; British Insulated 
& Helsby Cables for switchboard and receiver cords ; J. A. Newton & 
Co. for coin attachments ; Lawrence & Hanson for ebonite sheet ; J. 
Paton & Co. for micro-telephones, with cord and plugs ; Slater & Co. for 
spring ink-writers and sounders ; Brisbane Electrical Co. for Frier's 
relays, transmitters, solder, strip indicators, ringing and listening keys, 
ebonite knobs, plugs, receivers, screws, sleeves, switchboards, aluminium 
shutter fronts operator's telephone sets and pulley weights for cords. 

The General Electric Co.'s tender for switchboards and annunciators 
has been accepted by the P.M.-G.'s Department, Perth (W. Australia). 


Messrs. Balehin. Scliuiz & Co. have opened a branch of their 
business at Prudential-buildiugs, 97, Above Bar. Southampton, for 
dealing with the installation of electric light and power in country and 
town houses, factories, ships. &c., and they will be pleased to receive 
price lists from elecdical and machinery manufacturers. 

Metal Filament Lamps.— Messrs. G. M. Boddy & Co. ask us to 
state that they have succeeded in placing on the market metal fila- 
ment lamps (" Metalik") of 16 c.p. low voltage (100 to 135 volts.), 
and 32 c.p. high voltage (200 to 260 volts.). 

Sales by Auction.— Mr. Frank G. Bowen will sell by auction 
at his rooms, 02, Aldersgate-street, and Hare-court, London. 
E.G., on Tuesday'. April 27, at noon, the plant, machinery 
and stock of a" firm of electrical engineers and art metal 
workers, including lathes, tools, &c., electric pendants and 
brackets, about 1,000 dozen hammered iron, copper and brass 
leaves, elbows, mounts, ornaments and hammered iron parts, 
surplus stock of electrical fittings, motors, fans, lamps, switchboards, 
&c. The lots may be viewed on day prior to and on morning of sale, 
on the premises of Messrs. F. A. Andrews (Ltd.), 3.\, Hall-place, 
George-street, Edgware-road, W. Catalogues of the Auctioneer. 
Further particulars are given in an advertisement. 

Messrs. Fuller, Horsey, Sons & Cassell will include in their sale by 
auction at H.M. Dookyard,|]Chatham, on May 4 and following days. 
large quantities of old brass borings, kon and steel scrap, old wire 
rope, lead and zinc ashes and bottoms, old electric cable, electric 
gear and various stores. 1 1 lathes, dynamos, engines. &e. Catalogues 
(6d. each) may be had at the Dockyard and of the Auctioneers. 11. 
Billiter-.square. London. E.C. See also an advertisement. 

Plant for Sale.— Messrs. G. Elliott & Co., 186-188, Long-lane, 
Bermondsey, London, S.E., have for sale two compound Marshall 
steam engines coupled to two Crompton dynamos, and also three 
dynamos. Further particulars are given in an advertisement. 

An advertisement in another column contains particidars of some 
electrical plant, gas engines, &c., which are for sale. 

Two alternator-gas engine sets (250 kw. each), direct coupled, are 
advertised for sale. 

Business for Sale.— An engineer's business in a southern town is 
offered for sale by .Messrs. Langridge & Freeman, 28, Queen-street, 
London. E.C. and Tunbridge Wells. 

Patents Development.— The proprietors of British Patent No. 
7,942/19110. for •■Improvements relating to Wu-clcss Telegiaphie and 
Telephonic Systems." desire to make arrangements for their de- 
velopment and practical working in this coiuitry. Applications to 
Messrs. Haseltine. Lake and Co., 7 & 8. Southampton-buildings. 
Chancery lane, London. W.C. 

Electrochemical Laboratory Premises Wanted.— An advertisement 
contains particulars of the requirements of consulting engineers, who 
wish to or purchase |)i»emiscs for an electrochemical laboratory, 
witliin reach of cheai) electric supply, gas and water. 

Business Literature.— From the business service department of 
Burrup. JIathieson & Sprague we have a copy of their sectional cata- 
logue which claims to illustrate the benefits of educational business 
literature. Those of our readers who arc interested in the subject 
can obtain copies free. 



Boiler Economies.— Mc-isrs. Kil. Hinnis & Co.. Litilr Hullon. 
Bolton, and London, send us an aitistic pamphlet dealing with the 
extensions at the Coventry electricity works, where many varieties 
of the firm's well-known apparatus arc installed. The pamphlet 
contains i)hotographs which show the progress of the works from 
time to time and a detailed account of the whole installation, 
inel'ilins th-- older work; is iriven. 


Prescot 0VEEHE.4.D Matekiai.. — Tho British Insulated & Helsby 
Cables have issued a new list dealing with overhead material. Illus- 
trations are given of •' Prcscol "" non-fouling trolley wire, which was one 
of the features at the recent Manchester exhibition. Standard 
Prescot ears for tins type of trolley wire are illustrated, and full 
det-ails. both mechanical and electrical, are given. Frogs, crossings, 
trolley wheels, hangers and line insulators are also dealt with. 

" K.\LKOS "" FiTTiNcs. — The Sun Electrical Co. send us the latest 
list of " Kalkos " fittings, in which are included illustrations and 
details of a ceiling hook for heavy suspension and a bell push of the 
flush type adapted for use with " Kalkos '" wire. We note that the 
price of this tubing has been considerably reduced, so that a large 
demand for this excellent method of wiring may be confidently 

Neotherm Cell.— Messrs." Siemens Bros. & Co. have issued a 
reprint of their leaflet on this cell, in which, it will be remembered 
depolarisation is secured by the conversion of copper oxide into red 
spongy copper. Unlike other cells of this class, it is claimed that 
the Xeotherm cell possesses the important advantage that the depo- 
lari.ser can be used again and again. When the cell has been abso- 
lutely discharged the depolariscr can be re-oxydiscd by rapidly 
heating the iron containing vessel in a stove. Batteries of 
thess cells are said to make an excellent substitute for small accu- 
mulators and find a wide application for ignition purposes on internal 
combustion machines and in wireless telegraphy and X-ray work. 

" INSTALI.ATION News."" — The current issue of " Installation 
News " deals in a bright and airy fashion with the problems that are 
at present testing the ingenuity of the electrical industry. It also 
includes details of the new Simplex flexible system, which we describe 
in the present issus of The Electrician, and also details advances 
which have been mad? i.i Simplex fan work and in the company's 
well-known sy.=!tem of conduits and fittings for electric lighting. 

Electric Hooters. — Messrs. Marples, Leach & Co. have ready a 
pamphlet dealing with their electric hooter and fire alarm system, 
which is, briefly, worked as follows : The hooters are constantly 
traversed by a direct current, but are not worked until the fire alarm is actuated. This causes an Adni! vibratory generator to be 
started up, which converts the direct current into alternating current 
of high voltage and frequency ; the electric hooter then commences 
sounding and continues until the fire station indicator is returned to 
its normal position. 

Machine Tools. — Messrs. .1. Hohoyd & Co.. Milnrow. nr. Roch- 
dale, have issued two lists which deal with furminj.' latlits and grind- 
ing and sharpening machines respectively. These machines, which 
appear from the illustrations to embody both strength and good 
workmanship, are specially adapted to the electric drive, and with 
the motor direct coupled to them form a neat and compact com- 
bination. The machines illustrated range from axle lathes of large 
sizes to quite small grinding machines. A number of useful tools of 
various kinds are included. 

B.E.P. Motors. — The British Electric Plant (,"o. have issued a 
list which gives full details, electrical, mechanical and financial, of 
three-phase machinery manufactured by the comjjany. Accesso- 
ries, such as motor starters and resistances, arc also described. 

Motor Car Accessories. — Messrs. D. H. Bonnella & Son have 
issued a pamphlet dealing with motor car accessories. This firm 
make a speciality of motor car fittings, such as roof lights and lamps, 
speaking tubes and caiTiage fittings generally. We have already 
dealt with the general features of these fittings in The Electrician, 
and would recommend anyone who wishes to fit up his car in an 
artistic fashion to pay a visit to the sho\vroom3 of IVIcssrs, Bonnella 
& Sons. 

Speed Indicators. — Messrs. S. Smith & Son. 9. Strand. London. 
W.C., have ready a catalogue dealing in a very exhaustive manner 
with their popular type of speed inrlicators. The utility and relia- 
bilit}' of these indicattjrs is well indicated by a letter from a well- 
known firm of solicitors to Vesirs. Smith & Son. in which it is stated 
that the magistrate was able to take as evidence the reading of their 
indicators in a, brought before liim by the police, of a motor car 
exceeding the speed limit. The catilogue also contains illustrations 
and details of several fittings suitable for motor ear work, inehiding 

.accumulators and magnetos for ignition pin|ios(S. Sueli tools .is 
spanners and pliers, wliieh, uni'orluiialelx-. only loo oflcn liave to lir' 
employed, arc included. 

Opperm Ann's Dynamos. — From Messrs. Opiiermaiui. of 1 1, Lever- 
st., Ooswellroad, E.C., we have received a picture postcard illustrating 
their eleclrotyping dynamo, and giving four excellent reasons why 
these dynamos ';liould be us?d. We commend these to the attention 
of our readers. 


Mr. Jas. V. Haley. 29, Tyrrel-street. Bradford, and Mr. R. A. Vinter, 
G.5. King's-arcade, Bradford, are joint trustees in the bankruptcy 
of Arnold Roberts (trading as Roberts Bros.), electrical engineer, 21, 
North-parade, Bradford. 

An application 'or the discharge of Wm. T, Garnett (trading as 
W, T. Garnett's Cable Co.), Barkerend Mills, Bradford, will be heard 
on May 18 at the County Court, Bradford. 

A meeting will be held at 7, Hertford-street, London, W., on May 
18, to receive an account of the winding up of the Electromobile 
Hiring Co. (Ltd.) 

A meeting to receive an account of the winding up of the Mono- 
bloc Accumulator Synd. (in liqO will be held on May 26 at Messrs. 
Drake & Ciorham's, CG. Victoria-street, London. S.W. 



Note. — The undermentioned Applications {(j:cept thow tiirirkrd f) are not 
open to public inspection until allir nrri plmier nj (\imji/il< S pre ifieaf ions. 
Those marked f are open for inx/i: liimi 12 )iiii)il/is iifhr tin dale attached 
to them, if they liave not been jmlilixhrd pn riuK.^l;/ in thr ordinary course. 
Names within parentheses are tliose of communicators of inventions. When 
complete Specification accompanies application, an asterisk is affixed. 
' December 19, 1908. 

27.684 Leitner. Contact voltmeter.^. 

27.685 Leitner. Reversing the connections of dynain > cli'clric 


December 21, 1908. 
27,694 BLACliBURN. Brakes tor tr.xmcarj. 
27.746 Simpson. Wireless telegr.xphy. 

27.748 Fatrweathek. (Elmer Ellsw'jrth Gr.injer, U.S.) Electric rail- 
way conduit and equipment. 

December 22, 1908. 
27.8,^2 HoLDSWORTH. Trolley arms. 

27.833 Veritys & Pipkin. Slow speed op?ratiiig gear for c!?etrle motor 


27.834 Veritys & Pipkin. Operating handle meehrinism for slow- 

speed gear of electric motor starter. 
27,830 Wood & Wood. Vapour electric lamps. 
27,858 and 27,8.59 Tanner & Claremont. Distribution of clecirie 

27.860 Cross & Merchants' Trading Co. Metal filament lamp.?. 
27,S(i2 Bingham. 'relegra|ihic recording apparatus. 
27.8li7 .MriKHEAO. Ekttric telegraphy. 
27,882 MoNToOMERY-, VoiNc, HELtvER & Baker. Storage batterie.?.' 

27.899 Lewis. Arc lamp electrodes. 

27.900 Justice. Electric railv/ay switch mechanism.* 

December 23. 1908. 

27,923 CiiMinrNOS & Noreau. Locomotive electric alarm systems.* 

27,932 W. J. F. Washington, H. Washington & Scott. Coin-con- 
trolled and coin-indicating mechanism. 

27.951 KopPEN. Cable telegraphy.* 

27,960 Siemens Bros. Dynamo Work?, Hird & Gkimston. Search- 
lights or projectors. 

27,965 Ross. Electric heater;. 

27,907 Jacoby. Governing the s|jecd of alternating-cunvnt commu- 
tator machines. (Addition to 20,49.5/07.) 

27,986 Mair. Transmission gear of tlie magnetic type. 

37.!t91 HKiHPiELD. Limp .sup)):)rts and casing.'. 

27.99!) Thompson. (Ernst Eiscmann & Co., G.m.b.H., Gsrmany.) 
Magneto-electric sparking apparatus.* 

28,014 Usi.lAXER. Trolley car switch controller. 

28,017 Soi-i.E. Electric motor control. (Date aiiplleil f.)r. |O/l/08.)*t 

28,019 Ferranti. Electrical machinery. 

December 24, 1908. 

28,040 Ferccson. Dynamo-electric machines. 

28,0,'')() Phillips. Tio'lley heads. 

28,075 Bir.ARD. Anangement for plates and electrodes for batteries and 

28,092 Verityh & Pipkin. R?gulating electric switch. 

28,102 Westcott & Gartside. CoiqiUng for electric cables, wires and 

28,120 Grob. Electric lighting and heating of vehicle-;. (Date applied 
for, 2/l/08.)*t 

28,130 Steckei.. Indiutiun cliitih''s.'' 














28 522 














Gibus. Elertrcilytic cells. (Date ,11)111161:1 for, 17/12/07. Com- 
prised in 27.830/17/12/07.)* 

D.wiD.SDX. Djmanio-electrie machines. 

M.4B.SH. Holders or sockets for incandescent electric lariip-i. 

Merz & Price. Alternating-current distriljutinf; systems. 

B.T.-H. Co. (G.E. Co., U.S.) Controllers for electric motors. 

Alexanderson. Single-phase alternating-current electric mo- 
tors of the commutator type. (Date applied for, 20/12/07.)*)" 

TiRRiLL. Electric voltage regulators. (Date applied for, 

December 28, 1908. 

Allgemeine Electricitats-CJes. Starting devices for electric 
motors. (Date applied for. 28/12/07.)*t " 

Veritvs & Pipkin. Regulating electric switches.* 

CoNTi. Telephone receivers. 

H. Abon Ei.ektricitats-Zahlerfabbik G.m.b.H. .Single-phase 
alternating electric current meters. (Date applied far9/10/08.) ••(■ 

Voelker. Electric furnaces.* 

BouLT. (Tom ilcNaughton, U.S.) Electric batteries.* 

BouLT. (Henry 0. Jackson and Tom JIcNaughton, U.S.) Self- 
winding clocks.* 

BoiLT. (Henry O. .Jackson and Tom McNaughton, U.S.) Elec- 
tric secondary clocks.* 

Gkob. Pole-pieces or pole-sliocs for electric machines with com- 
pensation windings. (Date applied for, 2/1/08. )*t 
December 29, 1908. 

Bohi.e. (Hermann Bohle, Cape Colony.) Dynamo-electric 
machine for continuous currents. 

Electromotors (Ltd.) & Gbeenhalgh. DjTiamo-electric 

Baerlocher. Controllers for electric motors. 

and 28,307 Orling. Detecting and recording the passage of 
electric impulses. 

Eisen.stein. Wireless telegraphy.* 

December 30, 1908. 

Mansfield. Boxes for junctions, testing, inspecting, or fuse 

Laigle. Electric filaments. (Date applied for, 10/1/08. )*t 

JoHANNET. Obtaining variation and reduction of speed clectro- 
dynamically. (Date applied for, 3/2/08.)*t 

Bosch. Insulation of the layers of windings of electromagnetic 
apparatus. (Date applied for, 12/12/0S.)*t 
December 31. 1908. 

Brieeley. Jlethod of supporting and adjusting overhead elec- 
tric current wires. 

Poole. Electric cuiTent or voltage regulators.* 

JIiller & Adshead. Bnish-holder attachment or brush yoke. 

Smith & Philllps. Voltmeters, ammeteis, wattmeters, and like 
electrical indicating and recording instruments. 

.\kt.-Ges. Brown, Boveri et Cie. Insulation of electric con- 
ductors. (Date applied for. 3/7/08.)*t 

Bosch. Magneto - ignition apparatus. (Date applied for, 

Shaffer. Manufacturing flat incandescent filaments for metallic 
filament lamps. (Date applied for, 2/1/08. )*t 

Thorpe. Electrolytic devices.* 


1907 Specifications. 

Cowper-Coles. Electric hydrogen and oxygen generators. 
(Post-dated, 20/12/07.) 

Ort. Rieger & Ort. Telephone instruments. 

Alexander. McCleland & Lange. Unstable chemically or 
electrolitically i)roduced solutions. 

Hope. Combined electric switch and holder. 

BofLT. (Radiogen Cies.) Radio-active preparations and appa- 

and 28,015 Rapid Maonetting Machine Co., Thompson & 
D.wiES. Magnetic .separating machines. 

Moseley. Electric measuring instruments. 

MosELEY. Telephone transmitters. 

Allgemeine Elektricitats Ges. Electric incandescent lamps. 
(Date applied for, 27/12/06.) 

Hornbi.ower. Electro-galvanising apparatus of the revolving 
cylinder type. 

Cardwell. Telegraph typewriter. 


KlXGSBi^RV. (Western Electric Co.) Switching appar.ilic: for 

interconnecting the lines of a telephone exchange syslcm. 
Boin.T. (Woodbridge.) Electriial distrib\uion. 
.Malev & CocKSHOTT. Brakes for tramcnrs. 
Johnson. Elecfricallj'-operatcd railway switch points ami 

Hookham & Hoi.den. Pre)iayment electricity meters. 
('ROMrToN & Co.. Macfarlane & BfROE." Rotary electric 

transformei's and motor-generators. 
B.T.H. Co. & Hopps. Electric ignition devices for internal 

combustion engjies. 
Pi.ANCHON. Incandescent bodies for electric lamps. 

5.172 Chadblrn's (.Ship) Telegraph Co. & Grant. Ships' tell-talo 

telegraphic apparatus. 
7.730 B.T.H. Co. (G.E. Co., U.S.) Telephone relays. 
7,853 Morgan. Connectors for electric conductors. 
8,962 Bray & Bray, Markham & Reiss (Ltd.) Insulated electric 

conductors, contacts, and the like. 


cent meeting the chairman iMr. F. E. Grippcr) said the lamp connec- 
tions were still increasing, nearlj' 6,500 lamps having been .added 
during the past year, and the revenue from electricity supplied had 
.also increased by £520. There were somewhat about 3,000 metallic 
filament lamps inst.illed in Bromley. A new suV)st.ation had been 
erected at Elmstead. The profit was £9,360. 3s. 6d., compared with 
£8,933. 10s. lid. in 1907, and they proposed to pay the same dividend 
as last year. 

CALCUTTA TRAMWAYS CO. (LTD.).— Mr. E. C. Morgan stated at tlie 
meeting on Tuesday that of the three lines now running, the first was 
opened on June 10,' the second on July SO, and the third on Oct. 20. 
The outlay for permanent waj-, &c.. was mainly for the completion of 
the track construction and equipment of tbe Alipore, Beh.ila and 
tTailift' street lines, the extension of the Kidderpore carshed. the Kali- 
ghat loop, and the laying down of new cables. The item for power 
and sub-station plant, buildings, &c., represented the completed 
installation of the new a.e. plant, consisting of Belliss engine, a.c. and 
combined a c. and d.c. generators, with two additional boilers, new 
condensing plant and reservoir, also the extension of the Belgatchia 
and Kidderpore car-sheds, the construction of new offices and quarters 
at Tollyunge, and tiling the power-house. The projected capital 
expsnditure would amount to about £10,000. All their cars were now 
built under their own supervision in Calcutta. It been found 
necessary to effect considerable repairs ro 70 motor and 10 trailer cars, 
and there still remained 90 ears to be dealt with. The general state 
of afiairs m India had decidedly improved. 

CITY (OF BRISBANE) ELECTRIC LIGHT CO. (LTD.)— At the recent meet- 
ing it was reported that during the half-year ended Jan. 31 thef output 
was 976,789 units, against 853.920 for the corresponding period of 
1900-7; the revenue from sale of current showed an increase of 12i per 
cent., and, after making provision for renewals, franchise purchase, 
sinking fund,.&c.. there was £4,946. 8s. Id. to be disposed of. The 
directors recommended payment of a dividend of 6 per cent per annum, 
and a bonus of 2i per cent, per annum on the ordinaiy shares, leaving 
£1,935. 6s. 9d. to be carried forward. During the half-year furtlier 
additions were made to the plant in Ann-street station, good progress 
has been made with the laying of mains, and electricity is now being 
supplied to the principal streets of the Valley area. 

CRAIGFARE ELECTRIC CABLE CO. (LTD.)— The net profit for the 
vear ended March 31 was £5,344. 7s. lid , which, with £682. 18s. 3d. 
brought forward, m.akes £7,027, 63. 2d. After writing off £1,000 as 
depreciation of buildings and machinery, the directors recommend 
payment of the preference dividend, and a dividend on the ordinary 
shares at the rate of 6 per cent. £500 has been placed to reserve. 
There has been a considerable increase in the volume of business in the 
cable department. 

The directors' report for the year 1903 (to be presented to the general 
meeting on May 1) states that the Vigo cable traffic shows a slight 
reduction. Damage to the Atlantic and Vigo cables by trawlers and 
otherwise caused heavy expenditure, and a hope is expressed that 
an International Conference will be held on this subject. In conse- 
quence of the laying of the new cable to South America the Xord- 
deutsche Seekalielwerke (of which this company holds half the shares) 
has been fully occupied during the second half of the yeai, and it will 
apparently be fully engaged until the middle of 1910. Total receipts 
(including £21,f04 brought forward! were £228,670 and net profit 
£128.923 (against £131,010 in 1907;. It is proposed to place to reserve 
£5,380, special reserve and cable repairs fund £10,0C0, pension and 
benevolent fund £2,5C0, directors and olficials' fees £1,767, dividend of 
7 per cent, (as in the previous vear) £84,000, and to carry forward 

LONDON GENERALOMNIBUSCO. (LTD.)— At an exiraordhuiry meeting 
last week the chairman (.Mr. H. Hicks) said that the diirctors had had 
prepared appinxiniatc Hmircs of the amalgamated company for the half- 
year to Dec. 31 last, the liyures had not been audited, but he could 
l;ive the shareholders the opinion which those liguivs had led the directol-s 
to form as to the position and outlook. The total loss of the thn-e com- 
panies for the cnrre-.ponding half-vear in l!H17 was about £150.000. but. 
according to the figures for the past half-year, the loss of the combineil 
companies was certainly not more than fo.fHX) or £6.000. Ho would be 
ilisappointed if. when "the next ann\ial accounts were presented, they 
were not able to issue a balance-sheet showing no loss. Referring to the 
new police regulations, he said that with ivgard to the new vehicles not 
wcisrhing more than 3.4 tons, the company wei-o both able and willing to 
conrply with the order in regard to any new "buses they might build or 
get built, providotl, however, the police authorities allowed the company, 
as they fairly ought, to keep their piv.scnt overweight 'buses until they 
were worn out. The.v ha))pened to have ordered 16 new motor "buses 
some two veal's ago which were only delivered last autumn and had never 



been on the road because they cUJ mit require them in the winter time. 
Those "buses were ready to go on the road, but the Chief Commissioner 
seemed disinclined, as lie had issued the order, to licence those 'buses. 

MELBOURNE ELECrRIC SUPPLY CO. (LTD.)— The gross profit during 
1908 on the Melbourne and Geelong undertakings was £17.t)77. o.s. Add- 
ing the dividend received from the Adelaide Electric Su|i])ly Co., &c., 
the total amounted to £22,030. 3s. 9d., compared with £1»,7-H. 4s. for 
the previous year. After paying management and general expenses at 
London (£1.983. 8s. 5d.) and interest (£14,758. 10s."(id.) the balance is 
£5.288. 4s. lOd., added to £1,593. 15s. 3d. forward, making £().882. Os. Id. 
£4.000 is put to reserve, leaving £1,771. 15s. 9d. to be carried forward. 
At August 31, 1908. the total connections at Mell)ourne were equivalent 
to 157,412 8 c.p. lamps (90.088 for lighting and 2,150 ii.P. in motors), 
and the total units sold were 2,32(>,307 : at Geelong the equivalent of 
51,864 8 c.p. is connected (20,942 for lighting and 818 H.p. in motors), 
the units sold being 312,061. Arrangements have been made for an issue 
of a further £100,000 first mortgage debenture stock and of £100,000 first 
preference shares. 

receipts for the [last year from the traction department were £11,190, 
and from the electrical supply department £bAbb. Deducting all 
revenue expenses chargeable and placing £1,000 to renewals account, 
there remains (with £533 forward) £4,740. The equivalent of 22,350 
8 c.p. lamps (18,405 for lighting and 3,945 for power) is connected to 
the mains. A dividend of 5 per cent, is declared on the ordinary shares. 
ORIENTALTELEPHONE&ELECTRICCO.(LTD.)—Includingf 1,873. 6s. 5d. 
forward from 1!UI7. deducting interim dividends and making provision 
for redemption of debenture stock and other charges, the amount remain- 
ing to be dealt with for the year to Dec. 31, 1908, is £18,728. 17s. The 
directors recommend payment of the final preference dividend (less tax) 
(£1,500) and a further 5 per cent, (tax free) on the ordinary shares 
£8,965. 13s. (making 8 per cent, for the year), the transfer to reserve 
of £2,500 and of £500 to contemplated pension scheme, leaving £5,263. 4s. 
to carry forward. The Indian local companies have declared the same 
dividends as for 1907 (the Bengal Co. 5 per cent, and the Bombay Co. 
6 per cent.), and both these companies report increased accession of sub- 
scribers. The Telephone Co. of Egypt has declared a dividend of 10 per 
cent, for the year on both preferred and deferred shares. The China & 
Japan Telephone & Electric Co. continues to make satisfactory progress 
both at Hongkong and Kowloon, and the company declared a dividend 
of 5 per cent. fi>r 19117. 

1908 is £31,343 5s. 6d , and deducting therefrom expenses of adminis- 
tration, debenture interest, &c., there remains £18,979. 7s. 5d. Adding 
£9,048. 153. 6d. from 1907, the available total is £-28,028. -is. lid. The 
directors recommend that £15,000 be placed to reserve, £3,429. 17s. 5d. 
to reserve against capital charges on town lighting installations and 
£1,550 transferred to debenture redemption fund. The depreciation 
on free wired installations (£200. 6s. 3d.) and furniture, fixtures, plant 
and tools i£186. 8s. 4d.) absorbs £386. 14s. 7d., leaving £9,661. ICs. lid. 
to be carried forward. In view of the fact that the past year has again 
been one of great depression in the electrical industry, and tliat 
finance of tramway schemes in this country has been practically im- 
possible, the directors recommend that the balance of £9,661. 10s. lid. 
be carried forward. The first section of the Rhondda tramways was 
opened on Jul^' 11, and on Nov. 11 the last section was opened. The 
profit earned from the working of the tramways to Dec. 31 was 
£9,438. 10s. lOd., out of which a dividend of 3 per cent, was paid to 
the shareholders of the syndicate, in which this company has an in- 
terest of over £50,000. The receipts this j-ear are well maintained. 
In regard to the Mexborough and Swinton tramways, the surface-con- 
tact system having proved a failure, the overhead system was installed 
in its place, and was working by Aug. 29, with the result that there 
has .since been an increase in the receipts and a decrease in the ex- 
penses. The directors believe that this will be a dividend-paying 
undertaking by the end of the current year. The finance for the ex- 
tension of the Musselburgh and District tramways to Port Seton has now 
been arranged, and the work is in hand and should be completed early 
in August. This extension will increase the total length of the tram- 
way's from 3 to about 7 miles. The heavy ex]ieuse in main- 
taining the surface-contact .sj'stem at Torquay is hampering the pro- 
gress of the undertaking. Agreements witfi Torquay Corporation and 
P.iignton Council have, however, been arrived at for the extension of 
the tramway to Paignton on the overhead .system. Satisfactory' terms 
have now been arranged with Oxford Corpor.ition whereby a small 
portion only of the tramways will bo constructed on the conduit 
system and the rest on the overhead system. The Citj' of Oxford 
Electric Tramwa3s Bill before Parliament embodying these terms «ill 
bs supported by the Corporation. An a; plication has been made for 
parliamentary powers to instal the overhead system on a portion of 
the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe tramways. The progress of the 
Bo'ness electricity undertaking during last year has beeji most marked. 
Applications are in hand for 22,139 8 c.[). lami)s, of which 19,664 are 
.connected, compared with 12,798 lamps connected last year. The 
Carnarvon umlertaking is also making satisfactory progress, applica- 
tions for 11,139 8 c.p. lamps having been received, of which 10,509 lamps 
are connected, compared with 8,649 lamps connected last year. 

PEARSON HRE ALARM (LTD.)— The directors' report states that the 
gross profit is £889 in excess of last year's figure, and the debit balance 
is £39, against a debit balance of £527 last year. >The directors pro- 
pose to continue to charge an increased proportion of the annual ex- 
penditure to profit and loss account, with a view to closing the de- 
velopment account. The grcss increase on the rental account for 
1908 amounted to £722. 



April 14, capital £5,000 in £1 shares, to take over the business of C. W", 
Shackleton, at I'olesworth, Warwick (carried on as the Electrical 
Appliances Co.), together with his .secret process for making glaze and 
enamel, &c. Private company. First directors, C. W. Shackleton and 
T. F. Aikin. Reg. otHce, The Mill, Market-street, Polesworth, Warwick. 

SALSBURY LAMPS (LTD.) (102,539.)— Reg. April 16, capital £10,000 
in £1 shares, to acquire the business of Salsbury it Son (Ltd.) and to 
carry on the business of manufacturers of and dealers in lamps, motor 
cars and accessories, &c. First directors, H. Salsburv, H. Wyman and 
A. H. F. Fitzherbert. Reg. ofiice, 124, Long-acre, London, NV,C. 


ANGLO AMERICAN TELEGRAPH CO. (LTD.)-Retuin to Feb. 19 gives 
capital as £7,000,000 in £557,460 consolidated ordinary stock, 
£3,221,270 preferred ordinary stock and £3,221,270 deferred ordinary 
stock. All taken vqi an<l paid for in full. No mortgages or charges. 


KILOWATT PUBLISHING CO. (LTD. )— Particulars of £2,500 debentures, 
created Feb. 4. 1909, filed pursuant to sec. 93 (3i of the Companies 
(Consolidation) Act, 1908, the amount of the first issue (on April 1) 
being £1,450. Property charged, company's undertaking and pro- 
perty, present and future, except uncalled capital. No trustees. 

ROBINSON & HANDS ELECTRICAL CO. (LTD.) -Mortgage debenture 
dated March 27 to secure £400, charged on the company's undertak- 
ing and property. Holder, W. H. Lovatt. 

W. SITCH & CO. (LTD.)— Particulars of £1,000 debentures created 
March 25 tiled, the whole amount,being now issued. Property charged, 
company's undertaking and property, present and future, including 
uncalled capital. No trustees. 


MEMORANDA (April 22).— Bank rate 2J per cent, (since April 1, 
1909). Price of silver, 23; d. per oz. Consols 85 — 85^ for money and 
account. Consols Pay Day, May 5 ; Stock and Shares Continuation 
Days, Aijril 27 and May 11 ; Ticket Days, April 28 and May 12 ; Pay 
Days, April 29 and May 13 ; Mining Shares Carry Over Day, April 26. 

Prices of Metals (London). — Copper, cash, 57b ; three months 53J. 
Lead, English, 13J — 13J ; foreign, cash, 13Ji — 13,'V ; two months, 
13i';,. Spelter, cash, 21g ; two months, 21^. Tin, English, 134— 
136 ; foreign, cash, 134J — 134i, three months, 135 — 135i. Iron, 
Cleveland, cash, VJlhh, and three months, 48/-. Magnet Steel (price 
supplied by W. F. Dennis & Co.), £55. 

have declared an interim dividend at the rate of 8 per cent, on the 
deferred ordinary' stock for the half-year ended Dec. 31. 

delivered to consumers during the four weeks ended March 26 ware 
526,496, compared with 407,925 units in the corresponding four weeks 
of 1908. 

CASCADE (1906) POWER CO. (LTD.) —The balance profit for the past 
year is £213, and, adding the balance brought forward, the available 
amount is £1,494, which the directors recommend should be carried 

CITY OF SANTOS IMPROVEMENTS CO. (LTD.)— The profits for the 
past year were £46,541, and the directors i)ropose a final dividend of 
4j per cent, on the orclinary shares, making 7 per cent, for the year, 
leaving £4,196 to be carried forward. 

ing it was reported that the profit was $110,965, and a final dividend 
of 6 per cent, (making 12 par cent, for 1908) was declared, 

books and register of holders of the second debenture stock are closed 
from 17th to 30tb inst. inclusive, preparatory to payment of interest 
due May 1. 

MONTE VIDEO TELEPHONE CO. (LTD.)— An interim dividend for the 
half-year ended Jan. 31, at the rate of 6 per cent., has been declared 
on the ordinary shares. 

The directors recommend a final dividend of 4s. 6d. per share (tax 
free) on the ordinary shares, making 7 per cent, for the year 

for 1908 states that tlie outl.iv on >_'CMerating station, plant, &c,, 
daring the year was £40,994. 

TRA'MWAYS & GENERAL WORKS CO. (LTD.)— The directors have de- 
cl.ncd a dividcurl nf Is. per share. 

UNITED ALKALI CO. (LTD.) -At the recent meeting Mr. John Brook 
stated that the one outstanding feature of the year was the serious 
shrinkage of their trade, not only in this country, but all over the 
world. Their jjrofits showed a decrease of £116,664, compared with 
907, and they hid also to pay £62,000 more for raw materials. 

dend of Is. per sh.are has been declared. 


Aberdeen Oorporallon 


Ajiglo -Argentine ■ 

"A.yr Oorporstion 

Baker St. & Waterloo By.... 



Bath Electrio Trama, Ltd... 

Birkenhead Corporation ... 

Birmingliam Corporation... 

Birmingham & Mid 

Blackburn Corporation 

Blackpool and Fleetwood... 

Bolton Corporation 


Boomemoatb Corporation.. 

Bradford Corporation 

Brighton Corporation 

Bristol Trams & Carriage... 

Bomley Corporation 

Barton Corporation 

Bury Corporation 

Calcutta Tramways Go 

Camborne -Bedruth 

Cardiff Corporation 


Central London Railway 
Charing 0., Eos ton & H'stead 
Chatham & Dist. Lt. Bys.... 
City & South London Rly... 

City of Birmingham 

Colchester Corporation 

Cork Electric Trams Co. ... 

Croydon Corporation 

Devonport & Dist. Trams... 

Dover Corporation 

Dublin & Luoan Railway... 

Dublin United 

Dudley- Stourbridge 

Dundee Corporation 

Bast Ham Council 

Bxeter Corporation 

Gateshead & Dist. Trama... 

Qlasgow Corporation 

Glossop Trams 

Qravesend— Northfleet 

Qreat Northern St City Bly.. 
Qt.Northern, Piccadilly, &c 
Greenock & Port Glasgow... 

Hartlepool Tramways 

Hastings Elec. Trams Co.... 

Hong Kong 

Uudderafield Oorpn 

Hull Corporation. 

Dford District Council 

[Ikeston District Counoil ... 

Ipswich Corporation 

Isle of Thanet Co 


Eeighley Corporation 

Kidderminster k. D la trio t... 
Kilmarnock Corporation ... 
Lanarkshire Trams Co. ... 

Lancashire United 


Leeds Corporation 

Leicester Corporation ...... 

Leith Corporation 

Lincoln Corporation 

Liverpool Corporation 

Liverpool Overhead Rly, ... 
•London County Counoil ... 

London United^ 


Maidstone Corporation 

Manchester Corporation ... 

Mersey Railway 


Metropolitan Dist. Railway 
MetropolitanElec. Trams... 


Nelson Corporation 

Newoastle-on-Tyne Corp. ... 

Newport (Mon.) 

Northampton Corporation . 
01dham> Ashton dc Hyde... 

Oldham Corporation 

Perth (N.B.) Corporation ... 
Perth ( W.A. ) Elec. Trams... 


Portsmouth Corporation ... 


Preston Corporation 

Botherham Corporation ... 


Salford Corporation 

Sheffield Corporation 

Singapore Trams 

South Metropolitan 

South Staffs 

Southend Corporation 

Bouthport Tramways 

Sunderland Corporation ... 

Sunderland District 

Swansea Trams 

Swindon Corporation 


Tynemouth and District ... 

Tyneaide Trams Co 

Wallasey Diatriot Oounoll... 

Walsall Corpn 

Warrington Oorpu 

West Ham Corporation 


Wolverhampton Co , 

Wolverhampton Oorpa 

♦Worcester , 

Wrexham , 

Yorkshire W.R. Trama 

Yorkshire Woollen Dislriot 


or Deo. 




2,0 J7 




2, 501 




















































+ 1,209 
+ 2,039 
+ 119 

%le^l\ A"-"- 


3 97S 













20 666 


















(a) These comp.irisons are with the correspoudlng period last year. § Plus 3 days. 




10, 7 
lOi 4,/6 
10 6/0 

St. I iiX 

100 4J5; 

'' iX 




lOOj 60/ 

1 3% 

100 4J% 

10 8,'0 

51 4,6 

3t. 4% 

St., 3i% 


Bonrnemonth ft Poole Eleo. Sap. Ord 

Do. 4J per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cam, Second Pref. 

, Do. 4J per Cent. Deb. Stock (red.) .. 

'Bromlej (Kent) El. Lt. & Power SharesI 

Do. Do. l8t Debs. 

Brompton ft KensinBton Eleo. Sup. Ord. 

Do.-- 7 per Cent. Pref. 

Cent 1 Elec. Sop. Co.4 X Gnar.Db.Stock 

Do. 4i per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Dab. Stock (red.) 

Do 44 per Cent, Deb, Etfick (red ) . 
Do. City Undertaking 4i% Cm. Pret. 

Chelsea Electric Supply Ord 

Du. 41 per Cent. Dob. Stock (rod.) ... 
City of London Ele:trio Lighting Ord., 

Do. 8 per Cent. Cam, Pref. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Dab. Stock (red.).... 
Do. 44 per Cant. 2nd Dab. Stock (red. 

County of Durham Elec, P.D, Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent, non Cum. Pref. , 

County of London Elec. Supply Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4J5; Deb. Stock (red.) 

Do. Second Deb. Stock 

Folkestone Electricity Supply Co. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Da. 4J lat Deb. Stock (red) 

Hove Electric Lighting Ord 

Kensington ft Knightsbridge Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Ist Pref. 

Do. i per Cent. Dab. Stock (red,) 

KeuBingtn. ft Kngtbg. Co. & Netting HiU 
Co. (Joint Station) iV, Dab. Stock (red.) 

Kent Elec. Power Co 

London Electrio Supply Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ist Mirt. Daa 
Metropolitan Electric Sip. Ord. 
Do. 4i per Cant. Cum. Pref. .. 
Do. 41 per Cant. Dab. St ick Ut Mort. 
Do. SI per Cent. Mrt. Dab. 3tock(rcd,) 
Midland Elec. Cjrp.for P.D.lstSlort.Db, 

Newcastle & Dist. Eleo. Ltg. Ord 

Do. 4»perCant. Dab 

Newcastle Eleo. Supply Ord 

Do. 6 per Cant, noa Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cant. Mart. Dab. red. 19.37. 
tNortli Metro. Eleo.Power Sup. 5 Morts 

Northern Counties Elec, Sap 

Do. 4J per Cant. Dab 

Notting Hill Electrio Ord 

Oxford Electric Ord 

Do. 4 per Cant. Deb. Stock 

St. James' & Pall Mall Eleo. Orl 

Do. 7 per Caul, Pref, 

Do. 31 per Cant. Dab. Stock (red.) ... 
Smithfield illirkets Electrio Sap. Ord... 

Bo. 4 per Cent. Dab. Stock 

South London Electric Supply Ord 

South Metrop'n Eleo. Lt. & Power Ord. 

Do. 7 per Cent. Cum. Pref 

Do. 41 lat Db. Stk. Red 

Urban Electric Supply Ord , 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 41 per Cent, Ist Mort. Dab 

Westminster Elec. Sup. Ord 

Do. 41 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 


Baker Bt. « Waierloo 4 i Perp. J)l). St 
Bath Eleo. Trams Pref. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 41 Ist Mort. Dab. Stock (red.) ... 
B'hani ft Midland Trams 4) 1st U J. Stk. 
Bristol Tramways & Carriage Ord 

Do. Cam. Pref. (fully paid) 

Do. 4 per Cent. Debs 

British Eleotrio Traction Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Perpetual Dabs 

t Do. 41 per Cent, iad Deb. Stock 

Central London Ordinary Stock 

Do. 4 per Cent. Pref. Stock 

Do. Deferred Stock 

Do. 4 per Cent. Debs 

Charing X.Euston&Hmpstd Per,Db.Stk. 
tCity of Birmingham Trams. 6%Cm.Pref. 

t Do. 4 per Cant. 1st Mort. Dabs 

City ft South London Ely. Con. Ord. ... 

Do. 6 per Cent. Perp. Prof. (1891) ... 

Do. (1890) 

Do. (1901) 

Do. (1803) . 



April 21. 

93 -V>1 
101 —105 

95 —8a 
S —81 

99 -10-2 
38 -98 
98 — lOU 
3} -41 
102 -106 

115 -1^4 

121 —123 

101 —101 

1 —2 


136 -R9 

lol —104 

B -->! 

96 -93 


n -7i 
65-61 I 
93 -96 I 

97 —ICO 
85 —S3 


5 -5i 
92 -96 

48 -SJ 


10 J -109 
85 -35 
95 —93 

6 IS 9 

4 12 

5 11 

4 11 

4 U 
6 11 
6 16 
4 i* 

4 2 6 I J 

3 19 

4 12 
3 13 

88 -93 6 7 
35 -IJ 10 
B —64 

a -12 

94 -97 
9 -f,l 

B3 —90 

61 —70 


loU— 103 



73 — 8S 

95 -93 

























8 z 






Cent. Pref. 

Gt, Nortliern & City Rly. Pref. Ord. (4%) 
G. Northern, Piccadilly ft Brompton Ord. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock . 
Haalings k District Elec. Tram 

Do. 41Db. St 

Imperial Tramways Ord 

JDo. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

)Do. 41 per Cent. Dabs 

I. of Thanet B. I. ft Lt. 6 per Udut. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cant. Dab. Stock 

Lauarkauire Tramways 

Lanes. Utd. Trams 5 ; Prior Lien Do. St. 
Liverpool Overhead K'jilway Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref 

Do. 4 percent. Dab 

London United Trams. 6,!; Cum. Prof. ... 

Do. 4 per Cent. 1st Mort. Deb. Stock 
Mersey Con. Old. Stock 

Do. 3 per Cent. Perp. Pref. 

t Metropolitan Eleo. Tramways Ord 

Do. Deferred 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 41 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Metropolitan Railway Consolidated 

Do. Surplus Lands Stocks 

Do. 84 per Cent. Preference 

Do. 34 per Cent. " A " Preference 

Do, 8} per Cent. Convertible Pref, 

Do. 81 per C«nt. Debe nture Stock 

6 13 
5 11 6 

4 14 

4 18 
3 16 6 

3 19 


4 :s 

4 i) 

4 11 

4 15 

a 4 


!l 18 


4 16 

2 —3 
79 -31 
7 — S 
7 -71 

83-9) 10 u u 

61 —59 I 6 16 

93-10 ,600 
91 —93 I 5 7 6 

1 — li'e 


9 10 

82 -1 

4 15 

3 —4 

1:2 10 

70 -75 


I -2 


2 -S 






»j —a; 

4 13 


1 7 

69 -71 

4 4 

87 -S3 

3 l.S 

73 —SO 

4 7 

75 -77 

4 11 

92 —91 

3 11 

Mar, Bept, 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 
April, Oct 
May, Nov 
March .... 
Mar, Bept 
Jane, Dec 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aog 
Jan, July 

Jan, Ja\j 
March .. 
Jane, Deo 
I Feb, Aag 
I Jan, July 
June, Dec 
Jan, July 
April, Oct 
April, Oct 
Feb, Aug 
Mar, Sent 
Jan, 3n\y 
May, Nov 
April, Oct 
Mar, Sept 
Feb, Aug 
April, Oct 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 

April, Oct 
Jan, July 

Mar, Sept 
Mar, Sapt 
Jan, July 
April, Oat 
Jan, July 

Week to 

A 1-11 u, 21.' 

High- Low 
eat. eat. 

9| m 

994 99 


Jan, July 
June, Deo 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, Jnly 
Feb, Ang 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, July 

Mar, Aug 
Jan, July 

March .. y 

March ., ^i i 

Jau, July •- . 

Feb, Ang ''i ; . . 

Feb, Aug .. ., 

Jan, July •• « 
Feb .... 

Feb, Aug y ^ .. 

April -U 

Feb, Aug •• ~ 

April, Oat •• _ 

April, Ojt I • • - 

April, Oct ;• 

April, Oct 82 

Mar, Sept 93, S,\ 

Jan, July , ^il .. 

Jan, July . . , . . 

April -■ 

Jan, July .. I « 

April, Oct .. , .. 

Jan, July ..I .. 

Feb, Aug .. „ 

Feb,*Aag '.'. Z 

Jane, Deo !,* ,'! 

Feb, Aug 2=: 2j 

AprU, Oct 8jJ S54 

May, Kov 

Feb, Aug _ , .. 

Feb, Aug . . : . . 

Feb .... 601 6)3 

Jan, July lC3i ' 112> 

Jan, July Oal 9al 

April, O-t 

April, Oct 

Feb, Aug 31; 31 
i Feb, Aug 

Feb, Aug — . . 

Feb, Aug ..I - 

Feb, Aug 

May, Nov .. | - 

Feb, Aug .. i _ 
I Feb, Ang 

\ Feb, Aug •. I *. 

Feb, Aug .. ! .. 

Jan, July 1 » 1 .. 

Mar, Sept , ■ii 

April, Oat ..I .. 

Mar, Sept .. I .. 

Mar, Sept 

Jan, July . . » 

Mar, S9p( .. I _ 

Jan, July ■ . « 

Feb, Aug . . I . . 

Jau, J ulj 

Feb, Aug .. — 

Feb, .\ug 

Jan, July „ I .. 

Jan, July .. ' .. 

Jau, July j 7^1 ' 7i 

Feb, Aog. I _ » 

April.. . 
I Feb, Att? 
Jau, July 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Au* 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Jan, J uly 


In oftloQifttiniE the yield aUowanoe has been made for accrued iatereac bat not for redemptioon. 


Last I 

RiTSZ DivroiiNii I Brsis»S8 

Vr,,.,.. UnroSHD ^VJEK TO 

UVK. At,!,,, 01 





April 21. 


5t *i'>^ 
















































6 2/0 





























Met. Rly. SJ per Cent. "A" Dfb. Stock PI —93 

II 'Topolitan District Bsilwar Ord I 14 J— 145 

Do. Ellension Pref. (5 percent.) i 31—34 

Do. Asserted Est. Pref. (Int. Guar, bv' 
Una. Elec. Blvs. Co. of Loudon, Ltd.'ll f4 -f7 
1 Do. 8 per Cent.' CoTisoltd. Eent-charRel 18 —SU 
Do. 4 per Cent. Miiilsnd Kent-charge! 102 —105 

' Do. Guar. Slock 4 ler Cent 

Do. 6 per Cent. Perp. Deb. Stock 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ditto „ 

New Gen. Tract. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 
Potteries Electric Traction Ord. ... 

T^a. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. U per Cent. Deb. Stock .... 
R. Met. Elec. Trams. & Ltg. 6% Cm. Rre'f. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Sunderland Diet. Elec.Trms.B5rUtMt.Db. 
UnderpdE.Rys.Lon.e'^, In.bds.w:tlicoup 3 

Do. 5^ Prior Lien Bonds.. 

Do. 4*1 Bonds Willi coup. 2... 

I Yorkshire (W.B.) Elec. Trams. Ord 

I Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4J ner Cent. Ist Debs 


Aron ElectricitT Meter Ord. ...I , 

Do. 6%Cnm. Pf. 

Babcock 4: Wilcoi Ord 

Do. Pref. 

British (nsalated i Helsbj Cables Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 4i per Cent. Ist Mort. Deh. (red.) 
Prilisb Thomsn-Housfn t^X Ist Mt.Db. 
British Weslinghonse 6 per Cent. Pref... 
6 fer Cent. Prior Liei Dbs (rd.) 

6 la 
4 13 
3 IB 

5 2 Jttn.Jnly 

Do. 4 I 
B' ushE. Enp Co.4}'\, Perp. IslDeb.Stook 

Do. Perpetual 2nd Deb. Stock 

Callenders Cable Con. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4> per Cent. Ist Mort Debs, (red.) 
Caetn " ' 

-.Kellner Alkali 
Do. 4i per Cent. Ist Mort. Deb. ( 
Chadburn's (Ship) Telegraph Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Consolidated BlectricalCo 

tConaolidated Signal Go 

) 0/7i t Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pret 

38 -43 9 

40-60 1 9 

29 —83 13 

9J-10J 6 

6i-6J I 4 

106 -107 1 4 

liWlil 7 

10'2 —IW 4 

il-lA 7 

i4-ii^ I 

April, Oct 

Jan, July 
Jan, J nly 
Mar, Sept 
Feb, Aug 

100 *X 


12 24/0 

100 *Z 

1 1/0 

1 we 

Bt. !>% 

St. 4;t 

100 4i% 

100 6Z 

10 6/0 

1 1/0 

6 8/0 

6t. 47. 

100 6% 

5 6/0 
60 4JX 
20 4/0 

tit. 17/6 

Bt ty. 

St. 2/6 

100 4% 

26 4% 

10 6/0 


95 —9a 



101— IW 



76 -IS 
E4 —87 

83 -87 
5 -64 
106 —108 

98 — iiju 


llO —102 

106 -K8 4 12 

•Cronipton & Co. (Nos. 1 to 86,000) 

Do. 6 per Cent. Ist Mort. Debs. (red.). 

Davis & Timniins 

Dick, Kerr & Co. Ord 

Do. G per Cent. Com. Pref. 

Do. 4J per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Edison & Swan United ("A"8h.)(£3pd.) 

Do. (£6 paid) 

Do. 4 per Cent. Jlort. Deb. Stock (rd. ) 

Do. 6 per Cent. 2nd Deb. Stock 

Edmundson's Elec. Corp. Ord. 

Do. C per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 44 per cent. 1st Mort. Deb. (red.) 
Electric Construction Co 

!>-. 7 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4 per Cent. Perp. 1st Mort. Oebs. 
General Electric (1900) 6% Cum. Pret... 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ist Mort. Deba 

Ilenlej-'s Telepraph Works Ord. 

Ho 44 per Cent. Pref. 

Do. 44 per Cent. Ist Mort. Deb. Stock 
Irdia P.ubber, Gut. Per., ic.Wrks 

Do. SpirCcnt. Cum. Prff , . 

Do. 4 per Cent. Debs, (red.) 

h'ational Elec. Construction Co 


Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

To. 44perCent. Perp. Deb. Stock ... 
Simplex Conduits Ord _. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Telegraph Construction & Maintenance 

Li. 4 per Cent Deb. Bonds (1909) ... 
Vi^kers, Sons & Maxim, Ltd., Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. non-Cum. Preference 

Do. 6 per Cent. non-Cum. Preferred 

Do. 4 per Cent. Ist Mort. Db.Sk. (red)' 1C4 — 1C6 

Do. 44 per Cent. 2nd Mort. Deb. (red.) IU4 — 1C6 

Do. 6 percent. 3rd Mort. Deba Bcrip. 

J.G.White & Co. 6X Cm. Pref. 

Willacs Si Kobinson Ord 

t Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do 4 per Cent. 1st Mort. Deba 


Amazon Telegraph 

Do. 6 per Cent. Debs, (red.) 

Bt. 19/0 t Anglo-American 

Bt. 30/0 I Do. Preferred 

Bt. 3 Do. Deferred 1 141—148 

Bt. 4% Commercial Cable 4 per Cent. Deb. Btk. " ' 

10 6 tCuba Submarine Ord 

10 lU/0 I Do. Preference 10 per Cent 

Direct Spanish Ord 

Do. 10 per Cent. Cum. Pret 

Do. 44 per Cent. Del 100%— 10"v% 

Direct Unite! Slates Cable 121-12J 

ICO 4J% Dircct«eBllndiaCable44ZRR.Db.(rd.) ICO — 102 

bl. 26/0 taetem Ordinary 134 —137 

Do. 34 per Ceul. Pref. Stock ' 85 —t7 

Do. 4 !•( r Cent. Mort. Deb. Stk. (red.) I 101 —106 

Eastern K.\tensiun 13 — )24 

Do. 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 1(0 — U2 

Eastern & S.Af. 4X Mauritius Sul^.Debs. im —108 
G.K. lot Copenhagen), with CXiupon 75 

1U3J 1U23 



76 -8 


3 -34 

April, Oot 


Not .... 
May, Not 
Jan, July 

Mar, July 
Jan, July 

Apr, Oot 
Apr, Oct 
May, Not 





100 44% U alifaii Bermuda 44/. let Mt.Db.( red.) 

11.0 —102 
63 -66 
72 —(7 
71 —78 

25 12/B Indo-lurop _ 

ICO yl MacksT Companies Common . 

100 $1 Do. Preloicnce 

1 .. Warconi'a Wireless Teleg. Co. 

l:-U 4% PaiiflcA;Eur(ii*nTel.i;iOnar.Db».(red.j 100 .-. 

24 1/3 I \N est Coubtol America I la ift 

110 4% ] Do. 4 per ( ent. Uebs. .., I B .8 

10 .. I Vest India fc Panama 

10 t/0 Do. b per tent. Ist Prof 

10 12/0 Do. fc'„ 2iid I'ref 

100 6% Do. 5 per Onl. Debe. .. 

10 3/0 Western Xelegraph 

Kt iX Do. 4 per Cent. Deb block (red.) lOl"— lo3 

~. I 4% 1 Western 1 1!- ■"-'—' -•—■".. . -- -" 

6 ■-' 
4 U 
8 16 
6 12 
3 Is 

16 3 

ICo —102 



101 -103 


J ane, Dec 
June, Dec 

5 13 6 I K,My,Ag,N 

3 18 ti F,My,Ag,N 10:5 
2 14 3 K.My.Ag.Ni 14;;' 

4 9 !jn,Ap,Jy,0 ESj 

7 10 1 Feb, Aug .. ] 

6 11 u Feb, Aug 
6 16 April, Oct 

6 8 April, Oct _ I 
4 H I Jan, July .. ' 
6 15 3 lJa,Ap,Jy,0 .. 
4 j II ! June, Dec 

Ja,.My,JjO Us'. 

Ja.My.JyOl Slj 

May, NOT | .. 
Ja,Ap,Jy,0 1^,^, 

Feb, Aug I .. 

May, Not 101^ 

Jan, July 

June, Dec 

May, Not C4 
Ja,Ap,Jy,0 _ 

April.... '-;.; 

J une, Deo 


Jan, July . . : 

May, Not 1',. 

May, Not ^ I 

May, Not 

Jan, July 

Mr,Jn,0,D ISj 

June, Dec 

3 18 
3 16 
3 18 

4 17 

3 17 

1 lelegh. cl 000 4;{ lionds 87 —02 
• la calculating the jitldt allcw ince "at bten made for accrued Interest but net (or redempUoD. 




: 6/0 

I 2/6 



600 6% 


St. ! $1 

600 6% 
100 tu 


Amer. Telephn. & Telegta, Cap. St 

Do. CoU. Trust 81,000 4 per Cent. Bds 
Anglo Portug'se TeL 6;!; Ist Mt.Db. Stk. 

Chili Telephone '. 

Monte Video Telephone Ord. 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pref. 

National Co. Pref. Stock 

Do. De£ Stock 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. 1st Pref 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. 2nd Pref 

Do. B per Cent. non-Cum. 8rd Pref. ... 

Do. Deb. Stock 34 per Cent, (red.) ... 

Do 4 per CeLt. Dob. Stock (red.) 


Do. OperCent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4 percent. Ked. Deb. Stock 

TelephoneCo. of Egypt 44XDb.Stk.(red.) 
United KiTer Plate 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 44 Deb. St. hed 



















Elec. & Gen. InTeitment 6% Com, Pref. 

Globe Telegraph & Trust 

Do. 6 per Cent. Pret 

fSabmarine Cables Trust ((3ert.) 


Anglo-Argentine 6% Cum. Ist Pref 

Do. 10% Non-cum. 2nd Pref. 

Do. 4% Deb. Stock 

Auckland Elec. Trams. 6% Deb. (red,).. 
Brisbane Electric Trams. InTest. Ord... 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 44 per Cent. Db. Prov. Certs 

British Columbia El.Ry.Df. Ord 

Do. Pref. Ord. Stock 

Do. 6% Cum. Perp. Pref Block 

Do. 44 per Cent, lat Mort. Debs 

Do. V 


■ Deba 

Do. 4J%Perp Con. Deb. St 

Buenos Ayres Lacroze Trains 1st Mt. Db. 
Buenos Ayres Port & City Tram. Ist Mt. 

Deb. Slock 

Calcutta Tramways (1 to 137,610) 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 4j;^ Isl Deb. Stock (red.) 

Cape Eleciric'Tram Shares 

C i ty ol Buenos Ayres Trams Co. (. 1904)Sh, 

Du 4 per Cent. Deb. Stock 

Colombo Ir. & Ltg. 5% 1st Mt. Db 

Electric Traction Co. of Hong Kong 5 

per Cent. Ist Mort. Debs 

flavsna Eiec. Ky. Con. Mt. 6% $1,000 60 

year Coup. Bds 

Kalgoorlie ll^lec. Trams Sh 

Do. 5 per Cent. " A " Deb. Block 

Do. 6 per Cent. "B" Ditto 

Lisbon Elec. Trams. Ord 

Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. E per Cent. Kog. Mort. Debs 
Madras Elec. Trams. 6% Deb. Stk. 
Marila Elec. Ky. )(1,00U Gold Bonds 

Meiicolrams Uo. Com. St 

Do. Gen. Con. 1st Mort. b'i Gold Bds.... 
Montreal St. Ry. Sterling 44 per Cent.' 

Debs. (1922) {I«08. 601 to 2,000) 

Do. do. (Nob. 1 to 4,6U0) 

Perth Elec. Trams Ord 

Do. 1st Mt. Db. Stock 

Rangoon Elec. Trams & Supply Co. 6% 

98 —10" 4 U 

SS —100 5 U 

7J-8B 4 16 6 

1-1 6 

M—\i 6 7 

106 — l6e 6 11 

12(4 -12. '4 4 18 

101-111 '566 

101 -Hi 6 6 6 

5i'.i— 513 4 C 

9^ —100 I 3 10 -112 I 8 18 



83 — 9U 

lull -1C2 

6!3— 7,'e 

5 -64 


isj— laj 

127 — ISu 

5 8 9 
4 16 
4 9 
4 S 

6 13 
4 n 
4 6 

7 14 

6 6 

4 10 6 

4 12 

Jan, July \ .1 
Mar, Sept 1 
August . . 
Not .... 
May, Nov 
Feb, Aug '|l)7i 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug 
Feb, Aug" 
Feb, Aug 
June, Dec 
Jan, July 
April, Oot 
April, Oct 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 
July .... 
June, Deo 
Jan, J uly 

Jan, Jnly 
Sp DoMr Jn 

April, Get 

. Pf. 

Do. 44;^ let Mort. Deb. Stk. 

Rio Janeiu) Tram, Lt, & P. Cj 

fo. 3) jr. Gold Buds 

lo. lOyr.Mt.Bnds 

Bao Paulo Tramway, Light k Power Co. 
$100 Stock 

Do. 6 per Cent. 1st Mt. $600 Db 

Toronto Ry Co. Ist Ml. i^/, Ster. Bonds 

1554 -1674 6 7 

4 16 

fS-74 i 6 12 
llc.J-i.7.; 5 19 



Adelaide Elec. S'ply Co. 6% Co. Pr 


Do. 44 per Cent. Deb. Stk. (red.) 

Calcutta Wee. Supply Ord 

Canadian Gen. Elec. Oo. Com. St 

Uo. /% im. I'l. Sleek. 

Caatner Bleclrolytic Alkali Co.(of IT.S. A.) 

Ist Mort. Stl. Debs [ 97—102 

Elect. Development Co of Ontario 
Elec. Ltg. & Trac. Co. of Aust. 6 per 

Cent. Cum. Pref. 

Do. 5 per Cent. Deb Stock 

tlec. Supply Co. of Victoria 6 per Cent. 

1st Mort. Deb. bt 

Indian Elec. Sup. & Xrao.Co 

Kalgoiirlio Elec. Power i Ltg. Ord. 

I Do. 6 per Cent. Cum. Pref. 

t Madras K. S. Corp. b per Cleat. Uoostn. 

Deb. St 

Mexican Sleo. Light Co. bV, Ist Men 

Gold Bonds 

tMeiioaiiLt.&Powtr Co.Com.8t 

Do. 6;^ Itt Mort. Gold Bnds 

Montreal Lt. 111. & Power Co. Caj). St.... 

tKiver Plate Electricity Co. Ord 

t Do. 6 per Cent. non.Cum. Pref 

Do. 6 percent. Deb. Stock 

Koaano Elec. Co. 0% Pref. (1-20,000)....., 

tSliawiniguu Water ti Power Co. C« 

Do. bperCent.Bds ! 106-108 

Do. jJPc-. Cn.Ml. 1.11' .Si. ' 07 _ 90 

Victoria falls Power Co. Prel 



70 —SO 

87 -8J°- 
61 — 9i 


101 — lu4 
5 — 5J 
95 —9/ 

4 I 6 6 6 

April, Oot 
Jan, July 
Jane, Deo 
Jan, July 
May .... 
May, Not 
Jan, Jnly 
Mar, Sept 
May, Not 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 

Mar, Sept 

Feb, Ang 
Mar, Sept 
Jan, July 
Jan, July 

J one, Dec 
May, Not 

Juue, Deo 

Feb, Aug 

Jan, July 
Jan, July 
July .... 
Jsn, July 
Jan, Jnly 
Jan, July 
Feb, Aug 

Feb, Aug 

May . . . . 

Jan, July 

Jane, Deo 
Feb, Aug 

Mar, Sept 

Jan, July 
April, Oot 

Jan, July 

Fab, Aug 
Jan, July 

Jan, July 

April, Oot 
April, Oot 

April .... 


Jan, July 
April, Uot 

— V; ' 6 6 

t Ez dirldend. t lb* Londoa Stook Bzohapge Oommittee have 

6 I Jan, J aly 
9 ! Jan, July 
decUucd to quote the^ 

1 } 

10 11 





U7i 1115 " 






ESTABLISHED, First Series (Weekly), 1861; Second Series (Weekly), 1878. 

No. 1,615. [vo*!.»l5. 


FRIDAY, APRIL 30, 1909. 

Price Sixpence '*'|jS.']'*' 

Abroad 9d., or 18 cents, or 9O0., or 80d/. 




Notes 77 

Arrangements for the Week 79 

Experiments on the Current 
and Energy Efficiencies of 
the Finlay Electrolytic 
Alkali-chlorine Cell. By F. 
G. Donnan, J. T. Barker 
and B. P. Hill. Illustrated 80 

The Electrical System ot the 
London County Council 
Tramways — Disni$sion .... 

The Composition and Dura- 
bility of Cable Papers. By 
Clayton Beadle and Henrj' 
P. Stevens. Concluded . . 

Artistic Electric Fittings. 
Illustrated 87 

A New System of Wireless 
Telegraphy used bj- the 
Telefunken Company. By 
Count Arco 89 

The Electrification of Rail- 
ways. By J. A. F. Aspinall. 
Illustrated 91 

ilR. Asi'inall's Address 94 

Reviews 95 

Electric Power and Traction 
[Davies] ; Die Revision 
elektrischer Starkstrom- 
anlagen [Stern]; Develop- 

Beviews — rniilmned. 

ment and Electrical Dis- 
tribution of Water Power 

Electric Traction on Railways. 
XIV. — Practical Considera- 
tion of Overhead Conductors. 
By Philip Dawson. Illus- 
trated. Continued 96 

Fundamental Principles in 
the Design of Spark-tele- 
grajjhv Stations. By Dr. 
F. Kiebitz 99 

Correspondence 100 

Parallel Running with 
Eartlied Neutrals (W. E. 

Le Radiant Cooking Ap- 
paratus. Illustrated 101 

The " Denny " Combined No- 
volt and Overload Release. 
Illustrated 101 

Trackless Tramways 102 

ParliamentaryIntelligence 102 

Legal Intelligence 103 

Municipal, Foreign & General 
Notes 104 

Trade Notes and Notices . . 107 

Companies' Meetings and 
Reports 110 

Companies' Share List 114 

N^ o T e: s. 

Surface Contact Systems. 

SLTiiifACE-coxTACT systeiiis combine such marked advan- 
tages from the festhetic point of view with comparatively 
low cost that the inventor has naturally turned his atten- 
tion very actively to this subject. Innumerable surface- 
contact systems are the result, Init, unfortunately, they all 
possess some inherent disadvantages. Tiie loss by leakage 
under certain conditions is con.siderable, and there may be 
serious difficulties in regard to live studs. Nevertheless, 
a certain number of these systems have come into com- 
mercial use, and it is, of course, only under everyday 
working conditions that their efficiency can be defi- 
nitely disproved. The Dolter system is a case in point. 
In this instance it might have been thought that the experi- 
mental stage had been fairly passed, yet it has been 
found necessary to remove this system on the Ale.x- 
borougli and Swinton Tramways, and to replace it by the 
more usual overhead system. Not mily has this course 
resulted in a decrease in the working expenses, but, 
curiously enough, there has been an increase in the re- 
ceipts through the change. At Torquay also there has 
been trouble in maintaining the Dolter system, and the 
progress of the undertaking has been correspondingly 

hampered. At Oxford, again, the original scheme has been 
changed and, where the overhead system is not permissible, 
the conduit system is to be used. Lastly, as our readers 
know, the " G.15." surface-contact system has fallen on 
rather evil days in London. We do not wish to e.xpress 
any very definite views on this particular case, as there is 
another side yet to be heard ; we think, however, it will be 
admitted that the documents publi.shed by the company do 
not form very satisfactory reading. It isdifBcult to under- 
stand why the ordinary course, and what appears to us to 
be the only possible course, was not followed — namely, to 
give the company a free hand with the work and to make 
them entirely responsible for its satisfactory operation. As 
already remarked, however, the other side of the story has 
yet to be heard, and we shall refrain from further com- 
ment until this is told. 

The Greenwich Generating Station. 

Althou<:;h three evenings were devoted to the discussion 
of Mr. J. H. Rider's Paper on " The Electrical System of 
the London County Council Tramways," the list of mem- 
bers wishing to express their views was by no means 
exhausted, and Mr. Rider's reply to the ci'iticisms and 
questions raised by the various .speakers had to be held 
over for publication in the " Journal." Under these cir- 
cumstances, either the discussion or the reply must suffer 
at the time, and we fear that the postponement of the 
author's reply will result in it being somewhat overlooked. 
As far as the discussion is concerned, unusiial interest has 
been aroused by some of the points involved in the Paper. 
Among these may be mentioned the advantages of a water- 
side site, the life and economy of steam turbines, the dis- 
carding of reverse relays on the generator cii'cuits, the 
choice of induction motor-generators for transforming the 
high-tension energy in the sub-stations, the breakdown of 
the stator coils when these machines were switched on, 
and the apparently large current consumption by the 
tramcars. ]\Ir. Rider's reply dealing with these subjects 
should prove of no little value. 

In a recent issue we mentioned, in connection with Mr. 
Roger Smith's remarks, that the choice of the Greenwich 
site would be likely to receive the approval of the majo- 
rity of engineers. As several speakers were strongly in 
favour of that site with its abuiulant supply of condensing 
water, we think that the " communicated" remarks of Mr. 
Leonard Andrews, an abstract of which appears else- 
where in this issue, are worthy of attention, particularly 



as they are based on informatioa obtained from a number 
of engineers. It will be seen that Mr. Andrews' figures 
show a small advantage in favour of the Camberwell site. 
In view, however, of his advocacy of gas engine 
stations, we are more pai ticularly concerned with his criti- 
cism of the capital cost of a steam-driven station. Mr. 
Andrews mentions that the figure of £14 per kilo- 
watt for such a station, given in his recent Paper 
read before the Institution, was criticised as being too 
high, although the expenditure at the Greenwich station 
now works out at over £23 per kilowatt. We would point 
out, however, that Mr. Andrews' figure was given for a 
modern steam turbine station, whereas the Greenwich 
station was originally laid out for reciprocating engines, 
and therefore the expenditure on land, buildings, generating 
plant, &c., is by no means comparable with that in the 
hypothetical station considered in the Paper referred to ; 
whilst the condensing arrangements and the river work in- 
volved exceptional expenditure which should not appear 
in any comparative estimates. Mr. Andrews' conclusion 
that gas-driven stations could have been installed at a 
lower capital outlay, and at the same time show an annual 
saving of £32,208 in running costs, is probably too opti- 
mistic, although it may be said that, in the light of modern 
developments, the Greenwich station, if started (7c novo, 
could be laid down with a smaller capital expenditure. 
There is, however, one important point that must not be 
forgotten, namely, reliability ; if this remained constant 
with decreasing capital expenditure, the task of the engineer 
would be simpler. 

Accidents to Tramway Passengers. 

A JUDGMENT of considerable importance to tramway 
undertakers was delivered on Saturday last. The case 
arose from a claim against the West Ham Corporation 
for damages for injuries to a passenger on one of the Cor- 
poration's tramcars. The injuries were caused by a shock 
received from a trolley standard whilst the passenger was 
proceeding to a seat on the roof of the car. The facts were 
admitted, and the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff 
for £500, but the Corporation contended that, as placards 
were exhibited in their cars, and notices were printed on 
the backs of the tickets, stating that the Corporation's 
liability for accidents was limited to £25, that sum was the 
maximum thatcouldbeclaimed. Similar bye-laws and notices 
have been introduced by other Corporations, and therefore 
the judgment of Mr. .Justice Coleridge will be of general 
interest to tramway managers. In delivering judgment, 
his Lordship drew attention to the fact that although a 
railway company — and apparently a tramway company — 
may allow passengers to travel at reduced rates, if the 
latter waive their claims for compensation in case of acci- 
dent, the option of paying a higher fare, which carried 
with it full responsibility on the part of the company, 
always existed. In the case in question, however, no such 
option was provided, and the plaintiff being entitled, in 
common with the general public, to use the tramways, he 
was carried at the defendants' risk, as he had not had the 
option of paying a higher fare. Although the Corpoiation 
are desirous of appealing, we think that the judgment is a 
reasonable one under the cucumstances and is likel}' to be 
upheld. Should this be the case aa. interesting posijion 

will result, and it may, in future, become the custom for 
two fares to be offered, only one of these entailing full 
responsibility on the tramway undertakers. Apart, however, 
from the trouble thereby involved, we think it would be 
reasonable for the various Councils to take full responsi- 
bility for accidents to ordinary passengers. We do not 
suppose there would ])e any demand for tlie higher-priced 
tickets. — . — 

The Indo-European Telegraph Service. 

The proceedings at the meeting on Tuesday of the mem- 
bers of the Indo-European Telegraph Co., over which Mr. 
J. Herbert Tkitton presided, were of more than passing 
interest. The chairman was able to announce that, despite 
the troubles in Persia, the directors had successfully nego- 
tiated an extension of the company's concession with that 
country, and he was able to show that, amid the throes of 
civil war, respect had been paid to the property of the com- 
panJ^ There is no feature more conspicuous in connection 
with international telegraphy than the success which has 
attended the delicate negotiations between the directors of telegraph enterprises and the ever-chauging Govern- 
ments of the nations of the world. Tiie directors and 
chief officials of the Indo-European Company may 
claim particular success in this direction, and it was 
a fitting sequel to the 40 years almost unl)roken pro- 
gress of the company that the shareholders should, on 
Tuesday, have unanimously voted a considerable sum of 
money to the directors in recognition of the valuable ser- 
vices which have culminated in the present conspicuous 
prosperity of the company, whose 40th year of existence 
has been marked by successful experimental direct worldng 
between London and all parts of India, and daily successful 
direct working between London and Karachi, which proves 
the company to be as progressive at the present time as in 
the past. The fact that the resolution voting the grant to the 
directors was proposed by Mr. George von Chauvin (a 
veteran telegraph engineer, one of the oldest members of 
the Indo-EurojDean Company, representing large financial 
interests, and a gentleman closely identified with both the 
past and present of the electrical industry), accompanied, as 
it was, by a very interesting retrospect of the company's 
past history, must have made the vote additionally agree- 
able to the directors. Everything points to the future 
success of the Indo-European Company, and we are sure 
the telegraphic world especially will join us in congratu- 
lating the management. 

'• Physikalische Zeitschrift."— It is announced that Prof. 
F. Kiiiger, of (iiittingen, has been appointed editor of this 
journal. Prof. Bose, who has held the position for the last 4i 
years, is retiring to take up new work in the Universit}' of La 

Electrical Trades' Benevolent Institution. — From the 
"balance-sheet just issued it is gratifying to note that the in- 
come for the year to December 31 last amounted to 
£1,267. 12s. 6(1. Of this amount £1,101. lis. was invested, 
money in the bank was £129. Ifis. 6d., the balance represent- 
ing the total expenses, including salaries, of the jiast three 
years' existence of the institution. We are glad to note that 
Sir William Preece is to jireside at the annual general meeting 
which takes place to day (Friday) at the Hotel Cecil, London, 
at 4 p.m., and which we hope will be well attended. 

Cable Interruptions and Repairs. 

Dale of Interruption. Date of Repair. 
Hoiif;Konfr— Macao....!....:., Apr. 13, 1909 ... Apr. 23, 1909 
jr Oljook— Djibouti>i...5*.',i." Apr. 15, 1909 ... — 



University College of Dundee. — It is announced that Prof. 
T. Claxtou Fidler, who has occupied the chair of Engineering 
in this college since 1891, is about to retire. 

The "G.B." Surface-Contact System in the Mile End road. ^ 

The "G.B." Surface Contact Co. have asked us to state that 
the copies of Mr. Mordey's reports, which we published in our 
last issue, were supplied by the company, and that they were 
entitled to take this course under their agreement witli the 
Loudon County Council. 

Institution of Municipal Engineers. — At a meeting of the 
members of this Institution resident in the home counties 
district (northern division), which includes Bedford, Bucking- 
ham, E.ssex, Herts and Middlesex, held at Olynipia on April 
24th, Mr. Henry C. Adams was elected chairman of the Dis- 
trict Committee and a Member of Council of the Institution. 
Mr. Bernard Partridge was elected honorary secretary, and an 
executive sub-committee was appointed. 

Engineering Standards Committee. — AVe have received from 
the Engineering Standards comaiittee a copy of their latest 
report which deals with " Reciprocating .Steam Engines for 
Electrical Purposes." It is, in general, intended to assist 
towards a mutual understanding between makers and pur- 
chasers, and contains recommendations on governing, cyclic 
variation, economical questions, maximum load, steam and ex- 
haust pressures and other matters. 

" Engineering Wonders of the World." — The complete 
history of engineering has yet to be written, but a laudable 
attempt to give some account of recent developments in this 
branch of the world's work is being made by Messrs. Thos. 
Nelson & Sons by publishing a volume having the above title. 
To do this they have enlisted the services of numerous engi- 
neers who are experts in their own particular class of work, 
and it is proposed to give fully illustrated descriptions of many 
of the best known wonders in engineering throughout the 
world, the publication being issued in fortnightly parts. Except 
in the first chapter, attention will be contined to engineering 
work completed since the year 1800, though it will probably 
be agreed that this is quite a wide enough field. The first 
part of this new work, which we have under notice, contains 
an interesting article on "Ancient Engineering," by Mr. A. 
Williams, the editor, in which a description is given of such 
feats of prowess as the Pyramids, the Sphinx, and the great 
.stone of Banlbec. Other articles describe the " White Pass 
and Yukon Railway," " The Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash," 
" The Rotherhithe Tunnel " and the "Salving of the Gladiator." 
We shall be pleased to hear that this work is achieving a great 
success, for there is no doubt, as stated by the editor in his 
preface, that the principles involved in most engineering work 
are very imperfectly understood by the " man in the street " ; 
and any efforts which are made to alter this condition of affairs 
ought to receive the support of all those interested in the well- 
being of the profession. 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. — The annual 
dinner was held on Thursday, April 22nd, at the Hotel Cecil, 
Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall, President of the Institution, in the 
chair. The company, which numbered about 160, inclu<led 
many distinguished guests, among these being the Right Hon. 
Lord Strathcona, G.C.M.G , the Right Hon. Lord Stalbridge, 
Sir William H. White, K.G.B., Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B. 
(President of the Royal Society), the Hon. Sir Richard Solomon, 
K.C.B., Dr. H. T. Bovey, F.R.S. (Rector of the Imperial 
College of Science and Technology), Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
F.R.S. (Director of the National Physical Laboratory), Mr. 
J. C. Inglis (President of the Institution of Civil Engineers), 
Mr. James Swinburne, F.R.S., and Dr. W. C. Unwin, F.R.S. 
After the loyal toasts had been honoured. Sir William White 
proposed " The Houses of Parliament," comparing them to a 
machine, of which the second chamber was the very essential 
" governor." Lord Strathcona replied for the House of Lords, 
and Mr. Hamiood Banner, M.P., for the House of Commons. 
The toast of "Our Guests," proposed by Mr. E. B. Ellington, 
followed, Sir Archibald Geikie responding. The remaining 
toast of " The Institution of Mechanical Engineers " was 
entrusted to Mr. J. C. Inglis, who, in au interesting speech, 
mentioned that it was impossible to over-estimate the 

services rendered by engineers in assisting the development of 
the commerce of this country. The President, in his reply, 
referred to the importance of mechanical training in com- 
bination with theoretical education in the early )'ears of a 
young engineer's work. 

Tantalum and its Industrial Applications. — At the Royal 
Institution last Friday evening, Mr. Alexander Siemens 
delivered a discourse having the above title. The lecturer 
first dealt with the physical and chemical properties of the 
metal and showed that at ordinary temperatures tantalum was 
unaffected by all acids (except fluoric) alkalis and moisture. 
He also showed that it was an ideal material for mechanical 
apparatus and for implements which, if made of steel, would 
be liable to rust. As regards physical properties it was tough 
and malleable, so that it could be drawn into fine wire or 
hammered into thin sheets. Nevertheless, it was quite elastic, 
and as hard as soft steel, its tensile strength being 27 tons per 
square inch. The filament used in tantalum lamps was 0'03 mm. 
in diameter, and should therefore support a weight of about 
80 grammes. Tantalum was also being used for making nibs, 
which were manufactured in the usual way, though at first it 
was not entirely satisfactory for this purpose, as the loss by 
abrasion rather great ; but by slightly oxidising the surface 
the nibs became hardened, so that this loss was considerably 
reduced, though it was still greater than that of the ordinary steel 
pen. Another use of tantalum was that it seemed to be a suit- 
able material for making the knives used by surgeons, if slightly 
oxidised before polishing. If heated to a dull red it absorbed 
gases, and in so doing lost its strength and became brittle, a 
propertj' which somewhat detracted from its usefulness. Its 
melting point /;; racitu being about 2,30O°C., it was suitable for 
use as electrodes in vacuum tubes, and was, in fact, being ex- 
tensively employed for this purpose. Turning to its applica- 
tion as filaments for incandescent lamps, the lecturer showed 
that the original diameter of the wire used for this purpose 
had been reduced from 0-0.5 mm. to 0-03 mm. After the 
lamp had been used for a short time the strength of the fila- 
ment decreased and it also underwent certain structural 
changes. After about 1,000 hours it showed signs of capillary 
contraction, as if the filament were going to break into a series 
of drops. In conclusion, Mr. Siemens mentioned two interest- 
ing properties of the metal — /•;':., that if heated in a high 
vacuum any oxygen contained in the metal would be expelled, 
so that filaments which were "spotted,'' owing to the fact that 
a certain amount of oxide was contained in them, would be- 
come uniform after burning for a few minutes at the normal 
voltage. Tantalum would also act as a rectifier when used in 
an electrolyte if it were made the anode. It then became 
quickly covered with a film of oxide, which stopped the 


WEDNESDAY, May 5th. 
Birmini:ha:ii Section of thk Institi'tion of Electric.vl Engineers. 
7 p.m. Aiiiuud General Meeting at the Grand Hotel, Birmingham. 
Stodents' Section of thf, Institi'tion of Ei.ectbhal Engiseers. 
7:45 p.m. Meeting in the Library of the Institution. 92, Victoria- 
street, \\'estminster, S.W. Paper on "Some Notes on Re- 
lays," by Mr. E. W. Moss. 
THURSDAY, May 6th. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
S p.m. Meeting at the Royal Society of Arts, .John-street, 
Adelphi. Paiier on " The Theory and Application of Motor 
Converters," by Mr. H. S. Hallo. 

Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Societv. 
.■^ p.m. Meeting at Caxton Hall, Westminster, S.W. Paper on 
"The Past, Present and Future of the Organisation of the 
Engineering Profession," by Mr. R. O. Wynne Roberts. 

Corps of Electrical Engineers (London Division). 
Commanding Officer, Col. R. E. B. Crompton, C.B. 
The following orders have been issued for the current week :— 
Monday, May 3rd, 

" A " Company Infantry drill, 6:30 p.m. 

Tuesday, May 4th, 

" B " Company Infantry <lrill,'7 p.m. 

Thursday, May 6tli, I Infaiitiv drill, b p.m. 

"C" Company (Technical drill. 7:15 p.m. 

Fr.iday, May 7th, (hUantry drill, 6:45 p.m. 
"D" Company \Technical drill, 8:15 p.m. 





Sumtiiart/. — The main features of the Finlay electrolytic cell are first 
described, and particulars are then given of efficiency tests carried out in 
the lluspratt Laboratory of the Liverpool University. The ethoiency 
is very much higher than in cells where the electrolyte does not flow 
through the diaphragm. 

1. Description of the Cell. — The electrolytic cell referred to in 
this Paper was patented in England by Messrs. Archibald and Robert 
Finlay. of Belfast, in 1906. It has for its object the production of 
alkali and chlorine by the electrolysis of alkaline-chloride soltitions, 
and embraces the following main features: — (1) Use of a double 
diaphragm with middle brine chamber separating the anode and 
cathode compartments. (2) Electrolytic (brine) percolating under 
head from the middle chamber towards both anode and cathode 
compartments, and so continuously flowing through the cell dia- 
phragms. (3) Arrangement of compartments on the plan of a filter 
press, whereby great compactness of construction is obtained, and 
resistances are reduced to a minimum by a reduction of the thickness 
of electrolyte in the compartments of the cell. (4) Suitable arrange- 
ments for the escape of the gases and the circulation of the electro- 
lyte. Although entire novelty cannot be claimed for the ideas 
involved in the middle chamber with double diaphragm, the perco- 
lating electrolyte or the filter-press arrangement, the combination 
as embodied in the Finlay cell represents a form of construction 
which has not been practically realised and tested before. 

Brine Supply 
Fig. L — Diagram of FrsLAV Eleotrolvtic Cell. 

The general circulation system may be illustrated by the sketch 
shown in Fig. 1. Brine is fed from the constant-level tank H to the 
middle chamber G, the pressure-head being measured by the gauge 
tube K. The salt solution flows as shown by the dotted arrows 
through the diaphragms to the anode and cathode compartments A 
and B. The escape through the vessels C and T). whilst the 
chlorinated brine and the mixture of salt and caustic .soda fiow 
res|)ectively from the swan-necks E and F. By regulating the 
height of swan-necks the rate of flow of salt .solution through 
the anode and cathode diaphragms can be sejiarately adjusted. By 
this means all mixing of the anode and cathode liquors due to 
ordinary diffusion or electric endosmose is entirely prevented, whilst 
the losses due to electrical migration of the OH -ions from the 
cathode to the anode comjiartment are very considerably reduced 
by the counterflow of the electrolyte. The anode A consists of 
dense carbon, or still better, Acheson graphite, whilst the cathode 
B is made of wrought iron. The tajjs L, M, and N are used for 
emptying the cell when required. 

The actual construction of a commercial unit is illustrated in Fig. 
2. which explains the filter-press arrangement referred to [ircviously. 
By this means any number of c<mi|>artin(nts. anodes, and cathodes 
can be simply juxtaiKjsed and bolted togctbcr in a teak frame, and 
both surfaces of every anode and cathode made electrolytically active. 
The carbon anodes are fixed in position in brass or copper troughs 
(set in the teak frame) by means of lead, the latter being protected 
from the action of the CIj or electrolyte by a layer of a suitable 
cement. Electrical connection to the anodes is obtained by the 
outer edges of these metal troughs, as shown in Fig. 2. At pV are 
shown the slots and holes connecting the anode compartment to the 

ducts which convey away the chlorine and anode liquor. QQ and 
RR are the corresponding holes forming portions of the ducts which 
convey the brine and cathode liquor to and from the middle and 
cathode compartments respectively. VV are bolt holes. The 
dimensions of a 2.000-ampere unit, such as shown in Fig. 2, are as 
follows : length. 4 ft. ; breadth. 2 ft. 6 in. ; height, 4 ft. The 
current-carrying capacity per cubic unit is very considerable. 

For the purpose of the tests a small laboratory unit (carrying 
about 10-20 amperes) was employed. This cell contained a central 
anode compartment, two middle compartments, and two cathode 

Fig. 2. — Finlay Electroly- 
tic Cell (Practical Ukit) 
2,000 Amperes. 


• Abstract of a Paper read before the Faraday Society. 

V P ! V V R V 

compartments, as shown in Fig. 3. These were bolted together by 
two end frames FF. The diaphragms DD (Fig. 3) consist of sheets 
of specially prepared asbestos 2-3 mm. thick. These are separated 
from each other and from the iron cathodes by rectangular frames 
of waxed cardboard SS. which are also about 2-3 mm. thick. It will 
be .seen that the middle and cathode compartments are in reality 
thin sheets of liquid only a few millimetres thick. By this means 
the electrical resistance of the electrolyte per unit area of diaphragm 
or active cathode surface is reduced to a minimum, whilst diffusion 
and electrical migration are prevented or hindered by the counter- 
flow of the liquid. The cathodes consisted of thin sheet iron. As 

Iron Kathode 

S D S D 



Iron Kathode 


S-Scparator, A = Ano(le, D-Diapliragm, F-Frame. 

Fui. 3. 

Acheson graphite rods were not tii hand, the anodes emjiloyed w'ere 
rods of amor|)hous carbon. The diaphragm consisted of the 
asbestos diaphragm sold for electrolytic purposes by Bernfcld of 
Leipzig. The active sectional area of each diaphragm and cathode 
was 60 sq. in. (387 sq. cm.). The total cathode area was, therefore, 
774 sq. cm., as only one side of each cathode was electrolytically 
active. The brine was used at a fixed density of 1-18. It was made 
from ordinary table salt, and was jjurified from calcium and mag- 




nesiuin salt by treatment with alkali in a small glazed earthenware 
tank, until a small portion on filtration gave no further preeipitate 
when tested with alkali. After settling, the li(]uid was siphoned off. 
filtered, neutralised, and diluted to the required density. In 
diaphragm cells with flowing electrolyte it is very necessary to avoid 
any formation of precipitate in the middle compartment, as this 
would tend to choke the diaphragms. 

The authors show that, ignoring ionic migration, the steady state 
for a given current will be reached the more rapidly the greater the 
value of the ratio Xjv, where v is the volume of the cathode com- 
partment and V is the constant flow of liquid into and out of that 
compartment. Ionic migration, however, complicates this. To 
determine the cathodie efficiency it is only necessary to wait for the 
steady state (as shown by a series of titrations of the cathode effluent) 
then to collect a measured volume of the cathode effluent during a 
sufficient period (in these experiments usually 1 to 3 hours), deter- 
mine its alkali contents by titration, and compare with the " theo- 
retical "' alkali which the current during this ])eriod of time would 
have produced, had no alkali (OH'-ions) crossed the cathode dia- 
phragm (reckoning 1-494 grammes NaOH to the ampere-hour). It 
is necessary, of course, that the current and flow of electrolyte 
remain constant. There was no difficulty in keeping the current 
constant, but it frequently happened that, even with a constant 
pressure-head in the brine compartment, uncontrollable variations 
of the rate of flow of electrolyte occurred. In order to counteract 
this, the volume of the cathode effluent collected every .5 or 10 
minutes was observed, and the pressure-head readjusted, if neces- 
sary, in order to keep this flow constant. In the later experiments 
a further small correction was introduced. Let r= volume of 
cathode compartment in cubic centimetres, y, = alkali concentration 
of effluent (in grammes or molecules NaOH per cubic centimetre) 
just before, and y„ = alkali concentration of cathode effluent just 




















Per cent, cttuslic, 
2 mm. Cathode Diaphragm (loatleil). 
Ciin-ent Dciisity=0-0217. Temp., 17°— 19". Sp. Gr. = l-ls. 

Fig. 4. 

after the test run. Then the amount (y2— yji' of NaOH has to be 
added to the alkali found in the total cathode effluent during the 
test run. When this is done very concordant results are obtained. 

In several of the experiments the cells were run for about eight 
hours daily for periods of a month. The cathode diaphragms did 
not afjpear to have suffered, but the anode diaphragms appeared to 
be considerably " pulped "' on the surface turned towards the anode. 
It was also observed that when making the more concentrated 
caustic solutions (9-14 per cent. NaOH) the cathode liquor apjieared 
to contain a considerable quantity of dissolved alumina, derived 
evidently from the cathode diaphragm. The diaphragms also 
appeared to get somewhat choked, as the pressure-head had to be 
increased in order to obtain the same flow. This choking may have 
1 een due to slight precipitation of insoluble matters in the middle 
compartments, or to imperfect filtration of the brine during the 
process of jjurification. These are both points which require the 
most careful attention when working with diapliragm cells having a 
percolating electrolyte. 

A great advantage which the double diaphragm cell with perco- 
lating electrolyte possesses over single diaphragm cells is that when 
making the higher strengths of caustic it is impossible to avoid a 
considerable migration of OH'-ions to the anode. This largely helps 
to disintegi'ate the carbon anodes with tlie production, amongst 
other things, of a suspension of finely divided carbon. In the single 
diaphragm cell this carbon is carried into the pores of the diaphragm 
and rapidly chokes it. In the Finlay cell, on the other hand, the 
carbon particles are swept out with the anode effluent and do not 
collect at all on the surface or in the pores of the anode diaphragm. 

Experimental Results. — The cell was run with currents of 11-6. 
16-8, and 221 amperes, the cmrent densities covering tlie range of 
those employed in practice with diaphragm cells, with the exception, 
perhaps, of the Townsend cell, in which very heavy current densities 

are said to be em)]loyi(l. I'articulars of all the tests are given in th® 
Paper. The ex]ierimints with current density =001,5 amperes pe'' 
square centimdrc show that when the cathode efflux varied from 
9.54 to 208 cubic cm. per hour the strength of the efflux varied from 
1-.50 to 6-24 grammes \aOH per 100 grammes cathode liquor, and 
the current efficiency at cathode from about 99 to 92 per cent. With 
a current density of 00286, the tests show a cathode flow varying 
from 72.3 to 109 cubic cm., a per cent, of caustic from .3-61 to loO, 
and an efficiency from 9(50 to 640 per cent., the voltage being about 
3-3 or 3-4. The results do not appear to show any marked improve- 
ment in efficiency with increase of current density, the flow being 
corre.sjjondingly increased, so that the same strength of caustic is 
made, i.e.. the cathodie current efficiency appears to be mainly a 
function of the alkali concentration in the cathode compartment In 
the steady regime. 

A .series of experiments was then carried out at a current density 
of 00286 with 4 mm. asbestos cathode diaphragms. The results 
were surprising. The average voltage rose tt) .3-8 (owing to the 
thicker diaphragm), but the cathodie current efficiencies ranged 
from 80 to 75 per cent. tVir caustic strength varying from .5 to 13 
per cent, respectively. The results are interesting inasmuch as they 
show how much depends on the "' denseness "' of the diaphragm. If 
we regard a porous asbestos diapliiagm as a series of capillary tubes, 
then clearlyjfor equal total fluxes of liquid across a given sectional area, 
the actual velocity of flow in the capillary pores may vary very 
greatly. Experiments were also carried out. employing as cathode 
diaphragm two 2 mm. diaphragms pressed together. It was found 
extremely difficult to keep the flow of electrolyte constant during 
the test run. The pressure-head had to be continually altered, but 
even this did not suffice to control the flow. It is po.ssible that the 
doubled diaphragm may have had some part in causing these dis- 
turbances. Curves drawn through the mean of the recorded figures 










so lliO L'lO 320 410 mo ■")60 64IJ 
Fhic icc'fiour). 
2 mm. Catliode Diaphrajim (loadeii). 
Current Densit.v=C-0217. Temp., 17°— 19°. Sp. Gr,= i'lS. 

Fk. 5. 

seem to indicate that for higher strengths of caustic the current 
efficiency increases with the current density, whereas for lower 
strengths the reverse is the ease. It is doubtful, however, whether 
these experiments are accurate enough to justify such a generalisa- 
tion. The efficiency fell from 98 to 87 per cent, as the percentage 
of caustic increased from 5-4 to 11-4. 

The last series of experiments on cathodie current efficiencies were 
carried out with 2 mm. cathode diaphragms which had been " loaded" 
to a certain extent with a ])reeipitate of ferric hydroxide. In these 
experiments it was found (|uite easy to keep the flows satisfactorily 
constant. It is seen that the slight loading with ferric hydroxide 
which the cathode diaphragm had received did not raise the cell 
voltage. Also, the average cunent efficiencies « ith the 2 mm. 
loaded diaphragm are about the same as those obtained with the two 
2 mm. diaphragms at the same current density, with the great advan- 
tage that the cell voltage is sensibly lower (3-38 as compared with 
365). The results, which are considered to represer.t the best 
average performance of the cells, are shown in Figs. 4 and i>. The 
current density=0-0217, the temperature was ITdcg. to lOdeg., 
and the specific gravity 118 in the experiments. 

The cathodie energy efficiency is next discussed, and finally par- 
ticulars of experiments to ascertain the composition of the anode 
gases when the cell was working ai high and low cathodie efficiencies 
respectively. I'nder favourable conditions the anode gas would be 
99 per cent, ehloriiu'. w hen the cell was making 6-7 per cent, caustic 

In order to show wliat very much higher current efficiencies are 
obtained in the Finlay cell as compared with diaphragm cells in 
which the electrolyte does not flow through the diaphragm, two 
experiments were also made in which both the chloride and alkali 
concentrations in the cathode effluent (and also in the middle cham- 
ber liquor) were tletermined. 





We give below an account of the discussion wliicli took 
ace~at a meeting of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. 
on Thursday last week, in connection with Mr. J. H. Rider's 
Paper on the above subject. This Paper was read and partly 
discussed at two previous meetings, abstracts of the Paper and 
discussion appearing in our issues of March 26th, and April 2nd 
and 9th. 

llr. AV. H. Patchell, referring to the coal contract, expressed sur- 
p rise that there was no mention of ash. Possibly Mr. Eider only in- 
tended his contract to apply to a very restricted coal area, so that his 
heatvalues would cover his ash if he was getting coal of a particnlar 
]dnd. He though the contract would have to be altered to be of more 
general value. Mr. Rider had gone in for washed nuts, and that brought 
up the question of the chain-grate stoker. He, the speaker, had burned 
washed nuts years ago, from which lie got very high value for a sovereign. 
Subsequently. i>«-ing to very large visei-s taking to washed nuts, these 
went up to a price which he could not afford, so he turned his attention 
to other classes of coal. He thought it was a ])ity to adopt throughout 
a station a type of plant which so very much restricted the type of fuel 
that had to be used, unless one was a colliery owaier and could produce 
one's own fuel. On the question of heating surface, Mr. Rider had given 
them the heating surface of each boiler, but did it include the super- 
heater ? The size of the boiler seemed to be very small in proportion to 
the size of the station. Mr. Rider had given them an interesting test of 
one of his boilers which had 3.320s4.ft. heating surface.and which gave an 
efficiency of 7'.t-4!l ]ier cent. Some boilers he (the speaker) had had under 
his control had Ci,209 sq. ft. heating surface. They were Stirling boilers 
with JlcPhail superheaters of 800 sq. ft. heating surface, made up as 
an integral part of the boiler. On test these boilers, with dry fuel, gave 
an efticiency of 80'29 per cent. That was the boiler and superheater 
without an economiser, so that the figures were as close as could be ex- 
pected to Mr. Rider's. He did not claim, therefore, any great thermal 
efficiency by the use of larger boilers, but he did claim a greater con- 
venience in handling and a very great saving in the cost of buildmgs and 
land. In a matter of that kind space was important. For the amount 
of Mr. Rider's calculated out])Ht he certainly seemed to be over-boilered. 
He had 48 boilers for 34,000 kw. normal, or 42,500 kw. maxinnnn load. 
and in the test he had four boilers running one engine. Of course, one 
would not run normally the boilers one would run on test, so he (Mr. 
Patchell) took for his seven engines 28 or 32 boilers to run the whole of 
his engines, and he then had some Iti boilei-s to spare. Perhaps the extra 
load Mr. Rider would be able to squeeze out of the turbines would occupy 
Eome of that plant usefully. The question of water level in London was 
a very inteiesting one, and was becoming very important in view of the 
number of people putting down their o\ra wells. Jlr. Rider said the well 
delivered the water practically up to the ground level, or about 5 ft. 
below the top of the tube. Tliat level was relatively very much higher 
than in other parts in the neighbourhood of London ; he knew that at 
Greenwich the water did stand higher, although with a number of wells 
sunk he thought that the level would now be lower. He would 
like to ask the author whether the water meters were on the suction or 
the output side of the pump, as he found that made a great deal of 
difference. With regard to the steam separator, was this justifiable '! 
With a well-laid-out plant and steam superheaters, why was so large a 
separator required ? As to the generating plant described in the Paper, 
there was a rather striking difference in the rating of the reciprocating 
and of the turbo-alternator sets. He asked what was the power factor 
of the plant as a whole ? As to piston rings, he would not have expected 
that Mr. Rider's would have given out before his Corliss valves did. If 
Mr. Rider had had any trouble with the latter he had not mentioned it. 
He (the sj^aker) was struck when he heard that .Mr. Rider was actually 
reversing the American method. The author claimed for this the 
advantage of drainage. In the Interborciugh station in Xew York they 
had the heaviest Manhatten engines, and he learned that they had had 
no trouble with them. It was interesting to know the difference there 
was in efficiency between the two types of engines. The results of the 
tests made in the Xew York station and Jlr. Rider's station were very 
much alike: this fact, he thought, showed the accuracy with which the 
tests were made. The cpiestion of smface coiulensing for t\irl)o-gencral. 
ing sets was an interesting cme. Mr. Rider's figures indicated (ij lb. 
per square foot for condensing with liLs reciprocating sets, but for the 
turbo sets he had not given the figure. The table of total costs 
of the ]jlant given in the Paper was interesting. He was glad to see that 
Mr. Rider adopted normal ways of thinking, and had rated his 
plant on the normal capacity, and not on the Parliamentary ca])acity. 
From the evidence which had been given before the Parliamentary Com- 
mittees one rather wondered what the rating was going to be. On the 
question of synchronous machines, Mr. Rider had gone over entirely to 
induction sets, but had not yet settled how to start those induction 
motors, and had adopted a compromise. He (the speaker) had put in 
some inducticm sets, but only to the extent of one or two machines in 
large sub.stations, and had arranged so that he could start them from 
the altemating.current side. He had afterwards experienced trouble 
with these induction macbineii — just such trouble as Mr. Rider had.dp- 
. ,.. ■'■: (';'li,>:-l , ■ ..lit... 

scribed. He, the s]icaker, would certainly put in symhronous niarliiucs 
in preference tn induction. Jlr. Rider's exi>erience with tlie breaking 
clown of the coils brought out an old fact in regard to winding. They had 
had trouble with induction sets through the breakdown of the coils. 
He (the speaker) believed that there was moat certainly a concentration 
of pressure on the first few turns of the coils. This trouble might be got 
over by an external device. He was not at all sure that the defect was 
not mainly a mechanical one. In tests with resistance boxes for applying 
up to 100,000 volts pressure he heard that every time insulaticm broke 
down they had to suspend the test until the resistance box had been 
re- wound. They put a choke coil each side of the resistance box and had 
no further trouble. There was an interesting point in the figure given in 
the Paper as to the cost of a sub-station. It had to be remembered also 
that the generating and sub-station plant cost was only about halt the 
total cost of the scheme, as cables and street work had to be provided 
for. He complimented Mr. Rider on the clean and tidy aspect of tlic 
station at Greenwich, in marked contrast to stations in the old days. 

Mr. K. Edgcumbe referred to Mr. Rider's remark in tlie Paper in which 
he said that his experience with reverse relays had led him to think that it 
would be better to dispense with them altogether. Three siieakers in 
the previous discussion liad agreed with Mr. Rider ; but he (the speaker) 
somehow felt that the cpiestion was such an important one that it ought 
not to be passed over too hastily, and he would very much like to have 
some further facts from Mr. Rider as to the trouble experienced. He 
thought, reading between the lines, that reverse relays had been guilty 
of cutting out generators when there was nothing wrong with them. 
Did it follow that the only alternative was to do away with all protec- 
tion on the generators ? He did not know what Mr. Rider's settings were 
at Greenwich, but they were probably rather low — something like 10 per 
cent, of the output of the generator. Sometimes engineers went as low 
as one-twentieth of the output. That might be all right on small plants, 
but he could not help thinking that on large plants, where surges had to 
be reckoned with, where there were generators of various types running 
in parallel, some reciprocating engines and some turbines, there were 
bound to be temporary reversals of energy, and in that case it was neces- 
sary to put in a time lag. He had found that a fixed time lag was in- 
finitely preferable to an indefinite time lag depending on the alacrity of 
the switchboard attendant in cutting out the generator from the switch- 
board. The other alternative seemed to be to do what Mr. Rider said, 
and do away with the relays altogether ; but that seemed hardly a logical 
conclusion, .\nother alternative was to set the relays for a much heavier 
reverse curi'ent. The only objection to that was that the 'bus bar volts 
were almost certain to fall, and that entailed a corresponding increase of 
current. But an increase to four or five times the normal output of the 
machine would not hurt a generator. Personally, before relays were 
discarded, he would like to see them set to much higher values. 

Mr. H. M. S.4YERS said he had Mr. Rider's permission to mention some 
facts regarding induction motors which went to show that the troubles 
experienced were partly mechanical. In some careful tests on the 
windings a point had been selected in the centre of the winding and a 
mechanical movement had been detected of, in some cases, as much as 
-J in. With regard to costs, the figures given in the Paper as to units 
generated did not enable one to distinguish the works costs for current 
utilised. From the figures given it appeared that the current delivered 
to sub.,;tations was now about 14 per cent, greater per car-mile than the 
current -cm rated in the year ended March 31, 1907. The trans- 
mis.siiiii l.isM-,^ uerc a further addition. As to the commercial position 
of a liiu si a lie 111. he took it that at Greenwich there was shown what 
could be done with a high-tension station, and he thought it was very near 
the limit. Transmission losses to the farthest sub-stations would 
amovuit to about 13'7 per cent, at full load, and assuming the most 
economical cable section the capital charges would double that loss, 
makmg it in value of imits generated about 27-4 per cent., so that if 
instead of requiring about 10 miles of cable the generating station was 
in a more central district, and 5 miles of cable was saved, there would 
actually be a net saving, although the cost of coal might be increased by 
10 or 12 per cent. 

Mr. G. L. Addenbrooke refei-red to the question of the sppluy of 
water to the boilers and to Mr. Rider's statement that he blew off 5 in. 
every day, meaning a loss of £500 a year. 

In a written communicaion, he further asked for particulars of the 
amoiuit of water used for the boiler supply and what proportion of the 
total went through the turbines in the form of steam, and also what was 
the pro])(ution of the make-up water to the total water jiuinpcd into the 
boilers, and approximately the amount of w%ater lost by bluwiiiLj off. He 
believed a good case could be made out for distilling the make-up water, 
esi)ecially in the tinbine plant, as the necessity for blow-ing down the 
boilers would be greatly reduced, and their efficiency would also be a 
little higher owing to freedom from scale, and a considerably smaller 
amount of water would be required. He asked Mr. Rider to ex|)lain the 
large- sum which was included in the cost of his gen'-r.itini; station for 
buildings and foundaticms. There was a certain want of ])ro])ortion, in 
considering an undertaking of that kind, in only devoting a few lines to an 
expendituic- wliieli was nc'arly half the total, and which brought up the 
caiiital c.\|ieiulilure ]ict kilowatt to the large amount of £23. 

Mr. J. -M. G. Tkkzise askc-d for information respecting the high.tension 
switchgear. Ho noticed that isolating jilngs lu-ovidecl with insulatmg 
handles wore made use of in the generating station and in the sub- 
stations. Seeing that it would hardly be safe to grip the plugs without 
the assistance of a further insulating device of some sort, was there any 
real advantage in providing that special insulation over the ordinary 
I barei copper knife switch operated by a rod with a hook at the end ? He 

! fU ^ ' . ^ 



also asked for more information respecting the spark-gap8 provided for 
protecting the feeder cables at Greenwich. Did they act ? Did dis- 
charges take place from them, and, if so. under what conditions '! Were 
any means provided to indicate if discharge had taken place, and did 
tliey give any considerable trouble to keep clean and in order ? In 
regard to the question of straining the water for the condensers, there 
was an immense advantage in using an automatic strainer to deal with 
water from a river such as the Thames. But the fact mentioned, that 
15 per cent, of the water pumped for condensing at Greenwich went back 
from the strainer without being used, seemed a very serious matter. The 
capacity of each strainer was stated to be 1,000,000 gallons per hour, 
and if the head against which the water was pumped was taken at 30,ft., 
that meant useless pumping for 3,600,000 gallons of water per day against 
a head of 30 ft. With constant pump pressure the waste in the strainer 
would remain practically constant. In regard to the large power 
required to drive the circulating water at Greenwich, Mr. Bailey attri- 
buted it to some defect in the design of the circulating pipes, Ijut Mr. 
Roberts had not agreed with that idea. He, the speaker, had endea- 
voured to make some calculations to arrive at the amount of power 
reiiuired to pump the leakage water from the strainer. Taking the pumps 
as having a capacity of 12,000 gallons per minute, and the motors each 
at 250 B.H.P., then the amount of water pumped to waste would consume 
some 52 b.h.p., equaling 377,278 B.O.T. luiits for the year. If two strainers 
were used the waste would amount to 104 b.h.p., which equalled 754,555 
imits per year, so that two stramers in use meant a waste of 
power equal to more than three-quarters of a million units per annum. 
The figures showed that a largo proportion of the power required to work 
the circulating system was due to the loss of water from the strainer. 
The disadvantage of having the pumps outside the strainer had already 
been referred to. Of course, the great disadvantage of the arrangement 
was that the strainers did not protect the pumps. It was not possible 
with the rotary strainer to adopt the economical arrangement of having 
two or more pumps in parallel, so arranged that one or more was brought 
into use as the load demanded. The difficulty could be partly overcome 
by usmg d.-c. motors instead of a.-c. motors, so as to reduce the speed, 
but the efficiency fell so rapidly with reduced speed that there appeared 
to be no advantage in using the former. He had had an opportunity of 
inspecting the Greenwich station, and the circulating system was 
certainly interesting, particularly the method of carrying the pipes to 
the station below the low water level, although there appeared to be 
some disadvantage in the sharp bend at the river wall. 

Mr. J. R. Salter thought the first thing in the Paper that would strike 
anyone connected with tramway work was the heavy capital expendi- 
ture. What did it represent per car-mile ? Another point was the 
employment of storage batteries, representing only one-hundvedth part 
of the total capacity of the plant. He did not think it was ci>utcn<lcd 
that these gave any ordinary advantage. Mr. Rider had told tlicm that 
the conduit system was liable to many faults to which the overhead 
system was not subject, but he would like a few more particulars as to 
the advantages of the conduit system. As to the cost of current, 
the cost per car-»iilc m Glasgow was much lower than in London, and if 
Mr. Rider came anywhere near the Glasgow costs there would be a savmg 
of something like £40.000 a year in generating costs, representing a capital 
of sometliing like £600,000. There was scarcely any information given 
as to the low-tension feedei system, which must have cost more than in 
the ordinary overhead system. One of the most remarkable departures 
was the use of shunt machines. He suggested that the low efficiency 
shown was partly accounted for by these shunt machines. 

Mr. H. Brazil, referring to the switch in the neutral windings, 
congratulated Mr. Rider and Mr. Shaw on the ingenuity displayed in the 
device described in the Paper, but when one came to examine the number 
of switches employed one was inclined to doubt the value of the device. 
In regard to isqlation, when it was necessAry to divide the system into 
two or more parts one only of the parts could be earthed by the device 
and it would appear to be very dangerous. The aim in such devices 
.should be that the shock to the system was as small as possible, and 
yet enable the cut-outs to act. He suggested a special arrangement 
of carbon powder resistances or choking coils connecting the neutrals 
to a common earthing bar. 

Mr. A. B. Clark thought, from the diagram in the Paper, that there 
were two water meters in the circulating system. He would like to ask 
how much water they passed in a given time, and also what vacuum 
was maintained. As to earth resistances, he asked what the weight of 
Mr. Rider's was. In the diagram of the switchboard, he noted that 
two low-tension machines came to the same 'bus bar. That meant that 
if anything went wrong with that section of 'bus bar the auxiliary motors 
would lie stopped. As to the engines, here they found very good results. 
He thought there was something wrong with the boiler tests. How was the 
water for the boilers measured ? As to the coal contract, in looking 
through a large number of analyses for B.Th.U., ho found that it was a 
very poor coal indeed that did not reach the limit in .Mr. Rider's contract. 
Then as to moisture, washed coal usually contained less moisture than 
vmwashed coal, because it waSitho dusty particles that held the moisture. 
Altogether, the schedule referring to coal seemed to give toti large an 
allowance to the coal contractor. The amount of small coal allowed 
was too high. ,. , :: 

Mr. G. W. 0. Howe remarked that'it had already been pointed o\it in 
tlie discussion that the trouble due to the breaking down of the end coils 
of the stator windings of the induction motors was by no means new. 
Makers had for many years put extra insulation on the end coils of trans- 
formers and motors. He doubted whether the device adopted by Mr. 
Kider — viz., putting chokuig coils in series with the machine — was the 

best way out of the difficulty. He, the speaker, suggested another 
method by which all electrical shock to the motor winding would be pre- 
vented. In order to demonstrate the cause of the breaking down of the 
end coils, he showed some diagrams representing the hydraulic analogy. 
From these the first method which suggested itself to the speaker wa.s to 
place a non-inductive resistance in parallel with the motor before closing 
the switch, ta|ipings being taken from the resistance to the connections 
between the stator coils. This shunt could be made of high resistance, 
and need only be in use for a fraction of a second. It could be auto- 
matically disconnected by pushing the main switch home. Another and 
probably far preferable method was to put a number of condensers in 
series across the terminals and to tap off from the wires joining the con- 
densers to the wires joining successive stator coils. These condensera 
could be fitted once for all and left permanently connected. His col- 
league, Mr. Irwin, who had independently hit on the same idea, would 
go into this method in more detail. 

Mr. J. FiDDES Brown (communicated) asked for information as to 
the weight and seating capacity of the cars, the average speed per hour 
and the consumption of energy per ton- mile. 

Mr. W. H. C'oLLis (communicated) referred to the Lister Drive station 
of the Liverpool Corporation. The output of the turbo-alternators 
(the neutral points of the stators being earthed on to the water mains) 
was carried to the switchboard by means of three-phase lead-covered 
and armoured cables, the armouring being earthed on to the water system. 
When several of the alternators were running it was found that there was 
a considerable circulation of low-voltage alternating current in the 
armouring of the machine cables, and, in fact, one of the cables was once 
found arcing to the metal hanger, due to the current passing through the 
hanger to the armouring of other cables. That had now been prevented 
by insulating all the cables from the metal hangers. The machines were 
of two types, and experiments showed that practically no interchange 
of current took place between similar machines. It was therefore 
decided to group the alternators into two sets, and so arrange the earth 
connections that either group could be earthed. In future only one gi-oup 
would be earthed at a time. 

Mr. Forrest (communicateil) was interested to note that, as 75 pe^ 
cent, of the sub-station plant cunsisted of induction motor-generators, 
the author was apparently satisfied with the general superiority of that 
type of plant (jver rotary converters for tramway work. He (Mr. Forrest) 
thought there was nothing so good as rotary converters for rough-and- 
tumble work, and mentioned, as ail example of their rehability, the case 
of Birmingham, where rotaries were used for both Ughting and traction. 
There had not been a single machine or transformer failure during the 
2^ years they had been running. The best and safest way of overcoming 
the author's trouble with the end coils was to switch in through 
choking coils. If the author had used rotaries his sub-station efficiency 
would have been at least 7 per cent, better. 

Mr. R. A. Chattock (comnnmicated) asked for further information 
as to what had induced Mr. Rider to adopt the opinion that generators 
should have no tripping relays of any kind. He, the wi-iter, had now 
obtained a reverse current relay that could be relied upon to act under 
the condition of a failing field, and also of a reverse or motoring cuiTent ; 
also it would be unaffected by any condition of forward cuirent as long 
as the field current was norma . The arrangement had been installed by 
the B.T.-H. Co. at the Birmingham Corporation generating station. He 
was of opinion that \vith a pressure as low as li.tiOO volts, earthing of the 
neutral point was not necessary. Greater expense was entailed on an 
earthed system. 

Mr. Leonard Andrews (communicated) discussed Mr. Rider's ex- 
periment of abandoning the original scheme providing for two generating 
stations more or less in the centre of the area of supjily for one larger 
station entirely outside that area, but having the advantage of a water- 
side site. The results, at least so far as generating costs were concerned, 
were excellent, but possibly these were in a great measure due to the 
very high load factor. There were many who had closely studied the 
subject who thought that better results would have been attained if 
the original scheme had been carried out. After all. the scttkMncnt of 
such a weighty matter should not depend upon mere expressions of 
opinion, but upon actual facts. The only solid fact contributed to the 
discussion, having any bearing upon the matter, was Mr. Roger Smith s 
statement that he was paying a lower price for coal of greater heating 
value dehvered at his works at Park Royal. The question could only be 
properly considered in its entirety, and for that purpose comparative 
capital charges, fuel, water and other running charges should bo taken 
into consideration. It might, however, be useful to compare the informa- 
tion Jlr. Rider had given with particulars available from various other 
sources as follows : Gaunttinii Sldtion Capital Charges.— In a recent 
Paper the writer was severclv criticised for assuming a total capital 
expenditure of £14 per kilowatt installed i-oiuplctc with cooling towei-s. 
and was told that if a river-side site had liccn selected instead of coolmg 
towers the capital o\itlav would have been considerably less. In view of 
this it was sonu'what surprising that Mr. Rider's actual capital outlay of 
£23-63 per kilowatt installed for river-side plant was allowed to pass 
without comment. Cooling towers for dealing with an output equal to 
that of the Greenwich station could have been erected complete for less 
than £30,000. Taking interest and sinking fund at 7i per cent., and 
addiiig 2^ per cent, for maintenance and repairs, the fixed charges on the 
cooling towers would amount t > £3,000 per annum. Mr. Rider's expen- 
diture°on pier and river work had been over £('>0.000. The repairs on 
this would probably be nuich lower than on the cooling towei-s, and 
might be covered by h per cent, per annum, making a total amiual chaigc 
of £4,800 ; but (his d'id not cover the very heavy capital outlay incurred 



in the elaborate strainei-s found necessary. On the other hand, it might 
be argued that some of the expenditure under this heading sliould be 
charged to coalliandling phmt. One of the advantages of the original 
Camberwell site, however, was that an elevated siding would have been 
constructed, from which the coal could have been shot diiectly into 
the bunkers. It was probable, therefore, that the total cost of coal aud 
ash-handling plant, under the original scheme, would not have amounted 
to more than 3Ir. Rider's cost of £18,500, phis the cost of the water 
strainers. It would be interesting to learn whether the very high cajiital 
outlay of £982 on land and buildings was attributable to the difficulty, 
often experienced when plant was erected on river-side sites, of obtaining 
good foundations. The ground space required for cooling towers of the 
capacity under consideration would be about 5,000 sq. yds. Assuming 
a ground rent of Is. per annum, an additional expenditure of £250 per 
annum would be incurred under this heading. Pumping ]yaU?r. — A dis- 
advantage of cooling towers was the amount of energy expended in pump- 
ing water to the top of the towers. About 2.1 million units would be 
required for dealing with the estimated output Mr. Rider gave of 91 mil- 
lion units per annum, and, taking the cost of the current at 0'34d. per 
unit, the annual charge inider tliis item would be £3,240. Another 
serious item was the cost of the extra make-up water evaporated from the 
cooling towers. At the Camberwell site it was proposed to sink a well, 
from which the water required could have been obtained at an estimated 
cost of less than 2d. per 1,000 gallons. Thus, 28,000,000 gallons at 2d. 
per 1.000=£2.340. Increased Fuel (Consumption. — The claim of a lower 
fuel consumption at a river-side station, owing to the lower temperature 
of the cooling water, did not appear to be borne out in practice. Mr. 
Rider's fuel consumption of 3-1 lb. of coal per kilowatt-hour, the calorific 
value of the coal being 12,500 B.Th.U. ])er pound, corresponded to a 
thermal efficiency of 9'05 per cent. The fuel consumptirm at the Pinkston 
station of the Glasgow tramways undertaking was 3-05 lb. per kilowatt- 
hour, the calorifie value of the coal being 12,000 B.Th.U. per pound. 
The overall efficiency of the Glasgow plant was. therefore, 9-3 per cent., 
or higher than ilr. Rider's. The load factor of the Glasgow undertaking 
was only 37-5 per cent., against Mr. Rider's 47'75, and they obtained 
their water from a canal, the flow of water in which was very small, the 
result being that the temperature of the cooling water was often quite 
as high as it would be at the base of cooling towers. It appeared, there- 
fore, that any advantage in this respect must also be abandoned. The 
above items showed, on the whole, some advantage in favour of water- 
side sites as compared with cooling towers. They must, however, con- 
sider, on the other side, the extra capital outlay on feeders with the extra 
transmission losses, and the cost of converting that portion of the total 
current which would have been generated as direct current if the stations 
had been jjlaced in central positions. It was practically impossible for 
an outsider to estimate the high-tension feeder losses and extra capital 
charges, .-^s, however, under the original scheme it was proposed to 
instal 6,000 kw., or 20 per cent, of the total plant, as direct current, at 
least 20 per cent, of the total output would have been generated and 
distributed as direct current. From a Paper by Mr. Snell, the cost of 
converting those units would be 0-122d. jier unit, or £9,250. A balance- 
sheet would, therefore, show a debit balance against the water-side site 
of £5,220, excluding extra costs of transmission. Thus, at the time Mr. 
Rider started the Greenwich scheme there was little to choose, as far as 
generating charges were concerned, between the respective systems. 
Now, however, since the economy and reliabiUty of large gas engines had 
been proved, the entire aspect of the problem had become changed. At 
present it would be ])ossible to put down gas-driven generating stations 
(one south and one north of the Thames) at a lower capital outlay than 
had been exjiended on Mr. Rider's scheme, and to guarantee that the total 
annual running costs would not exceed £60,000 for the output covered 
by -Mr. Rider's running c(jsts of £92,208. 

Mr. .T. H. Rider said that although he would have preferred to have 
given his rcfily face to face with those who had discussed the Paper, 
he would hav e to defer it for the " Journal," as the reply to such a dis- 
cussion as had taken placs would occupy as much time as the Paper 

Mr. W. M. MoKDEY said it was a long time since three nights had 
been devoted to any one I'aper, but the t'ouncil had given up this time 
because they thought the Paper Wiis a very important and valualjle one, 
and that they ought to take the oj)portunity of giving members a full 
opi)Ortunity of di.«cu.ssing it. 


{Concluded from paye 61.) 

Summary. — Information at present available upon the desirable pro- 
perties of paper from the insulating point of view is very meagre. The 
authors attempt to fill this gap by giving the results of their cx]5erience 
in dealing with such papers from the chemical point of view. The com- 
position of manila and other papers is briefly discussed. Tests to which 
papers should be subjected are considered, and a number of t.ililcs of 
results are given. The effect of moisture is dealt with at some Icugl h. ami 
the authors finally express their opinions on changes taking place when 
papers arc in contact with the atmosphere and when they are protected 

from it. 

Coming to the subject of the composition of the papers of 
which we have given the physical tests, and talking first of all 

the amount of ash, we find that as a rule the amount of ash is 
least with those containing wood pulp and greatest on those 
papers consisting of manila or " hemp stock," Thus, No. 9, 
which consists entirely of wood pulp, contains 0-58 per cent. ; 
those which are mixtures of wood pulp and hemp stock are 
mostly under 1 per cent., and those which are all hemp stock 
average about 2-J- per cent. ; the highest have 4-6 per cent. 

The colours of the ashes of those papers which consist either 
wholly or for the most part of wood are, as a rule, much lighter 
than those containing a preponderance of hemp stock. 

One thing may surprise us in Table C, namely, that they 
represent papers all of which are supplied to cable manufac- 
turers who tender for a pure manila hemp paper. In this 
table it will be seen that there are 13 different papers ; out of 
this number seven contain a preponderance of wood, that is 
70 per cent, and upwards, six only are free from wood. One, 
No. 9, consists entirely of wood pulp, and another, No. 8, 
contains as much as 95 per cent. ; the rest contain 70 per cent, 
and upwards. All those returned as hemp stock contained 
varying proportions of manila not given in some, the manila 
would not amount in some cases to more than half the weight 
of fibres under hemp stock, and a considerable proportion of 
the fibres in some consisted of jute. This set are not picked, 
but taken at random and represent the ordinary run of com- 
positions of papers as supplied as manila paper and therefore 
reveal the importance of making a proper examination of such 

A comparison of Tables B and C furthermore assists us in 
forming some opinion as to the relative strengths of papers 
made from wood pulp, or mixtiu-es of wood pulp and hemp, 
and paper containing manila, &c. Taking the first, Nos, 1 to 
5, Table R, columns 10 to 12, these are papers containing 
70 to 85 per cent, of wood pulp, the " actual " strength, 
(column 10) varies between 9,400 and 16, .500, giving an 
average of 12,500 for a paper of an average composition of 
75 per cent, chemical wood and 25 per cent, hemp stock and 
an average thickness of -134 mm. This figure is practically 
the same as the actual strength of the whole lot of papers. 
The only paper consisting wholly of wood pulp is No, 9 ; this 
has an actual strength of 14,000, and has a specific strength 
of 3,000, Looking at the papers consisting all of hemp, &c., 
and comparing their strength with that of the papers contain- 
ing wood pulp, it would appear that the strongest papers of 
all are those consisting of a mixture of hemp and wood pulp, 
and these are stronger either than wood pulp alone or hemp 
alone. But these remarks must not be regarded as conclusive 
but only true of these commercial papers, for the simple reason 
that certain kinds of wood pulp produced much stronger 
results than others, and it would be possible to produce a wood 
pulp paper stronger than any of those recorded in the above 
table. Furthermore, if one wanted strength alone, and dis- 
regarded other qualities it would be possible to do the same 
with hemp or manila, so that it is not possibl 3 to say which of 

Tab e C. 










Fibrous constituents. 
[Apjjrox. composition. 

Wood j Hemp stock, 
'pulp. I manila, &c. 
p. cent i)er cent. 
4 5 

Pure white >. 

Greyish white 

(jlreyish, nearly white 

Pure white j 

Reddish white 

Brown, spongy , 

Whitish grey 

Warm brown ' 

Brownish white 

Whitish grey 


Greyish white 
Reddish white 

Unsized ... 
Unsized ... 
Well sized... 
Well sized... ! 
Well sized... I 


Partly sized 
Not .sized ... 1 
Not sized ... I 
Verv slightly' 
sized I 

Not sized ... 
Not sized ... 1 
Not sized ... ' 






the two would give the greater strength. On the whole, in 
making large quantities of paper, we should expect a greater 
uniformity in the case of wood pulp than in the case of hemp 
stock. This will be better understood by referring to the 
jemarks made at the beginning of the article. We repeat, 
however, that it has not yet heen proved that manila papers 
can be produced stronger than the strongest chemical wood 
paper, and we might further point out that the strongest papers 
we have so far ever come across are made from flax fibre, but 
they belong to another and a higher class of product. 

Seeing that jute is likely to find its way into cable papers 
either by accident or d( sign we think it as well to here empha- 
sise the differences, both ch?mical and physical, between jute 
and manila. 

Jute. — The raw material for paper is obtained either from 
the refuse from jute spinning, or from old packing material 
(coffee sacks and the like). The elementary fibrjs of jute are 
lignified and united in larger or smaller bundles. During the 
manufacture the bundles may be more or less disintegrated 
into single fibres, so that both forms may be recognised in a 
microscopical examination of the paper. The lumen of the 
jute fibre is characteristic, being in part nearly as wide as the 
fibre and then contracting to a very narrow channel. 

Manila. — Old ship's tow forms the crude material used for 
paper. As in the case of jute, though less frequently, the 
fibres in the paper are sometimes united into bundles. The 
lignin in the elementary fibres is present in so small a propor- 
tion as to be readily removed by boiling with alkalis. Jute 
fibres are generally empty, whilst manila fibres frequently 
contain protoplasmic masses, which give a yellowish- brown 
colour with iodine in potassium iodide, and a lemon-yellow 
colour with iodine zinc chloride. The fibres do not show 
sudden changes in diameter, and their ends frequently have 
the form of a lead pencil point, or of a bidb with a fine point. 

The table below shows the comparative characteristics of 
the two fibres. 

For the last two years there appears to have been a tendency 
towards a more uniform composition of a cable paper. At 
one time they were taken from ordinary stock by the paper 
maker, now they are more uniform in texture. The composi- 
tion that we generally meet with is about two-thirds fibres of 
the manila class mixed with one-third chemical wood fibre ; 
this we have met with in different parts of the British Isles, 
both with paper submitted to us by cable makers, and paper 
stripped off cables laid down by public and private under- 
takings for electric mains. There appears to be a general 
recognition now that paper need not consist entirely of manila. 
This the cable makers and users are willing to submit to, 
and this entirely endorses our views as far as we are able to 
form an opinion. Thus, if manila is to form the mainstay of 
cable papers until, say, the purest form of chemical wood fibre 
has been proved of equal value, during the interregnum, we 
can see no harm in utilising up to one-third of best chemical 
wood fibre, provided that the rest is manila or hemp, but we 
should like to see jute excluded as far as possible. Well 
treated rags would, of course, be permissible, provided that 
they are properly treated in the mill so as to produce a pure 
iwper, as rags are as durable as manila itself. Rags are, how- 
ever, not likely to be used, as strong rags are more expensive 
than manila. Chemical wood is the fibre that the paper 
maker would like to see take the place of manila. 

The question sometimes arises as to whether a cable is insu- 
lated with paper " free from all injurious particles " or whether 

the impregnating material is free from acids or contains any- 
thing that might produce corrosion of the copper conductor 
or anything that might destroy the lasting qualities of the 
paper. This may be a question quite apart from the quality 
of the paper itself, because the best paper might become 
useless if the impregnating material contained acid substances. 

Although the impregnating material may not actually con- 
tain such substances as an impurity, it might be of such a 
nature as to develop rancidity, which in timj would act upon 
and corrode the copper conductor and produce soluble copper 
salts and impair the insulation. W^e have already met with 
such impregnating materials, and, unfortunately, they are 
used extensively. Under such circumstances, what is the use 
of durable paper if the impregnating material is not suitably 

Sometimes it is specified that the cable should be free from 
" chlorine or residual chemicals." This evidently has reference 
to the paper used. It is quite a fallacy to assume that any 
paper contains chlorine, which m.eans " free chlorine," but it 
may, and frequently does, contain chlorides such as sodium 
magnesium and calcium chlorides in extremely minute quanti- 
ties ; furthermore, it contains minute traces of sulphates, such 
as aluminium and potassium sulphates. Such substances are 
present in such minute quantities that there is no fear of their 
acting upon the copper conductor beyond dissolving a 
minute quantity of copper. It is the acidity that might be 
developed by the insulator itself that is to be feared. The 
action of minute traces of metallic salts would, in our opinion, 
be entirely arrested by the impregnating material. 

In order to determine whether the paper itself contains the 
impurities or whether they emanate from the impregnating 
material it is advisable to have some of the paper before im- 
pregnation, but, of course, this cannot be done except in a few 

In four papers stripped from cables which were recently 
sent us for examination, after extracting the material used in 
impregnating the papers in question, we made an examination 
to determine the nature of the fibrous constituents. The four 
papers are practically identical as regards the nature of the 
fibres. The paper consists of a mixture of manUa and hemp 
fibres to the extent of about two-thirds their weight, the 
remaining one-third consists of chemical wood pulp. 

It is impossible to ascertain whether the papers in question 
are free from all metallic particles, traces of chlorine or residual 
chemicals, from an impregnated sample. The material used 
in impregnating the papers renders such an investigation 
impossible, when the cable only is sent for examination. 
Small pieces and narrow strips are really insufficient, and it is 
next to impossible to distinguish between the impurities 
imparted to the paper by the insulating compound and the 
impurities contained in the paper itself before the insulating 
compound is added. To form some idea of the likelihood of 
impurities in the papers abovj referred to, we reduced them 
to ash, which was examined, with the following results : — 

Ash on weight of 
imprcsniatod paper. 

1 ofT per cent. 

2 il'JO 

3 0S2 

4. Uncoloured 110 

4. Coloured or outside portion (mean) 3-87 

It should be mentioned that all four samples of paper on 
examination under the microscope were found to consist 


Iodine in Kl. 

Jute, with 

Jute with- 
out lignin 


Bright yellow brown 
or brown 

Grey, sometimes 


Grey, brown, or yel- 

Iodine in ZnCL. 

Yellow or yellowish 

Blue, sometimes red- 
dish violet 

Blue, rcddisli violet 
and yellow, with in- 
termediate shades 


Frequent change in 


In thick walled tibres 
of varying breadth. 

In thin walled tibres. 

Usually rounded Openings parallel j None 

to axis 
Ditto • Ditto Ditto 

Frequently ])(iin- | Openings oblique j Groups or single par- 
ted like lead j or parallel to enchyme cells with 
pencil I to axis | fairly thick oblique 

I I walls 



approxiraatfly of two-thirds inanila fibre and one-third 
chemical wood pulp. No. 1 gave a white ash containing 
traces of iron, alumina, but no copper or lead. &c. No. 2 
gave a white ash containing no iron, copper or lead, but traces 
of alumina. No. 3 gave a light brown ash containing iron and 
alumina, no copper, but traces of lead. No. 4, micoloured, 
gave a white slightly brownish ash containing iron, alumina 
and copper. No. 4:, coloured, gave a greyish brown ash con- 
taining iron, alumina, copper and lead. 

We were sm-prised to find lead and copper in two of these 
samples. Fui-thermore, we found the ash of the impregnated 
No. i coloured to vary between 3| per cent, and nearly 5 per 
cent. Of course, traces of iron and alumina are the normal 
constituents of the ashes of a pure manila paper, and there- 
fore would be derived probably from the paper itself, but the 
presence of iron and copper was at first a mystery to us. 

The presence of copper may be due to contact with metallic 
copper. On later samples we have arrived at the cause of the 
presence both of soluble copper and lead. 

'We recently received two papers for examination which 
had been stripped off some electric cables as representing the 
material used as the dielectric. They were extracted with 
solvents to remove the impregnating material, with the follow- 
ing results : — 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Impregnating material (bone dry)... 49-38 per cent. ... 43-19 percent. 

Pajjer (bone dry) .". 48-79 56-70 

Volatile matter and moisture (by 

diff-) 1-83 0-11 

100-00 100-00 

It appears evident to us from the above that No. 2 in par- 
ticular is bone dry in vacuo before impregnation. If it was 
not so the figure for volatile matter and moisture would have 
been higher, say, anywhere up to 5 per cent., and, further- 
more the low figure proves the absence of moisture in the 
impregnating material. As these determinations were done 
on samples of impregnated paper after exposure to air showing 
a low figure for moisture, &c., a further point is established, 
namely, that such materials have only a limited capacity for 
moisture, so that if preserved dry in the first instance they 
remain dry. 

\\e carefully examined the nature of the extracts consti- 
tuting the impregnating material, the so-called acidity in 
terms of resinous acids we found to be in the case of No. 1 
-i4 per cent, and in No. 2 47 per cent. With rosin oil we should 
e-xpect to find about 40 per cent. The impregnating material 
has therefore every appearance of being a preparation of rosin 

The ashes of the impregnating paper (i.e., paper as received) 
were determined, with the following results :— 

^'"- 1- No. 2. 

1-03 per cent 216 percent. 

The two ashes were found to be similar in composition, 
consisting for the most part of lime and also containing iron, 
alumina and lead. All but bad are the ordinary constituents 
of the ashes of ths best cable papers. The paper is enclosed 
in a lead sheath, and the impregnating material may have 
dissolved a small amount of the lead. We have noticed traces 
of both copper and lead in such papers when impregnated with 
rosin oil, but the amount is too small, in our opinion, to have 
any effect upon the dielectric qualities. 

These papers, after extraction of the impregnating material, 
were microscopically examined to determine the nature of the 
fibres, the following is our estimate of the composition of each. 
The figures, of course, are only approximate : — 

. . ., No. I. No. 2. 

Mamla and hemp 40 per cent. .. 73 per cent. 

Chemical wood 37 , \(i 

Jute and straw, &c 23 „ ... 11 

It will be sepn from the above that No. 2 is a much purer 
manila paper, in fact, in our opinion, it is a very good paper 
indeed, m spite of the fact that it contains a certain propor- 
tion of chemical wood and jute. 

Portions of the extracted paper were tested for tensile 
strength, with the following results (expressed in pounds per 
inch width) : — 

No. 1. No. 2. 

41-5 lb 48-5 lb. 

It is evident therefore that paper No. 2 is about 16 per cent, 
stronger than paper No. 1. Measurements were made of the 
length of the ultimate fibres, with the results as follows (each 
figiu-e being the mean of 40 measurements) : — 

No. 1. Xo 2. 

1-75 mm 2-04 mm. 

Therefore No. 2 is about 16 per cent, longer in fibre than No. 1, 
and may be regarded as a very fair length in comparison with 
a good class of cable paper. On taking measurements of the 
thickness of the paper both before and after extraction, we 
noticed that No. 2 is upwards of 20 per cent, thicker than No. 1. 

From all points of view we regard No. 2 as a superior paper 
to No. 1, and should expect it to be also a very good dielectric, 
and as far as the paper is concerned,, i.p., nnimpregnated 
material, we should regard it as a very permanent nature, 
and would expect it to be less deteriorated through course of 
time than with No. 1. 

We should have felt inclined to have given a favoiuable 
opinion on the lasting qualities of No. 2 paper under ordinary 
conditions, but these cables were required to stand a con- 
siderable temperature, for they pass in ducts not far from 
steam pipes and are required to stand a temperature of about 
160°F. at times. In order, therefore, to make sure on this 
jjoint it was considered ad^■^sable to test some of the paper in 
question at about this temperature with a view to seeing 
whether any appreciable deterioration is likely to result. 

The two impregnated papers were carefully wrapped in 
black paper and placed in sealed bottles and exposed for a 
number of days at temperatures as under : — 

Date, 1908. Degiees Centigrade. Degrees Fahrenheit. 

February 16 1 54 129 

17 54 i 129 

19 69 I 156 

20 64 147 
20 70 ! 158 
25 76 169 
29 70 158 

March 2 70 158 

3 67 153 

5 75 167 

6 73 163 
6 ! 81 178 

Time of exposure to heat 18 days and nights. 

Mean temperature during period 79''C. = 174'j!. 

Ma.ximum do. do. 8rC. = 178°F. 

Minimum do. do. 54K'. = 129"F. 

The variation in temperature was purposely maae as tar as 
possible to imitate the conditions in practice. 

The above papers No. 1 and No. 2 were extracted and tested 
for stretch and strength both before and after heating as 
above. Space will not permit us to give details, but the 
result showed no deterioration whatever on either sample as 
the result of the above heating. 

A further exposure was made {see table on p. 87). 

This treatment was purposely more drastic in order to find 
out whether more elevated temperatures injured the physical 
qualities of the paper. Each of the papers after this treat- 
ment was freed from solvent by treatment with cold coal tar 
naphtha which completely removed dielectric. They were, 
after resting for 24 hours, each of them tested for stretch and 
strength against extracted papers in each case that had not been 

Attempts were made to exhaust with ether and other 
solvents in a soxhlet fat extraction apparatus, but this even 
in large size apparatus does not yield sufficient quantiues of 
extracted paper for testing, and, moreover, as our tests appear 
to show, the paper extracted in so.xhlet appears to be reduced 
in strength by the extraction process ; whereas, the cold 
extraction with several treatments with cold redistilled coal 










March 3 

5-30 p.m. 



„ 10 

90 a.m. 



., 11 

9-0 a.m. 



., 11 

50 p.m. 



„ 12 

90 a.m. 



.. 12 

5-40 p.m. 



„ 13 

9-0 a.m. 



„ 13 

6-0 p.m. 



., 14 

90 a.m. 



„ 16 

9-0 a.m. 



„ 17 

9-0 a.m. 



„ 17 

6-0 p.m. 



„ 18 

9-0 a.m. 



„ 18 

60 p.m. 



„ 19 

90 a.m. 



„ 19 

60 p.m. 



„ 20 

9-0 a.m. 



„ 20 

60 p.m. 



,. 21 

10 p.m. 



„ 23 

6-0 p.m. 



., 24 

90 a.m. 



,. 24 

60 p.m. 



.. 25 

90 a.m. 




6-0 p.m. 



.. 26 

90 a.m. 



Time of exj 

josure to heat, 36 



C- = 217°F. 



C — 178°F. 



C — 189°F. 

tar naptha is more effective in every way, and can be done in 
much less time, especially in cases where rosin oils are among 
the chief ingredients. 

We are anxious to find whether any researches conducted at 
the National Physical Laboratory would throw any light upon 
the subject of the durability of papers in this connection. 
Mr. Albert Campbell, whose researches on the insulation of 
cable papers we have followed with very much interest,* has 
not studied the physical and chemical qualities of the paper 
after impregnation ; his tests on paper had reference to tele- 
phone cables in which the paper is dry and without any 
impregnation of any kind. If the insulation goes down, the 
common remedy is to drive dry air through the whole length 
of the cable. Paper cables for lighting and power, on the 
other hand, such as those we have at present under considera- 
tion, are always impregnated. On account of the hygro- 
scopic nature of the oils, &c., used, all joints have to be most 
carefully sealed against the atmosphere otherwise insulation 
would gradually deteriorate. Mr. Campbell informs us that 
he has found rosin oil a good insulator, but he expects it and 
some of the other oils sometimes have a slightly acid reaction, 
and he says that he doubts whether the action on the lead and 
copper would really lower the insulation. This is a point 
which requires careful investigation. 

On the subject of rosin oil in impregnated papers as a possi- 
ble cause of deterioration, we have b?en in touch with Signor 
E. Jona, of Messrs. Pirelli & Co., Milan, who is an authority on 
these matters. We pointed out to him that, as a result of our 
tests, deterioration of the paper takes place when the heat 
tests are made under the influence of the atmosphere, but he 
points out to us that these cables being always lead-sheathed 
never come in contact with the atmosphere, and suggested 
that this may be the reason why no deterioration has been 
noticed in practice. This agrees with our results. Thus we 
have found that, even at elevated temperatures out of contact 
with the air and with papers of proper composition even for 36 
days' treatment there is no deterioration. 

However, we find that with impregnated papers containing 
oxidizable fibres even out of contact with the atmosphere, 
there is in this period some deterioration. 

With good manila impregnated papers in contact with the 
air for the above period and temperatures there is some 

With impregnated papers exposed to air containing oxidiz- 

* •■ On the Electric Inductive Capacities of Dry Paper and Solid 
Cellulose." " Proceedings " of the Royal Society, A, Vol. LXXVIII., 

able fibres for the above period and temperature there is 
very marked deterioration. 

We cannot find any publication whatever on the subject. 

One of the largest firms of cable makers informs us that it 
never occurred to them in cables so impregnated that deterio- 
ration of the paper might be found : in fact, it was a point 
that they had not investigated. 

Signor E. Jona wrote us on the subject. We give it in his 
own words : — 

" I tested, however, some time ago, paper tapes impregnated 
with losin oil, the proportion of rosin being 20 per cent. ; these 
paper tapes were left during 100 consecutive hours in a heated 
air current, at the temperature of 70 to 75''C. ; further, the 
oil was extracted from the paper by means of cold benzol, and 
the paper tapes, after such a treatment, when put in com- 
parison with the original paper tapes, did not present any 

Our physical tests throw further light on this point, as we 
can record deterioration, if such exists, by actual tests of 
strength and stretch. It would be interesting, however, to 
note any alteration for periods of months or years and at less 
elevated temperatures than those recorded by us. We are 
now investigating the solvent action of rosin oil in admixture 
with other oils upon copper conductors. 


The present arrangement of our solar system makes the use of 
some kind of artificial lighting an absolute necessity in this country 
during a certain proportion of the 24 hours, though "the conditions of 
living in large cities cause these methods of illumination to be used 
to a greater extent than is perhaps absolutely necessary. Mr. 
William Willett is endeavouring to change this, at any rate in the 

" Bensox " FiTTrxo 

AS T.\BLE L.^^MP. 

summer time, though his efforts at thus alleviating om- lot are not 
welcomed in all quarters. But whatever be the result of his Day- 
light Saving scheme, artificial lighting will still have to be used 
very widely and during the greater part of the year. 

This being the, the next thing is to seek for the liest method 
of artificial illumination, and this being found we should then try 
to employ it in the most efficient way. A detail which, there can 
be no doubt, makes all the difference in the benefits derived from 
artificial lighting is the ]iropcr design of the fittings in which the 
source of light is to be placed. Our forefathers, with very limited 
means at their disposal, were, in fact, able so to arrange their arti- 
ficial lighting that they did not detract from, but rather added to. 
the decorations of the various rooms. This point requires no 
elaboration, for many of, these old-time fittings are being adapted 
for use with the electric light, without any loss to their general 

On the other hand, regrettable though it may be. the present- 
day lighting fitting is generally not " a thing of beauty and a joy 
for ever" ; more often than not, in fact, it is a distinct eyesore, botli 
from an artistic and illuminating point of view. Tliaf there is really 
no reason whv this should h- the case is proved l>y the number of 


makers who are now turning out fittings with which no fault can be 
found under these heads. Whether modern electric light fittings made 
'Fapris Louis XIV.. or ti'ttprcf: anybodj- else, are true art is a matter 
which need not be discussed here, but at any rate they are more 
pleasing to look at than certam goods which are sometimes'disrepect- 
fally termed •• Brummagem" ware, but which usually know little 
of Birmingham as their source. 

i^We mentioned above that even in this utilitarian age there exist 
certain firms wlio are turning out artistic electrical fittings. Among 
these may certainly be included one of our oldest established 
electric fittings firms. W. A. S. Benson «S: Co.. whose showrooms are 
in Xew Bond-street, London, and whose works are at Hammersmith, 

both districts Ijeing '• west of Temple Bar." This firm claim that 
in their fittings sound construction is combined with artisticness, so 
that they will not only wear but also look well. 

In order that our readers may judge of these claims we illustrate 
a sample of their fittings in Figs. 1 and 2. This fitting can be used as 
either'a table lamp or wall bracket. It isfitted with a double joint, an 
adjustable shade and a "Benson" switch. Special attention may 
be called to this last mentioned detail which is supplied %rith the 
majority of the portable fittings made by Messrs. Benson. It is 
designed in a very generous manner, there being plenty of both 
insulating and current carrying material^ The switch itself is fixed 
in a cylindrical metal case with renKjvable ends, and is actuated by 

Fig. .3. — Another " Besson " 
Table Lajip. 

an ivory spindle which moves in the direction of the axis of the 
cylinder. In the case of the fitting illustrated, this .switch also acts 
as a counterweight. It is therfore possible to place the lamp at the 
edge of a table or piano and to extend the jointed arms to the 
fullest extent without there being any fear of it toppling over. 
■Great care is expended on the finish of these lamps, and attention 
is specially paid to making a strong mechanical job of the joints 

and other details. Insulating bushes are provided at points where 
the "flex" comes into the open, as at the joints, and where there 
is any liability of it rubbing against metal. 

As regards the financial details of these lamps we may say that 
they are very cheap, considering the work that is put "into them. 
Further, the listed price includes 
the wiring, which is done with 
standard Cable Makers' Association 
"flex," lengths of 4yds. being 
suppUed with table lamps and 7 yds. 
with floor lamps. Shades and 
lampholders are also included. 

A table lamp of rather different 
design is shown in Fig, 3. It is, 
as will be seen, carried on a tripod, 
the Benson switch being in this 
case fixed to the central stem. One 
of the feet of the tripod is formed 
into a hook, so that the lamp can 
be suspended from a bed rail, 
while the leg on which this hook 
is fixed is slotted out, so that the 
lamp can in its turn be suspended 
from a wall hook. 

The lighting of a piano is a problem to which Messrs. Benson & 
Co. have paid some attention. In many cases it is difiicult so to 
arrange the light that it illuminates the music efficiently without 
interfering with the performer should he turn his head. This diffi- 
culty is specially noticeable in the brackets usually provided. To 

Fig. 4. — Pl4No Fitting. 

Fig. 5. — " The New Use for Old Lamps " He.iter. 

get over this trouble the bracket shown in Fig. 4 has been designed. 
It is arranged to clip on to the music stand, and is fitted with an 
adjustable reflector and " Benson " switch. A tubular lamp is 
used with this fitting. 

The three exam])les of Messrs. Benson & Co.'s lighting fittings 
illustrated herewith by no means exhaust their stock. A glance 

Fig. I). 

WITH Coveh Removed. 

through their catalogues will show that they are well to the front 
in i.riginality of design and in maintaining all their goods at a unform 
high finish. Some artistic table and floor standards may be speci- 
ally noticed. These are fitted with one or more lamps and form an 
excellent method of illuminating a room in a satisfactory fashion. 

Besides electric light fittings Messrs. Benson are also turning out 
electric cooking and heating apparatus. One of their patent clec- 



trie breakfast healer is shown in Figs. 5 and 6. This heater is of 
special interest from the fact that it forms a means of using up old 
lam|is whose illuminating properties are not what they might be, 
but whose heat-giving properties are unimpaired. This heater 
measures 15 in. by 9 in., and, as will be seen from the illustrations, 
is fitted with four lamps contained in a special box directly under 
the top cover of the apparatus. Current is supplied through a 
flexible wire to a double plug connection whereby either two or four 
lamps can be used at once. Diagonally opposite lamps are arranged 
o I the same circuit, so that an even heat over the whole radiator 
surface is obtained, when only two lamps are in use. This heater 
is supplied with insulated feet and handles, so that it can be stood 
on tlie breakfast table, while its high finish in either electro or 
polished copper or jiewter plate makes it quite an adjunct to the 
table furniture. These heaters are made in both larger and smaller 
sizes ; the smallest of all is round in shape and contains only one 
lamp. It is specially recommended for warming a single dish or plate 
or other small work. 

Besides these specialities in the way of heaters, Messrs. Benson 
also supply the ordinary lamp type radiators in a number of new 
designs, all the features of their apparatus, both as regards wiring 
and linish generally, being also included in this equipment. 

Messrs. Benson, at their showTooms in Bond-street, are exhibiting 
a great many other designs of electric fittings, all of which it is im- 
possible to describe and illustrate here. We must, however, thank 
Mr. C. J. Scott, managing director of the company, for spending a 
great deal of time on the subject with us, and for lending us the 
necessary photographs and blocks for illustrating the article. We 
passed a most interesting time going round the showrooms, both 
from the artistic and technical point of view. 



Suinmury. — In this article the author describes a new system (if wireless 
telegraphy, which is a compromise between the " spark " and the " arc '" 
sy.stems. Technical details of the equipment used are not given, but its 
])ractical and technical advantages are fvilly discussed. Among these are 
that the use of small antennse is possible, a high efficiency is obtained and 
large powers can be employed, while electrically the arrangement is much 
more free from disadvantages than are the older systems. There is very 
great freedom from disturbance, and messages can be made cjuite "' pri- 
vate," while the signals are transmitted as clear musical tones. 

After it had been discovered that by means of the Poulsen 
arc it was possible to generate undamped oscillations of con- 
siderable energy, several scientists, especially those of a theo- 
retical turn of mind, were inclined to lay too much stress on 
the advantages of this system, and the opinion was expressed 
in several quarters that undamped oscillations obtained from 
arc lamps would replace the other methods of generation 
within quite a short time. Practical men spoke against this 
enthusiasm, and drew attention to the numerous disadvantages 
present in the new system. To-day, scarcely three years after 
this period, it cannot be denied that the warning of the prac- 
tical men was justifiable, and that the disadvantages of the 
arc lamp are even greater than the greatest sceptics thought. 
Not only from the practical point of view has the system 
been fotmd disadvantageous, on account of the heavy upkeep 
and the many complications, but from a purely electrical point 
of view as well the position is the same. Of the energy gene- 
rated at the sending end only a small fraction — at most one- 
tenth — is converted into electrical oscillations. For this 
reason both apparatus and machinery must be large and heavy. 
Moreover, the theoretical advantage — great freedom from dis- 
turbance from other stations and from atmospheric effects — is 
not obtained in practice. 

Within the last year the Telefunken Company have designed 
A new system which is a compromise between the spark system 
of Marconi and that known as the undamped oscillation system, 
riiis new system is known as the "' singing spark " (tiinende 
Funken) system. 

As regards the technical peculiarities of the new system, it 
may be said that it depends on spark methods, which in them- 
selves depend on the principle published in December. 1906, 
liy Prof. Max Wien and called by him " Stosserregung." This 
name has been changed by the GeselLschaft fiir Drahtlose Tele- 

graphic to " quenched spark " (Loschfunken). This principle 
has been so perfected by the company that the sparks follow 
each other equally and regularly ; so regularly, in fact, that 
they give out a clear musical tone, and to this system the name 
of ■■ singing spark " has therefore been applied. 

The first two types of station constructed by the compauy 
are : (i.) A ship or land station having a capacity of from 
0-5 k\v. to 2 kw., and suitable for both large and small ships 
as well as for portable military stations. It has a radius of 
action of 62^ to 500 miles both to land stations and ships. 
(ii.) The largest .ship station at present erected, having a 
capacity of from 8 kw. to 10 kw. With this type it will be 
possible with standard ship antennse, under favovirable con- 
ditions, to transmit 1 ,87-5 miles, a distance which has never before 
been reached from ship to ship. The same station is also 
suitable for work on land with correspondingly larger antenna*. 

The practical and technical advantages of the new system 
over the older spark methods, as well as over the undamped 
arc oscillations, are summarised in the following paragraphs : — 

1. Singing sparks allow the work to be carried on with con- 
siderably smaller antennae than do the usual wdreless systems. 
The rea.son for this lies in the speed with which the sparks 
follow each other in the secondary circuit, thus making it 
possible to transmit greater power from the antenna at a 
smaller ma.ximum voltage than formerly. For this reason the 
new system is specially suitable when it is necessary to trans- 
mit over long distances with small antenna*. Theoretically this 
should also be the case when arc lamps are used, as for a 
given amount of energy the voltage lost in the antennae is a 
minimum. Practice, however, has shown that with arc 
lamp installations the maximum height of mast must be em- 
ployed, say, from .300 ft. to 3.30 ft., while with the new system 
the same distance can be covered with masts about half this 
height. The reason for this contradiction between theory and 
practice is explained by the fact that the nominal oscillation 
energy from the arc lamp can only be generated when the 
wave length is very great, which means high antenniie. On the 
other hand, singing sparks work as well with the smallest as 
with the greatest wave lengths. 

2. Singing sparks allow a high machine efficiency to be ob- 
tained, for, according to the size and suitability of the apparatus, 
from 50 to 75 per cent, of the machine output can be changed 
into energy at the antennae. With the old spark systems the 
maximum figure was 20 per cent., and in the arc lamp arrange- 
ment 10 per cent. In places where current for working tlie 
station has to be specially generated, this superiority obtained 
by using singing sparks will lead to a considerable decrease in 
the working costs. Further, it is specially advantageous 
where questions of weight and vohmie have to be considered, 
since in small ships and portable stations with this system the 
power and weight for an equal range is only about a quarter 
that needed for arc lamp stations. On account of this great 
efficiency another advantage arises. The wear and break- 
downs of the apparatus are small, because of the small heat losses 
present, while regulation of the spark length, or of any other 
important part, of the new sender is hardly ever necessary. 
On this point i^r. Kiebitz has remarked that "in the singing 
spark system we may have a final solution to the problem of 
high frequency generation.'"* 

3. With the new system it is possible to build senders as 
large as may be desired without any such limitations (e.g., 
in the wave length) or difficulties (cf/., ir. the constancy of the 
oscillations) as occur when a large amount of energy is trans- 
mitted. The new system behaves quite like the spark method, 
in which power as 'great as 100 kw. can be transformed into 
oscillations (tliough at a very low efiiciency). It works 
better than the arc method of generation, for in this system 
if a large amount of energy is used, there not only is excessive 
damping on tlie long wave lengths, but irregularities of many 
kinds creep in, because at very high voltages and currents an 
arc lamp is unsteady, and the great development of heat gives 
rise to a rapid burning away of the electrodes. As, moreover. 

* ■■ Klcktrntcihnische Zeitschnft." l>W!t. No. 10, pp. 222. ./. scq. 
,\li-^ir.iiic 1 MM p. 99 of this issue. 



these inconstant conditions in the arc have an influence on 
the frequency the system is put at a still further disadvantage. 
Such alterations are much more likely to occur at large stations, 
and it has been up to date impossible to instal this method of 
working for plants of large size. 

4. The sender in the singing spark system is almost as 
noiseless in its working as is the arc lamp. 

5. The sender transmits only one wave, and is thus different 
from the spark sender, which transmits two coupled waves. 
This fact marks a great step forward, as the receiver is able to 
utilise the total sender energy, and, owing to the disappearance 
of the two coupled waves, multiple telegraphy is made much 
more easy. Under such conditions numerous stations can 
work undisturbed close to each other. 

6. The wave sent out by the singing spark shows a very 
small damping, viz.. between 008 and 0-02.5. thus enabling a 
very sharp tuning and great freedom from disturbance in the 
receiver to be obtained. The freedom from disturbance may, 
according to circumstances, be much greater than that 
obtained with undamped oscillations. It varies, under con- 
ditions to be hereafter described, from 2 to 5 per cent. 

7. These singing oscillations remain absolutely constant 
and are independent of the arrangement and mechanical pro- 
perties of the spark gap and very much greater freedom from 
disturbance can be obtained than with the arc lamp. In the 
latter the greatest freedom is theoretically from J to 1 per cent., 
because the frequency does not depend upon the electric con- 
stants of the circuit alone, but on the arrangement, length and 
properties of the arc. So long as the principle of generating 
undamped oscillations has to depend for its frequency on so 
variable a value as an arc lamp, ideal freedom from disturb- 
ance will never be obtained. In spite of the control of the 
resonance by means of a wave measurer, the frequency of the 
arc lamp alters, and a choice has to be made at the receiving 
end between a highly untuned receiver, whose intensity con- 
stantly varies so that certain telegraphic working is difficult, 
and a receiver very slightly free from disturbances, in which 
the total employment of the resonance is renounced so that 
the range is reduced. Arc lamp practice requires that the 
latter method should be chosen. The real freedom from dis- 
turbances of undamped waves reaches only 5 to 6 per cent., 
and even this, from the fact which we mention below, is seldom 
obtained in practice. 

The freedom from disturbances of 2 to 5 per cent, obtained 
with singing waves may be understood by considering the 
following example : At the three angles of an equilateral 
triangle, ABC, three stations of equal power are placed, A and 
B being fitted with senders and C with a receiver. C can then, 
as desired, receive from A or from B when these have a dif- 
ference of wave length of only 5 per cent. This condition 
depends on the fact that the distance apart of the three stations 
is as great as possible for the energy available, so that the tele- 
grams will not arrive at C with very great intensity. If the 
distance apart of the three stations is reduced to one-half that 
mentioned above the senders at A and B can be made different 
by .3 per cent, instead of 5 per cent., or by still smaller dif- 
ferences if the distances are still further altered. When speak- 
ing of freedom from disturbances, it is understood that the 
percentual differences which must necessarily l)c present at 
the maximum range are included. 

8. Singing sparks allow a large scaie of oscillations to be 
obtained, while with the old spark stations only certain fi.xed 
waves could be sent out ; and, on account of electrical re- 
sonance, the scale of waves could only differ from the funda- 
mental of the antennae by about double the wav(! length. It 
is possible with this new system to obtain oscillations of wave 
lengths four, five and even six times as long as the fundamental, 
though the range gradually decreases. This new system be- 
haves exactly like the arc lamp system, except that the singing 
o.scillations have the advantage that antennte with very small 
fundamentals can be used, while with arc lamps these large 
scales of oscillations can only be enijjloyed with very high masts 
and long antennse. The generation of the different o.scillations 

can be obtained on the new system in a very simple way by 
using the regulating arrangement known as a variometer, and 
without the use of a wave measurer being generally necessary. 

9. As mentioned in §8, the system allows very short oscilla- 
tions to be transmitted. Short oscillations are, however, 
more absorbed on the way, though this apparent disadvantage 
is often a very great advantage from the military point of view. 
Suppose a message is sent with very short oscillations to a 
station 50 km. away, and is received with great intensity. The 
enemy at a distance of, say, 100 km., would scarcely he able 
to pick up anything, even with the most delicate instruments, 
while the behaviour of longer waves is quite different. Over 
open country, distances of over 200 km. to 300 km. can be 
covered by these waves, and they possess the advantage that a 
listener a little further off cannot understand anything. It is, 
further, possible by using quite short waves to remove the 
instrument from the operations of large stations which only 
work with long waves. The use of short waves, also, pre- 
dicates an extraordinarily high antennae efficiency, as, on ac- 
comit of the more speedy transmission of energy with short 
waves, the maximum energy for a given antennee can be 

10. The system of singing sparks allows under all cir- 
cumstances, unlike the arc lamp, full freedom from dis- 
turbance, as the intensity of the oscillations can be regulated 
in a most simple fashion between wide limits. Even with a 
station having a range of several thousand kilometres, the 
intensity can be so reduced that telegrams will only be heard 
over a distance of 100 km., and, further, " tapping " by un- 
authorised persons is made very difficult and the Ireedom from 
disturbances is greatly increased. Take, as an example, that 
given in § 7. Suppose the range of a sender, say, at B to be 
reduced to one-hundredth of the distance from B to C, a 5 per 
cent, freedom from disturbance will become, perhaps, 30 per 
cent, if B does not reduce its sending intensity. To do this is 
quite possible with the new system, while regulating an arc lamp 
on a small current leads to an unsteadiness of the flame and 
makes the apparatus work badly. It is, therefore, not very 
correct to speak of a freedom from disturbance of 5 per cent, 
with the arc lamp when in many cases a freedom from disturb- 
ance of only 20 to .30 per cent, is really obtained. 

11. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the new singing spark 
is the fact that the signals are transmitted as clear musical 
tones. Musical sparks have already been often proposed and 
also partly developed, but the tone cannot be made clear, and 
only by the absolute clearness and regularity of sound were the 
above results obtained with the new system. With audible 
working from the old spark stations the signals in the telephone 
were received as ticks. Each time the spark passed the mem- 
brane moved, while with the arc lamp similar noises were also 
obtained. Similar phenomena are noticed with atmospheric 
discharges in receivers at these stations, and with this arrange- 
ment the working was often disturbed in spark stations ; but 
the conditions were much worse in arc stations, as the noises 
from atmospheric disturbances are very much like those given 
by the latter type of working. It is, however, quite different 
when receiving the sound from the musical spark system. 
However numerous and strong the discharges may be, an even 
slightly skilled telegraphist can distinguish them by their 
singing tone. The sound, if it is truly musical, can be clearly 
heard even if it is very weak. It may be said that for the 
first time since the invention of wireless telegraphy a system 
has been obtained which enables telegraphic work to be carried 
on through the heaviest atmospheric disturbances, and up to 
the limit when the detector would break down under the atmo- 
spheric discharges.* 

The use of a particular tone gives the sender a certain in- 
dividuality. Turning again to the three stations at the corners 
of a triangle, it may be supposed that station A gives a sound 
with a frequency of 500 per second, and B one with a frequency 
of 1,000, so that C can receive telegrams at the same time to 
both stations quite separately with only one antenna, a re- 

♦ iVf ■• Elekti-ote<-'linische Zcitschrift," 1909, No. 10, pp. 222. and 
p. il9 (if thii issue. 



ceiving apparatus, a detector, and only when the two senders 
are transmitting oscillations of nearly the same wave length 
need two operators be present, one of whom writes down the 
telegram with the higher sound and the other the one with the 
lower. By this means great simplicity in working and quite con- 
siderable freedom from disturbances are obtained. It is no 
longer necessary to tunc the receivers for multiple telegraphy, 
for it often occurs with this arrangement that the sender for 
which the receiver is not tuned begins to work. To prevent 
this danger a suitable working rule has not yet been found. 
Electrical tuning by using a long wave scale can also be ob- 
tained, and by this method not only two but a great number 
of stations can work without disturbance from each other. 

12. The system of singing sparks allows an acoustic tuning 
of the receiver to be obtained by the use of clear musical tones, 
while these, as shown under 10, depend on the selective capa- 
city of the human hearing, so that certain parts — for instance, 
parts of a so-called sound intensifier — can be imposed on the 
frequency of the sounds received, and prevent senders of other 
sounds, impulses from ordinary spark stations and especially 
atmospheric disturbances from interfering. 

As to a receiver for this new system, all the well-known 
acoustic receivers can be used, and no "Ticker" is necessary 
at the receiving end. In spite of this, a new receiver has been 
designed for all sizes of stations, which both in construction 
and in electrical arrangement does not differ considerably 
from the present type of receiver. A special receiver has 
also been designed which, as a result of a number of measure- 
ments, has been shown to be capable of receiving over a large 
scale of wave lengths, from 200 to 3,000 metres, with a very 
small loss from damping in the tuning arrangements. The 
operation of the rectifying detector, working on the principle 
of the contact detector, is very sensitive, being about 20 per 
cent, more sensitive than the electrolytic type. It is also very 
constant, and is not disturbed either by atmospheric dis- 
charges or by " over-intensity " due to neighbouring or strong 
senders. In connection with this receiver two boosting 
afiparatus have been designed which employ the special ad- 
vantages of the new form of musical sender. Both these ap- 
paratus are of great practical importance. There is then the 
calling apparatus, which is employed instead of the telephone 
receiver on the standard receiver, and rings an electric bell 
whenever a singing sender works for over 10 seconds ; but for 
atmospheric discharges and for discharges from the usual 
spark sender, as well as for Morse signals, it does not ring, 
though the calling arrangement operates up to the limit of 
hearing capacity. The second apparatus is a resonance relay, 
which makes it possible to intensify the weakest signals while 
still keeping them as clear musical tones, so that they can be 
received in the station. Such an increase is only possible by 
the use of a body oscillating with mechanical resonance, and 
the sound must be quite clear. By the use of a relay, atmos- 
pheric disturbances are practically cut out, as single discharges 
only slightly influence the resonance system. Several relays 
of different tones make it possible to differentiate between 
signals from different senders which are transmitting with 
equal wave lengths but different notes, and differentiations 
to be made without the help of the human ear, which becomes 


Suiitniiii'y. — Tlie genernl question of the desirability of converting 
existing steam railways to electrical working is first discussed, after wliieh 
the Liverpool-Southpovt electrified section of the Laneasliire and York- 
shire Railway is described. Valuable information concerning the results 
achieved on that line is given, particularly in regard to the cost of opera- 
tion and the maintenance of the various parts of the equipment. 

There are so many engineering interests bound up in the question 
of the electrification of railways which will lead sooner or later to a 
distribution of work of various kinds amongst engineers that I think 
it might be useful to review some of the points that have arisen and 
have had to be considered in connection with a line of railway 

• Abstract of the presidential address to the Institutiun of 
ilechanioal Engineers, delivered on Friday evening last. 

which has been converted from a steam line into one worked by 
electricity. No engineering subject requires more thoughtful care 
than the mechanical and electrical working of railways. There is 
nothing so coy as capital, and if it is to be won, it must be by con- 
vincing arguments, and not by the doubtful pleadings of conflicting 
interests. It is probably certain that what may be called the 
" battle of the systems" has had the effect of causing railway com- 
panies to defer electrification until they could see that engineers were 
not at variance as to the system to be adopted. I have no inten- 
tion of dealing with the controversial point raised in the " battle of 
the systems."' who are interested will find in a recent short 
Paper,* read by Mr. F. W. Carter before the Rugby Engineering 
Society, a very clear statement of the kind of w-ork to which the 
different systems can be applied with advantage. 

It is too often stated that a general electrification of our railways 
would be of very gieat advantage. A careful examination (jf the 
subject, liowever, appears to show that while there are certainly 
instances in which this work can be undertaken with great commer- 
cial success, each individual case has to be considered with the 
utmost care, not only on account of the costly character of the 
work, but because the conditions upon which success or failure 
depends vary in almost every place or district. The length of haul, 
the density of the traffic, the necessity or otherwise of express trains, 
the presence of steam trains, the proximity of signal boxes, the 
density or scarcity of population at different points of the line, and 
the continuity of the flow of traffic during those hours which are not 
"rush hours," and a variety of other circumstances will affect the 
commercial prospects of such an enterprise. In dealing with the 
question of electrification before the Railway Congress at Washing- 
ton in 1905 I said that the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway had 
not gone into the work to "save money but to make money.'' I 
further pointed out that it enabled us to defer for a long time any 
increase in the capacity of our terminal stations. 

To warrant the electric equipment of a main line of railwaj' deal- 
ing under present circumstances with long steam-hauled trains at 
high speeds for long distances without a stop, some great commer- 
cial advantage must be shown. It is largely a question as to 
whether electrical working would induce much larger numbers to 
travel and to travel more frequently. The existence of a considerable 
population in two towns some miles apart, without any large 
number of intermediate towns with a travelling population to feed 
a railway, would not be sufficient warrant for electrifying an exist- 
ing steam road designed to carry high-speed trains. It is probable 
that with two towns 20 miles apart such a railway could not in our 
present state of knowledge succeed financially compared with a 
steam-worked road. The cost of widening any railway, the capa- 
city of which has, owing to growing traffic, become too small for 
dealing with steam trains, should be carefully compared with the 
cost of electrifying the existing lines with a view of seeing whether 
the additional capital required for electrifying would or would not 
exceed the cost of widening. In the case of many suburban lines 
from our great cities electrification will at once double the train- 
carrying capacity of the tracks, while in others it will allow for an 
increase in capacity and yet leave a greater time space between 
trains which may be utilised for the passage of steam-worked ex- 
press trains coming in from the more distant parts of the line. To 
electrify any suburban railway and to arrange the timetable in 
such a way as to leave trains running at the same speed at wliich 
the steam trains formerly ran. would be to tlirow away most of 
the advantages of the change, though the working costs could be 
kept very low. An increase of speed, coupled with greater frequency 
of trains, will soon begin in a populous district to yield that How 
of traffic which may naturally be expected from such facilities, but 
it must at once be recognised that higher speeds and more trains 
cost money. 

Where a suburban railway has tramways running parallel to its 
tracks electrification will bring back some of the passengers lost 
on the installation of the tramways, but it must be remembered 
that in order to earn a good average fare an electrified railway must 
be continued tor some distance. The main object should be to in- 
duce a large number of people who have business in the towns to 
live fiu-ther out, leaving the very short-distance traffic to the muni- 
cipal tramway, which has its right of way in the public streets and 
has advantages which the railway cannot possibly obtain. Some of 
the advantages of electrification for local services are: — (a) High 
schedule journey speed; {!)) much more frequent service when 
required: (c) increased acceleration and deceleration; (d) greater 
jiossible mileage ]ier train per day. 

The Liverpool Southport sect ion of the Lancashire & Yorksliire Rail' 
way, which has been electrified for some time, is next described.! Part 

* TuK Electrician, March 6, 1909, p. 810. 

t A description appeared in Tut: Elkctrichn, Vol. LII., pp. Wl, 
852, 897, 940 and 1,013. 



of the section consists of four lines of way and the remaimkr iil two 
lines. Although the fre()uency t>t trains has been more than ck)iibleil, 
the rapid acceleratinn and the increase in tlie average speed of travel 
has enabled tlie whole of the work, with the exception of one or two 
through trains, to be done on two lines of way (the eastern lines). 
thus dispensing with the staff, and enabling the waiting-rooms and 
other buildings on the western lines to be .shut up. and permitting 
the western lines to be used almost wholly for the steam worked 
goods traffic, allowing it to flow to and from the various yards witli- 
out any interruption from passenger trains. This may be looked 
upon as a distinct gain to the railway in capacity for handling 
traffic. Here the cost of electrifying is a set off against the neces- 
sity for widening and laying additional lines tlirough a most ex- 
pensive district, which woukl in time have become necessary if 
steam working had been continued for passenger trains. 

During the first year of electrification, and at an early period when 
the increased service has shown the public the advantage of greater 
frequency (with the result that 14 percent, more people were making 
use of tlie trains), it was interesting to note that the total weight 
of the rolling stock moved in a day, between 5 a.m. and 12 mid- 
night, was 69.160 tons, against 78,393 tons in the days when steam 
was used. Fig. 1 illustrates this, the dotted lines showing the 
weight of the steam trains including the locomotives, and the full 
lines the weight of the electric trains during different periods of the 
day. A considerable addition to these weights has been the natural 
result 'of an increase in traffic since 1904. 

The suburban service on the Liverpool and Southport electric line 
is'considered to be the fastest service of such a character in existence. 
During the conversion stage facilities existed for comparative tests 
of coal consumption. The six-wheeled couijled-tanked locomotives 
(of 1904) consumed 801b. of coal per train-mile for express trains, 
and 100 lb. with stopping trains, the high figures being due to the 
necessary high acceleration. The coal consunijjtion at the power 


,' Ilk 

A A 


1 l\/'\ 




J k \-A 


; J !t'\ 



s/ /# \/ 

\l H 

V V' ' 





' - Tr« 

ns hauled by Electricity 




= TrftiDs h&Dled by Steam 

U p.m. 

Timt. .Mi.luigbt, 

Fig. 1. — Diagram showing Weight of Passenger Stock moved 
DUBDJG A Working Day between Liverpool and Southport. 1904. 
Steam before Conversion, Electric after Conversion. 

house in 1908 works out at 49 lb. per train-mile, and the energy 
consumption of the train is 49 watt-hours per ton-mile for express 
trains, and 1 12 watt-hours for express and stopping trains, including 
all shunting work. 

The rapidity with which the conversion work was proceeded with 
may be gathered from the fact that the order was given on October 
22, 1902, and the first experimental train run on December 29, 1903- 
Aa aspect of electric lines which must not be forgotten is the ques- 
tion of rating. The curious laws which deal with the rating of rail- 
ways and the custom which .speaks of a hypothetical tenant, result 
in the steam locomotives of any ordinary railway becoming i)art 
of the tenant's capital and therefore lead to a deduction from the 
rates, but in the case of an electrical road the fi.Ked engines, boilers 
and dynamos, &c, which supply the power, result in additions to the 
annual expenditure, as they are rated separately. 

Third Rail. — At a meeting held at the Railway Clearing House 
in March, 1903, it was decided that the mo3( advantageous position 
for the third rail was that it should stand up 3 in. above the track 
rail, and that the horizontal distance betwcc-n the centre of the 
track and the centre of the third rail should bp 3 ft. 11 J in. Fig. 2 
illustrates this, giving both the English and American practice. An 
examination of the loading gauge, the construction gauge and the 
under gauge shows how very limited is the space within which a 
proper position can be found for the third rail. In fact, it is im- 
possible in England to use the inverted and covered conductor rail 
as ased on the New York Central, as both rail and covering would 
bcswapt away by pas.sing rolling stock, if it were placed in the only 
available space left betweo-n the track and the ])latforms. If placed 
further out, as in America, immense alterations in bridge girders 
and platforms would be required. 

Fourth Rail — On the Liverpool and Southport line a fourth rail 
is u.sed, but it is below the surface of the track rails, is not insulated, 
and has no shoes suspended from the cars in contact with it. 
The current is returned through the ear wheels to the running 
track, and from the track rails by means of copper bonds to the 
central fourth rail. This has the advantage of enabling the track 
rails to act as an auxiliary return to the fourth rail. Any single 
length of fourth rail or of track rail can be taken out for repairs 
without aft'ecting the trains in the next block section of line. Par- 
ticulars and diagrams are given of the amount of abrasion and cor- 
rosion in the third rail, and of corrosion alone in tlie fourth rail. 

Track Rail. — The wear of track rails has become a serious prob- 
lem on electric railways. The modern steam locomotive with a high 
centre of gravity is a very easy riding machine, and it is far less 
severe on the road, notwithstanding its great weight. The more or 
less modern motor truck, with its extremely low centre of gravity, 
has all the defects of the older fashioned steam engines. The result 
is that the rail wear and tyre wear are present, because the pressure 
which should be carried by the tread is thrown on to the flange. 
This is because there is no elasticity, in the form of a spring, inter- 
posed between the weight above and the tyre below. 

Axle Load. — The centre line of the motor is in tlie same |)lane 
as the centre line of the axle, with the re.«ult that while about 
one-half the weight is supported by the tiuck frame, and so obtains 
through the springs a slightly elastic sujiiiort. the other half is sup- 
ported directly by the "axle and clipped on tt) it. This greatly 
increases the weight which is not spring borne. The .serious side 
wear of tlie rails which has taken jihce o.i the curves of railways 

Fig. 2. — Cross Section of Per.manent Way, showing '1'uip.d and 
Fourth Rails compared with New York Centb.^l R.R. S.ale ,'uth, 

Dutted lines sliow position of proteclcil tliird rail as useil by tlie New York Centrat 
R.Il., and illustrate how this position for the tliirci rail would he in the way of the plat- 
forms and certain bridge girders on an English Railway, 

which have been electrified is, there is no doubt, due to the centre of 
gravity of the motor trucks being so very low down. Except for such 
difficulties as would be created by raising the motor itself, and trans- 
mitting its motion by suitable mechanism to the axles, and so block- 
ing up the passages from car to car, there is little doubt that the 
whole of the weight, except that of the wheels, axles and axle-boxes, 
could be supported by springs. On the other hand, the great advan- 
tages of the direct drive would be lost, and as practice has shown 
that the gears wear extremely well and .show an admirably smooth 
surface after r;inning many thousand miles, it may be a more com- 
mi'icial method to wear out the cheap rail instead of expensive 
mechanism. At the same time it must be remembered that it has not 
been practicable to operate steam trains at the same schedule as ii: 
frequently adopted for electric services, and as a consequence, there 
is no information as to how the tracks would have been affected it 
they had been so operated. These faster schedules are necessarily 
brought about by higher acceleration and deceleration than is usual 
with 8t«am conditions. Thf, division of the weights of the motive 
power between a larger number of wheels, together with the advan- 
tage of the motive power being absolutely in balance, cannot fail to 
have less damaging effect upon the permanent w^iy, provided that 
other conditions aiv equal. Fig. 3 shows the position of the centre 
of gravity in electric motor cars and lo.-oinotives. 

Cart. — A multiplicity of side doors means that a larger staff has 
to be cm])loyed on the platforms if they are to be safely closed, or 
if they are sliding doors worked automatically there is some risk to 
the public of being caiiglil by them, and there is much greater risk 
of sliding doors being jammed in case of accident. The system 
importecl from America of having men on each platform between 
each pair of cars to oiien the gates and shout out the names of sta- 




tions, leads to an excessive train staff being employed. This multi- 
plication of laboiu: is an economic waste, and the effect on the 
public is that having so many people to look after them they enter 
and leave the cars in a very leisurely fashion, resulting in too much 
time being spent at stations. A system of having large side doors at 
each end of a 60 ft. car, which doors are readily opened or closed by 
the public themselves, saves the waste of labour, causes the passen- 
gers to move quickly in and out of the cars, and has shown in prac- 
tice in the north of England that the trains may be got away 
from the stations in less time. 

Reference is also made to the platforms, controllers and automatic 
vacuum brakes. 

Cables. — Cables form a very costly part of electrical equipment, 
and their accessibility when laid along a line of railway is one of the 
points which requires the most careful consideration. Experience 
on the Liverpool and Southport line does not point to the practice 
of laying the cables on the solid system in the 6 ft. way as being 
satisfactory, and where a railway runs tlirough an open district 
there seems to be distinct advantages in having bare wires carried 
overhead on suitable poles. In modern practice large spans are 
used, the number of poles in some cases not exceeding 10 ])er mile. 
In the particular instance of the high-tension line connecting .\intree 
with Seaforth, the cost per mile of the overhead equipment was 
i£l,300, whilst the cost per mile of the cable line was £2,030, the 
cost per kilowatt transmitted per mile being — for overhead £1'2,5, 
for cable £2'67, based on 500 amperes per square inch of conduc- 
tor section. This. 
.. .i-lO-wheeled Bogie Passenger Engine however, does not 

I represent the full 

„ I , J „ J- , a. , saving which might 

8-wheeIed Radid Tank , , p . , , ^ 

beobtamed by over- 

, . ~ .. . ~ ■, r. head transmission, 
Liverpool and Sonthport Trailer Car , 

as the spans were 

necessarily short, 
and for a certain 
distance erection 
was difficult as the 
line ran on the top 
of a high embank- 
ment. Lightning 
arresters, a douljtful 
requirement for the 
atmospheric con- 
ditions prevailing in 
this country, are 
also included in the 
cost for overhead 

Batttry PUuit.— 
When regular work- 
ing conditions liad 
been in operation 
for some considera- 
ble time, bearing in 
mind also the fact 
that the development of traffic would necessitate sooner or later 
some increase in power-house and sub-station plant, it was decided 
in 1905 to instal battery plants. It was felt that these were neces- 
sary, not only on account of mechanical requirements, but also with 
a view to creating an almost ab.solute assurance that trains could 
be run during the busiest hours of the day when a large number of 
business people were using the railway, even it some serious acci- 
dent happened at the central generating station. The general idea 
was to put in a battery plant which would keep the whole railway 
going for one hour. These batteries were of the well-known buffer type, 
controlled by automatic boosters. To meet the heavy peaks it was 
originally necessary to run 5,250 kw. of power house plant, though the 
average load was only 3,500 kw., and the fluctuations of load were so 
great that at times the engines would entirely cease to take steam, a 
Tacuum being actually produced in the high-pressure cylinders ; within 
a few seconds the load would rise to 4,000 kw. or 5,000 kw., and 
superheated steam would be admitted to the cooled high-pressure 
cylinders. This not only led to uneconomical working, but pro- 
duced severe stresses in the engines. 

About the time it was decided to introduce the battery sub- 
stations, the traffic had considerably increased, and the light ing at 
certain points was not all that could be desired. Also power was 
required at Liverpool, and the drop in potential at the train was 
becoming too great. It was therefore decided to place the battery 
sub-stations at points intermediate to the rotary sub-stations, in- 
stead of combining the two as might be expected. These batteries 
were installed in September, 1905, and the results have amply 
justified the policy that was adopted. The momentary peaks in the 

1 i i I 

._( ^.Liverpool and SoDthport Electnc 
Motor Bogie 


Fig. 3.— Di.\or.\m showtnq Heights of 
Centre of Gravity. 

load were reduced from a ma.ximum of 7,0f)0 kw. to 4..5O0 kw.. and 
the hourly peak during the rush hours was reduced from 3.800 kw. 
to 3,100 kw., enabling the load to be carried during the winter with 
4,500 kw. of plant, and during the summer with 3,750 kw. of plar.t. 
Four battery plants were inslalleil aggregating 5.200 ampere hours, 
and have a guaranteed efiiciency of 85 per cent, in amjiere hours 
and 75 per cent, in watt-hours. Tests made in 1907 showed that 
14 percent, of the total rotary sub-station direct-current output 
passed through the batteries, the total Icpss due to the batteries 
bemg about .3-5 per cent, of the rotary sub-station output. The 
coal consumption was reduced by 85 per cent., and the consump- 
tion for train services became 0412 lb. per ton-mile. 

Typical load diagrams are given in the Address. 

Efpciencij of Transmission. — Investigations made as to overaU 
efficiency of transmission showed that 197 per cent of the power 
house output was lost in cables, 2'95 per cent, in transformers and 
537 per cent, in rotaries, the overall efficiency of transmission from 
alternating-current 'bus bars being 897 per cent. It is exceedingly 
difficult to ascertain the exact losses in live rails; calculations made, 
however, in various 'ways seem to indicate that these losses amount 
to about 9 per cent.' of the sub-station output. The total efficiency 
from alternating-cuirrent 'bus bars to circuit breakers on the trains 
is about 81 per cent: In considering the question of coal consump- 
tion per unit, the most reliable figure to take for comparison is the 
coal burned at the power house per unit of direct current delivered 
to the third rail — that is, with all lo.sses due to conversion. This, 
for 12 months ended December 15, 1908, was 3-28 lb. figures 
for coal consumption must not be confused with those given for the 
generating stations. 

Mainlenance. — It is important to have careful periodical exami- 
nation of the different parts of the electrical equipment, and ex- 
perience has shown that the examination should be specialised, 
different groups of apparatus always being dealt with by the same 
workmen. Charts of these inspections are prepared and afterwards 
examined daily by the foreman. 

Extensions of Eledrifierl Line. — In 1907 all the lines leading to 
Aintree were electrified, and a very large traffic previously 
taken away by the municipal, tramways, which run parallel with and 
not many yards from the electric line, has now come back to the 
railway. A connection has also been made at Seaforth with the 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. 

Operating Costs. — Experience shows that any railway company 
having the opportunity of putting down its own plant in the country 
with ample facilities for getting cheap coal and water should be able 
to produce current at the generating stations at a " works cost " of 
less than 0'25d. per unit, the coal consumption being under 3 lb. 
per alternating-current unit. With such figures as these, it is possi- 
ble to work a high-speed service such as I have indicated at 9'5d. 
per train-mile, including "works cost" for the power-house, sub- 
stations, battery stations, "operating costs" for motor and electrical 
equipment repairs, car repairs, guards' and motormen's wages, 
lighting and heating of cars, repairs of third and fourth rails, bonds 
and cables, and all working stores. The cost per car-milo varies 
between 2'75d. and 3d. according to the number of cars run. The 
total current producing charges including conversion at sub-station, 
the cost of battery stations, and depreciation of batteries, absorbs 
4-.52d. out of the 9-5d. per train mile. With the exception of the 
depreciation of batteries, no sum is included for depreciation of 
plant, or for interest on outlay. The above figures are not intended 
to, and do not include any part of the cost of maintaining the 
running track, the passenger and goods .station;-, or costs for the 
platform staff, or any other items required for the railway, whether 
worked as a steam line or as an electric line. The great economy to 
be hoped for in the future for electrical railways, where no water 
power is available, is in the production of electricity in very large 
quantities. The other directions in which economics may l)e sought 
for in future designs are mainly in such improvements in the motors 
as will lead to less repairs, and a very careful consideration of the 
whole design of the motor truck. Brake gear is an expensiTe item, 
the continual stopping causing ra|)id wear of all pins and brake 
blocks, which, combined with the dust and dirt of the road, all help 
to increase the cost, and tlierefore to make one hope for some form 
of regenerative control which will be of a simple character, and not 
involve the carrying of extra weights and a complete change of 

Those items, which may be put down as giving no trouble what- 
ever are: controllers, commutators, steel spur-gearing, and the third 
rail. The latter is easy to lay, cheap to maintain, and has proved 
by long experience to be the cause of very few accidents. 

A number of statistics relating to the operation of the Liverpool 
and Southport electric line are given in Appendixes, and others give the 
effect of high schedule speeds, properties of thu'd rail materials, &c. 






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The remark.s made by Mr. J. A. F. A.spinall in liis Presi- 
dential Address to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
on the subject of railway electrification, are of more than 
ordinary interest owing to the fact that the author occupies 
an important position on the Lancashire and Yorkshii-e 
Railway, and is not pledged to one form of traction rather 
tiian another. His observations are, therefore, characterised 
by breadth of view, and by recognition of the fact that both 
electricity and steam have their spheres of u.sefulness. Mr. 
A,spiNALL r.'mirks that it has been urged too often that a 
general electrification of our railways would be of very great 
advantage. Such statements, however, are made by those 
who have not gone fully into the matter, and it may be said 
that no general rule exists. On the other hand, there are 
certainly cases in which electric traction has been used with 
commercial success, and among these must be included the 
electric railway between Liverpool and Southport. Here, 
as stated by Mr. Aspinall, electrification was resorted to 
"not to save money, but to make money." If this course had 
not been followed it would have been necessary to increase 
the terminal facilities. By electrification both the platform 
operations and the signal operations per train are reduced 



to one-half tlie number necessary foi- steam trains, and thus 
the capacity of the terminal stations is doubled. In this 
particular instance not only has there been a great advantage 
in respect to terminal facilities, but it has been found neces- 
sary to use only two tracks for passenger traffic on those 
parts of the line wheie four are laid. Consequently a num- 
ber of waiting rooms and other buildings have been freed, 
less staff is necessary, and two of the ti'acks can be used 
exclusively for goods traflic 

It might be thought that similar advantages would 
accrue in main line electrification, but, generally speaking, 
this would not be so. The public would not care to pay for 
a higher speed, even if desirable, and unless additional 
tracks were laid down the capacity of the " express " track 
would be diminished if higher speeds were adopted. The 
question of high acceleration, so important in suburban 
traffic, is here comparatively unimportant. In most 
schemes, whether for .short or long distances, it is generally 
a problem of increasing the capacity of the line, and thus the 
point must be considered whether electrification or the lay- 
ing down of additional ti-acks is the less costly of tln^ two 

Among the interesting points dealt with bv Mr. Aspin.\ll, 
we may call attention to the fact that before the electrifica- 
tion of the Liverpool -Southport line, the six-wheeled 
coupled tank locomotives consumed SO lb. of coal per train- 
mile with express trains and 1001b. with stopping trains, heavy figures being due to the high acceleration 
required. On the other hand, the consumption of coal at the 
power station in 1908 was found to be only 491b. per train- 
mile for the electrical trains. Another interesting point is 
that of rating. Apparently a steam electrified railway 
stands at an advantage, because the rating law, in dealing 
with the " hypothetical tenant," considers the steam loco- 
motive as part of the tenant's capital, and therefore allows 
a deduction from the rate, but in the case of an electrified 
railway the power station is rated separately, and thus in- 
creases the annual expenditure. Yet another point of 
great interest is that of the wear of track rails. It is well 
known that early locomotives were built with their centres 
of gravity comparatively low, but were found luisatisfaetoiy, 
as they had a tendency to burst the track. The modern 
locomotive is built with a very much higher centre of gravity 
and runs much more easily, because the raising of the mass 
allows the springs to come into play to a larger extei^t. Thus 
the wear of rails and tyres is reduced to a minimum. With 
electric rolling stock, however, the centre of gravity has 
again been brought low. Not only is this the case, but a 
greater proportion of the weight is not spring-borne. The 
result is a greatly increased wear of tyres and rails. This 
defect could be remedied by raising the motors and trans- 
mitting the drive in some other way. The wear would 
be reduced, but, on the other hand, the drive would be less 
direct and efficient, and the construction of motor cars 
would be more difficult. The case is, therefore, once more a 
choice between two evils. 

It is noticeable that Mr. Aspinall does not go into the 
question of the relative advantages of single-phase and con- 
tinuous-current traction. In this connection we think that 

engineers would do well to take to heart hLs statement 
that " there is nothing so coy as capital, and if it is to be 
won, it must be by convincing arguments and not by the 
doubtful pleadings of confiicting interests. It is probably 
certain that what may be called the ' battle of the systems ' 
has had the effect of causing railway companies to defer 
electrification until they could see that engineers were not at 
variance as to the system to be adopted." It would be 
well if engineers would recognise the fact more generally, 
that engineering problems very seldom class themselves in 
such a way as to admit of a general solution. What is un- 
suitable in one case may be eminently suitable in another, 
and it does not follow that either the single-phase system or 
the contuiuous-cuiyent system should be adopted to the 
exclusion of the other, any more than it has been found 
necessary to adopt alternating current or continuous 
current exclusively for electric lighting ; although not so 
very many years ago some of our engineers would have had 
us believe that one or otlipr of these .systems must be hope- 
lessly wrong. 


(Copies of the undermentioned works can be had from Hu Electrician Office, post free, 
on receipt of publi&hed price, adding 3*1. for books publishe^l uuder 2s. AtlJ 10 per 
cent, for abroad or for foreign books.) 

Electric Power and Traction. By F. H. D.wies. iLomlon: A 
Constable & Co.) Pp. vi.— 231. 6s. net. 

In a book devoted to the applications of electricity to almost 
all purposes of an engineering nature it is extremely difficult, 
when such a book is intended for the general reader, to make 
a proper selection of electrical theory with which to lay a 
foundation for subsequent descriptions. It is a question 
whether it is not better to classify the various tyjjes of electrie 
motors under their usual names — shunt, compound, syn- 
chronous, &c. — with a clear statement of the characteristics 
of each as far as the purchaser or user is concerned, than to 
attempt to condense into a few pages the theoretical and 
technical reasons for such characteristics. 

In the volume under review the first six chapters, contain- 
ing 65 pages, deal with the generation and distribution of 
power and the electric motor. There is practically no attempt 
to introduce the reader gradually to the various considerations 
that he must master, as will be evident from the fact that the 
fourth page of the first chapter deals with the three- wire system, 
followed immediately by a general description of the arrange- 
ment of electrical apparatus in a three-wire generating station. 
Chapter V., on the other hand, besins with an explanation of 
the back E.M.F. in a continuous-current motor. 

It seems doubtful whether any practical man who is ignorant 
of electrical theory will be much enlightened by studying these 
chapters. He will, however, find a good deal to iuterest him 
in the rest of the book, as there are several chapters devoted to 
such subjects as the applications of electric power in collieries, 
in workshops, in textile factories, in printing works, at sea, ou 
canals, and in electric traction in general. 

The various ways in which electricity may be employed 
with advantage in collieries, workshops, &c., are dealt with 
clearly, but almost entirely in a descriptive manner. More 
precise information might have been given in regard to the 
outputs of motors required by various machine tools ; for 
example, a certain class of tool is stated to require usually 
from 2 H.r. to 25 h.p. Electrically-driven cranes are well 
described, and particular attention is drawn to portable tools. 

The second half of the book is devoted to electric traction, 
and an attenq)t is nuide to cover the whole range in 135 pages, 
with the obvious result that many parts of the subject arc 
insufHeiently treated, and others are omitted altogether. 
Inequalities also are noticeable ; for instance, seven or eight 



surface-contact systems are mentioned and described without 
any reference to the Lorain and the " O.B."" systems. 

On the whole, it must be said that the book is rather too 
scrappy and superficial to be of any yery great yalue, although 
it may fulfil a useful function in leading practical men on to 
study in a more systematic manner the properties of electrical 
apparatus and the application of electricity to jiower and 

Die Revision elektriseher Starkstromanlagen. By P.\rr. Stern, 

Voi. XXXVIII. of " Bibliothek der gesaiutoii Technik." (Hanover : 
Dr. MaxJanecke.) Pp. x— 227. M.3.60. 

The subject of the inspection and superyision of heayy cur- 
rent electrical installations is yery ably worked out in this small 
work, which forms Vol. XXXVIII. of the " Bibliothek der 
gesamten Technik." It is naturally based on the rules obseryed 
in Germany by fire offices and other societies with reference 
to the utilisation of electricity for industrial and domestic pur- 
poses and the precautionary measures to be adopted. Although 
in many instances differences from standard English practice 
are apparent, a perusal of its pages will be found of benefit. 
not only to those in charge of electrical plant, but to those who 
make a speciality of inspecting, testing and suj^eryision. 

Tiie book is diyided into four main parts. Part I. deals 
with the various classes of electrical inspection, their object, 
and the method of superyision. A list of German companies 
who undertake this class of work is added, and remarks are 
also giyen as to the selection of an inspecting engineer and his 

Part II. investigates the accidents to human life from the 
electric current. Some interesting information is contained 
here in connection with death due to shock, the resistance 
of the body under different circumstances, the effect of voltage, 
and the effect of alternating currents of different frequencies. 

Part III. is on material damage from electrical causes — 
damage by fire, damage by acid from accumulators, explosions 
of the gases liberated on charging accumulators, corrosion of 
metal pipes by the stray earth currents from electric tram- 
ways, disturbances produced in scientific instruments by 
earth currents or inductive action, derangement of telephone 
and telegraph systems by heavy currents. 

Damage by fire electrically receives a large amount of atten- 
tion ; the other matters are just lightly touched upon. Statis- 
tics then follow in considerable detail of the German fire in- 
surance companies. They are instructive and interesting, 
especially as many cases of fire, as pointed out by the author, 
are wrongly attributed to electrical causes. 

Part IV. is a digest of the most important of the laws and 
regulations current on the Continent for the installation of 
electricity. Amongst others, those of the Verband Deutscher 
Elektrotcchniker are dealt with at .some length. 

Derelopment and Electrical Distribution of Water Power. 

BvLamai; Lvndo.v. (London; ('ha|.nKUi & ilall.) Pp. vi.— 317. 
12s 6d. net. 

The present work constitutes a general engineering treatise 
on the .salient features of hydro-electric generation, trans- 
mission and distribution, with critical practical remarks on 
the problems encountered in the planning of an up-to-date 
.scheme of generating and transmitting electrical energy from 
water power. Descriptions of .some important typical hydro- 
electric plants have been selected from prominent American 
technical periodicals and reprinted. These descriptions form 
a special characteristic of the book. They not only show in a 
striking manner the practical application of the principles 
involved, but enable the reader to contrast readily the dif- 
ferent .systems used, which otherwise would only be possible 
after a tedious search through a number of journals. 

The book is divided into three main sections, of uliich 
Part I., containing five chapters, deals with the hydraulic 
development of the subject ; Part II., composed of seven 
chapters, di.scu.sses the electrical equipment: and Part HI. 
contains the descriptions already alluded to. Chapt(^r I.— 
General Condition.s — contains an account of the factors to be 
considered in the determination of the probable power avail- 
able from a water source, and enumerates the data required 

for deciding the commercial value of an undertaking of this 
kind, together with figures of cost, which are of value. Chap- 
ter III. is on dam construction. Before outlining the various 
types of dams and stating their relative merits, the forces 
acting on them are investigated. Canals and flumes are next 
given in Chapter III., and the design of hydio-electric power 
houses is explained in Chapter IV. Chapter V., the last of 
this section, contains a general description of water wheels — ■ 
pressure, impulse aiul Pelton wheels, variable gates — and the 
speed regulation of turbines. 

Part II.— The Electrical Equipment— starts with ChapterVI., 
on the general idea of electrical power, the relative advantages 
and disadvantages of continuous and alternating currents, the 
size, type and method of drive of electrical generators. Chap- 
ters VII. and VIII. give some very general information on 
alternating-current dynamos and transformers. The overhead 
line is next examined in Chapter IX., in which the problems 
involved are stated and examples worked out of the size of the 
conductors for direct-current, single-phase, alternating-current 
and three-phase transmission lines under certain assumptions. 
The methods of supporting the conductors are given in Chap- 
ter X., which includes poles, cross-arms, insulators, insulator 
pins and methods of leading the high-tension wires out of 
buildings. The protection of the line against lightning is briefly 
treated in Chapter XI., which is followed by one on switching 
and controlling apparatus. An appendix is here added on the 
computation of pressures set up in long pipes with change in 
gate opening, being an abstract of a Paper by the authoi' read 
before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

The remaining 1.54 pages of the book, comprising Part III., 
contain the detailed descriptions of the nine typical trans- 
mission plants already alluded to. 

The book is essentially practical, is well printed and illus- 
trated, and will be of benefit to those interested in this branch 
of engineering. 





(Continued from page 14-) 

Summanj. — In this article the author first considers the many 
objections which have been raised against the use of the third rail for 
main line railway electrification, and then proceeds to discuss the use 
of overhead conductors, dividing the latter system into those where 
two overhead conductors per track are necessary aiid tliose where only 
one conductor per track is required. The construction of the over- 
head work is also considered in detail. 

Primarily it may be laid down that for high-tension work 
non-combustible insulation must be used and, furthermore, 
that the insulation must be capable of keeping up its in- 
sulating qualities for any length of time without the least 
signs of deterioration. If insulation had to be used only 
indoors there might be many substances to choose from, but 
the conditions of being able to stand all weathers are prac- 
tically only met by materials of a glassy nature ; besides 
the properties of insulation, very high mechanical pro- 
perties are required in connection with the suspension of 
overhead conductors for traction com- 
bined ((ualities are only met, as far as present experience 
would indicate, by porcelain or certain kinds of earthen- 
ware. It is essential to have insulators which, whilst con- 
structed of sufficient thickness for mechanical reasons shall 
not possess any blow lioles or inequalities inside their mass. 
Experience has shown, furthermore, that unless the thick- 
ness of the insulator in all directions is more or less uniform, 
owing to unequal shrinkage in baking very large stresses 
are set up in the interior of the baked mass when completed, 
• Copyright. All rights of reproduction reserved. 



which cause vciy serious lisk of tlie insuhitor breaivint; at 
the least .shock, and fiequently quite unexpectedly. l"\ir- 
thermore, experience has also shown that it is impossible to 
bake insulators iw.ssessinj; considerable thickness in certain 
parts without the danger of blow holes arising when baked, 
which are very difficult, if not impossible, to detect. For 
this reason the best insulators of to-day, if of any size or 
intricate, are fre(|uently made in separate pieces, some of 
which get two bakings. Thus, in the case of tubes having 
heavy corrugations on the exterior, the inside sleeve is made 
separately, the outside is baked, and then the inside sleeve 
is cemented in with glazing and the two are baked together, 
the outer being baked twice and the inner only once. The 
chemical composition of the insulator and the mechanical 
methods adopted in manufacturing play a most impoilant 
part in the securing of leliable insulation. In modern prac- 
tice the ovens in which insulators are baked are often fitted 
with recording pyrometers, so as to ensure an even and cor- 
rect temperature throughout the whole process of baking, 
and also to ensure an even and sufficiently .slow cooling down 
after baking. Great resistance against electrical stresses 
is frequently combined with great brittleness. and an exact 
adjustment of these two qualities is required in all insula- 
tors, and can only be reached by a most conscientious, as 
well as scientific, process of manufacture. It is essential 
that the insulating properties of the porcelain should be due 
to the porcelain itself, and not to the glaze of the porcelain, 
the object of the latter being only to ensure an easy clearing 
of the insulation bv rain. Thus, insulators broken up and 

ri/'i A" 


p^%*T>"\',\^*m!( ^^s: 



Fig. 12. Fk;. 13. 

High-Tension Composite Porcelain Insulator. 

allowed to soak for a considerable period in water should 
not absorb the slightest amount under any circumstances. 
It is essential that good insulators when once formed should 
be fairly treated, and that they should never be submitted to 
stresises for which they were not intended. Furthermore, 
it is essential that all .stresses should be distributed as evenly 
as possible ; that they should be fixed so as not to come in 
close proximity with very hot gases, which, by causing un- 
even expansion, will produce breakages. Care should be 
taken to fix in-sulators so as to prevent any possibility of 
water getting in between them and their supports and, by 
freezing in cold weather, producing fracture. Indeed, the 
greatest care must be exercised in the choice of the make of 
insulator and in seeing that the design is suitable for the 
working conditions, and that before and during erection it 
is properly handled, and last, but not, that proper 
means are taken to fix the insulator to its .support. It is, 
of course, essential to fix any attachments which bianch 
of! from the in.--alator on to it in a rational manner so as 
not improperly to stress the material. Thus iron clamps 
.•should never be bolted straight on to the insulator with- 
out sheet lead or other suitable medium being put between 
the porcelain and the iron clamps. The make and .shape 
of insulator once chosen, the greatest care should be taken 
to test electrically each insulator for at ."50 minutes, 

and, according to circumstances, at from t to 10 times its 
working pressure, with a capacity of at least 20 kw. in the 
te.sting transformer. Mechanical tests for resistance to com- 
pression and extension should be made, and, finally, weights 
should be dropped on to the insulator to ascertain its 
tenacity to violent shock. 

It is surprising what severe tests porcelain of the proper 
composition and make will stand, and how uniformly the 
results of tests on a batch of insulators come out. Finally, 
care should be taken to test insulators mechanically, and 
submit them to electrical stresses at the same time. Too 
great care cannot be exercised as regards the choice of a 
proper design and make, or in the tests to which all insu- 
lators used should be submitted at the maker's works and 
under most careful supervision. What may prove a very 
good electrical design may frequently show up very badly 
as regards mechanical pioperties and vice versa. 

Fig. 12 .shows a high-tension insulator which, in order to 
secure absence of blow holes and unequal stresses in the 
material after liaking, is made in four pieces as shown, each 
piece being baked separately. Then a glaze is put on at the 




























10 20 M 40 50 60 70 60 90 lOJ 
fressure in lliousands of eolls. 

Fig. 14. — Curve showing peessttbbs wmcH will perforate dif. 



joints, and the whole insulator is assembled and baked a 
second time. In Fig. I."?, on the contrary, the outer portion 
of the insulator is baked, then the interior is inserted and 
the whole liaked a second time ; this secures luiiform re- 
sults, and also by this means the inside tube is held most 
firmly because of the shrinkage which is bound to come 
even at a second baking in the case of the outside portion 
of the insulator. 

As regards colour, this need not in any way depend on the 
quality of the insulator, and is produced either by adding a 
dye to the paste or, preferably, by adding a dye to the glaze, 
the greatest care being taken to select such a dye as will in 
no way affect the electrical properties of the insulator when 

Porcelain, which has proved admirable for insulating pur- 
poses, has stood a maximum compression of anything from 
i,2.'iO kg. to 5.410 kg. per square centimetre, or, say, in 
round figures, G0,000 lb. per square inch, and in tension 
1,300 kg. to 2,000 kg. per square centimetre, or, say, 
18,-500 lb. per square inch. The modulus of elasticity was 
shown by a large number of experiments to be only slightly 
smaller than that of cast iron, the ratio in this case being in 
the proportion of 10 for ordinary cast iron as compared to 
54 to 7-1 for porcelain. These figures hold good as regards 
the mechanical properties of good porcelain manufactured 



for electrical purposes bj- the Porzellanfabrik Hermsdorf, 
Germany. It is their make of insulator which, after the 
most careful and lengthy researches, the author decided to 
use in connection with the electrification of the L.B. & S.C. 
Railway, and Fig. 14 shows the electrical properties of this 
make, giving nearly a straight line law, to tlie effect that 
each 10,000 volts will break through 1 mm. of porcelain. 

Having briefly considered the question of porcelain insu- 
lators, we will now proceed to deal witli the various con- 
structions which have so far been used in connection with 
overhead conductors for general railway electrification when service is to be anticipated. The conditions which 
govern such an installation may briefly be summarised as 
follows : — 

1. Practical impossibility of mechanical breakdown — 
i.e., impossibility of the breakage of any one subsidiary part 
causing actual danger to passing traffic. Thus, for example, 
the breakage of an insulator, or of a .supporting wire, or of 
the conducting wire, must, as far as possible, under no 
circumstances allow any part of the construction to sink 
as low as to interfere mechanically with passing trains. 

2. Provision must be made for avoiding as far as fea- 
sible electrical breakdowns, and the construction must be 
.such as to enable verv prompt repairs to be effected in case 
of the failure of any part. Hence the number of parts con- 
stituting the construction should be a.s few as possible and 
as far as can be interchangeable. 

3. The .sy.stem must be .sectionalised so that a failure will 
only affect one section, leaving the rest of the .system in 
proper working order. This, of, means arrangements 
for feeding designed so as to provide for these requirements. 

The forms of construction so far adopted to fill the above 
requirements can, for our purposes, be subdivided into two 
classes as follows : — 

1. The double catenary construction, which in its turn 
can be subdivided into — 

(rt) Rigid construction, originally proposed by the West- 
inghouse Company of America. 
(b) Flexible construction. 

2. Single catenary construction, which in its turn can be 
subdivided into — 

(a) Construction not providing specially for variation in 

(6) Construction with provision for maintaining constant 
tension in the trolley wire. 

The former, or doultle catenary construction, has been 
so far adopted on a very large scale in America in connec- 
tion with the electrification of the Now York, New Haven 
& Hartford line in and around New York. 

When considering this form of construction it is just as 
well to remember that special difficulties have to be met in 
the United States owing to the custom of brakcmen walking 
along the roofs of freight train.s to attend to the brakes. 
Hence, the wire has to be at a normal height of at least 
22 ft. and the drop to go under bridges suddenly brings the 
height down to 14 ft. The collector has, therefore, to be 
made to run normally and at maximum .speed at the height 
of 22 ft., and yet be capable of operating satisfactorily also 
at high speeds at a height of 14 ft. These conditions are 
not met with in Europe to any such degree, altlit)ugh, for 
reasons which will be explained later, in the case of the 
L.B. & S.C. Railway, the collector has to work a range of 
14 ft. to 21 ft., but not under such difficult conditions as 
those encountered on the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford .sy.stem. In this case the supports on the straight are 
as far as 300 ft. apart, and consist of latticed girders spanning 
the tracks on the tops of which the insulators supporting 

the catenaries are fixed. Special strong bridges, called 
anchor supports, are located about every 2 miles, and are 
provided with the necessary section switches dividing the 
various lines, as explained later. 

Experience with this line as described has shown that the 
wear and tear of the conductor wire is very excessive, and 
that the sparking at the collector bow, about which more 
will be said later, is very great. It may here be remarked 
that the collector is of the scissors type, having easy motion 
in a vertical plane, but practically none in a horizontal one, 
and that the contact surface consists of a steel bar some 
6 in. wide and fitted with grooves ; the pressure exerted by 
this the trolley wire is very considerable, amounting, 
it is stated, to at least 25 lb. to 30 lb. and probably more. The 
cause of this result is not far to seek, if one considers the fact 
that the overhead conductor is composed of copper and is 
practically rigidly supported without any appreciable elas- 
ticity or liberty to move in a vertical plane. The collector 
bow, on the other hand, is very free to move in this plane, and 
must, of necessity, due to over-action and pitching of the 
locomotive, be constantly exercising a series of vertical 
hammer blows, with a planing action of tlie copper con- 
ductor, which is the softest of the two surfaces in contact. 
Mr. Muiray, the electrical engineer of the New York, New 

Fk;. 1.5. — Improved Catenary Construction on Main Line, Nkw 
Vdhk, Nuw Havkn & HARTi-(>Rn RAir.HOAb. 

Haven & Hartford Raihoad, .states that the results of run- 
ning have been — 

1. To reduce the of the copper conductor by 

2. To kink it badly at the point of .suspension, with the 
result that fracturing has been caused. 

3. The roughness of the conductor wire produced in con- 
sequence of its rigid suspension and of the steel collector 
bar caused the contact to be constantly broken between 
the collector and the collector bar, resulting in excessive 

In order to get over this, a fourth wire has been resorted 
to, which consists of steel wire of 4/0 H. & S. gauge, and 
attached by means of clips 10 ft. apart and fixed to the 
original copper conductor wires half-way between the rigid 
support formed by the apex of the rigid tubular triangle, as 
shown in Fig. 15. In the original form of construction, 
when the locomotive shoe made contact with the copper 
wire, it was found, on account of the high expansion pro- 
perties of coj)per,'_that changes in temperature con.siderably 
lengthened the span between the hanger points, and 
because of the ductility of the copper the passage of the 
.shoe at high sjieeds, with some considerable upward pres- 
sure, gathered up the slack in form of a kink at the hanger 
point. This attempt at absolute rigidity of conductor has 
proved a failure, as many, including the author, always 
thought it would ; but the experience thus gained is of 
great use to the engineering world in general and the elec- 
trical engineer in particular. 



Fig. 10 is very intcreisting and repre.sents the double 
catenary construction at first adopted in tlie of tiie State Railways for a short section of their experi- 
mental line in the neighbourhood of Stockhohn. 

It will be observed that in this case no particular care 
seems to have been taken at the curve to keep the trolley 
wire free to move in the vertical direction under the pres- 
sure of the bow, the push off in this simply consisting 
of two tubular struts at either side of the support fixed to 
the catenarv and the trolley wire respectively, in a similar 
manner to that adopted on the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford line. The result of this form of construction has 
simply been what could have been expected — namely, that 
severe hammer blows were caused at this point when the 
bows went over it, with resulting sparking and liability to 
fracture of the wire. 

It will also be observed that the other droppers through 
the flexible wire are firmly fixed to the catenary and the 
trolley wire without provision having been made for the 
lateral or up-and-down movement, and that, as a result, 

Fig. 1(1. — DcjiiLE Catenaey Construction, Swedish State Rail- 
A, struts or pusb-ofls made of steel tube. 

these have taken up a permanently bent position. As a 
matter of fact, the service on the Swedish State Railways 
is not of such an intense nature as to call for this type of 
construction, and, as already stated, for the extensions 
a much simpler ar.d cheaper foim has been adopted. The 
construction adopted on the L.B. & S.C. Railway is of the 
double catenary form, and is entirely different from any- 
thing hitherto erected in any country ; but as a detailed 
description of the whole electrification of the South London 
line of this railway will appear in a later portion of this 
work reference will not be made here to it. 
{To be continued.) 

Electiicity in Steel Works.— Wc are informed that the 
Prussian Slatonst-Werke have obtained a licence from the 
Gesellsehaft fiir Elektrostahlanlagen m.h. U., of Berlin, to use 
induction furnaces in connection with their steel works. The 
material obtained from these furnaces will also be worked up 
at the Slatoust Works. The necessary electrical eqm"pment is 
bfing provided by Messrs. Siemens & Halske. 



In a lecture delivered before the Elcktrotechnischor Vcrein on 
December .5tli last, the author reviews in an interesting manner th<! 
develojiraents wliicli have led to the improved results obtainable in 
radio-telegraphic work at tlie present time. 

The review is confined to the case of spark telegraphy, and does not 
deal with the undamjied wave method ; it is also partly retrospec- 
tive, in that tlie author does not deal so much with the more recent 
devices which have been published from time to time, as with tlie 
question how far the spark telegraph stations of the present da.v 
represent the theoretical ideal conditions which promise the most 
favourable results. The performance of the actual equipments a.s 
compared with the most favourable possibilities are considered, and 
by this means it is endeavoured to show clearly which are the features 
of present-day construction that pos.?ess permanent value, and 
what line should be followed with the greatest hope of success in the 
further perfection of the method. 

Beginning with the transmitter, he follows step by step the energy 
transformation from the direct-current source onward until the 
Hertzian waves are radiated into space. 

Supposing, first, that a given source of direct or alternating cur- 
rent is available, and that this is used to supply a naval station of 
the older type, which already employs a coupled system, but does not 
yet contain a resonance transformer. In this case the wave genera- 
tion can be regarded as occurring in the following order as regards 
magnitude : For 1 kw. employed to supply the station, about 2U(l 
watts will bo used up in the series resistances ; 800 watts remain. 
Of those 8f)0 watts about 7.50 watts are lost through secondary dis- 
charges and heat losses in the spark coil. There remain 50 watts, 
which are transferred to the condenser circuit in the fcrm of charging 
energy. Out of these 50 watts about 20 are dissipated in the spark 
in the form of energy of heat, light and sound ; a further 20 watts 
are converted into heat in the condenser coatings and in the circuit 
itself (inductance), or else are lost in the form of brush discharge.". 
There remain about 10 waite, which are transferred to the antenna. 
Of these 10 watts nine are converted into heat in the antenna and 
the earth connection, or used in ozone formation, and about 1 watt 
is transformed into the energy of Hertzian radiation-— in all an cfJi- 
ciency of one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

At the present time this has been considerably improved upon. 

The step by step analysis of the energy transformations in a 
coupled system is then carried out. By utilising the resonance 
principle in the transformer its efficiency can be raised to about 00 jier 
cent. This energy is used to create a strong electric field between 
the condenser coatings, and the condenser circuit has to be con- 
structed so as to communicat* this energy to the antenna circuit 
with the least loss. But the damping due to the spark represents 
loss of energy, as also do the brush discharges. The latter source of 
loss can be avoided, but the spark damping cannot be entirely. 
Other causes of damping are the development of Joulean heat in the 
oscillatory circuit, the generation of eddy currents in neighbouring 
conductors, and also harmful reflections internal to the system. The 
first of these cannot be completely avoided, but by suitably choosing 
the cross-sections it can be reduced to a minimum : further, through 
using sufficiently large self-inductanc The eddy-current losses 
used to be considerable in the older type of stations, where the circuit 
was often made to encircle the Le,^den jars, heating up the coatings. 
This is now avoided with the use of plate condensers ; but it is always 
desirable to place the plane of the turns of the oscillatory circuit at 
right angles to the plane of the condenser plates. For instance, 
suitable alterations on these lines will reduw the decrement in the old 
type stations from 0-34 to Olfi. 

It is of chief importance to arrange the system in such a manner 
that the amjilitude decrease due to tiie coupling is large as compared 
with all the other causes of decrease of amplitude. This is best 
secured by the use of Wien's " impact excitation " (Stosscrregung) 
by means of very small sparks. 

The important point about this phenomenon is that, although close 
coupling is employed, no phase swinging occurs, but only a single 
rapid amplitude decrease : so soon as the whole of the energy for the 
first time has passed into the secondary system the spark dies out. 
and the primary is no longer capable of resonance, and can be con- 
sidered as having ilisapponivd from the system. In this way one is 
free from all the (lanii)iug losses of the primary circuit. 

The author next considers the fate of the energy which, by any 
procedure whatever, is communicated to the antenna circuit. Here 
the same energy-consuming factors are encountered a.s were four.d 

• Abstract from the " Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift." 



in the primary circuit. Tlie brush discharges arc. u«ing to the 
smaller eapacity of the antenna, more harmful than in the closed 
oscillatory circuit, with its large capacity. In the latter a small 
charging loss is of little importance, but in a system of small capacity 
it may mean a quite considerable fraction of the total energy. 

The energy losses through Joulean heat are also present in the open 
oscillator. In addition, there is the amplitude decrease, the damp- 
ing due to radiation. 

An effective aerial conductor must be built in such a way that the 
radiation decrement preponderates over the decrement due to other 
losses. In this respect the transmitter does not apjiear to have been 
sufficiently investigated. It is. however, certain that, in general, 
with ordinary antenna;, the radiation decrement is not over one- 
fifth as great as the resistance decrement. 

Owing to the limits imposed by structural considerations, the 
radiation decrement cannot be made very large and, hence, every 
tiling depends upon the reduction of the resistance decrement to the 
lowest figure possible. 

The author ne.\t refers to the advantages and convenience of using 
the tables and formula; given by Drude for predetermining the dimen- 
sions of the aerial, coupling coil and counterpoise, and deals also with 
the effect of earthing. This leads then to the discussion of the pro- 
pagation of the waves in space, in which connection Bellini and Tosi's 
experiments, and especially those of the author, are dealt with. 
(For these latter see The Electrician, p. 972, April 2, 1909.) 

Finally, the author discusses the question of the design of the re- 
cei%-ing station. 

In order to reduce the effect of atmospheric disturbances, the aerial 
wire should be of as small dimensions as possible, and this is quite 
feasible owing to the high sensibility of modern detectors (the elec- 
trolytic, galena detector) now avaijable. The detector should be 
placed in a circuit which is as far as possible aperiodic, and this circuit 
magnetically coupled to the antenna circuit. 

In conclusion, an example is quoted showing the improvement 
secured by substituting a coupled system for the old arrangement 
employed in the German naval stations. This, however, seems 
chiefly to demonstrate how dreadfully inefficient the old stations 
must have been, since for the 30 watts of primary energy which are 
required by the coupled system for communicating over a distance 
of 6 km. between the two stations, it is said that at least 1 kw. had 
to be employed for communicating with the old equipment. 

As a further example, the electrical dimensions of the new station 
erected at the German Imjjerial Telegraphs experimental station are 
worked out in full on Drude"s method. As antenna a smooth brass 
tube 10 metres long is used, with a quadrangular wire umbrella 
having sides 2o metres long as counterweight. With this station 
the messages from the Norddeich station are readily received. 




Sir : The autom.atic earthing switch described by Mr. J. H. 
Eider in his recent Paper liefore the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers is a complicated and costly piece of apparatus. No 
one will regard its expense as too great if it reallj' safeguards 
an important generating station, such as that at Greenwich, 
from a source of danger, while the fact that the switch has 
been actually designed and wed will be accepted as conclusive 
evidence that such a danger exists, fiut it appears to me most 
<|uestionable whether this apparatus is the best one to use for 
the in view. 

The effect of third harnionics in the ])hase voltages of star 
connected .dternators, with the star points all earthed, has 
been frequently pointed out. Mr. Brew, of the Dublin Light- 
ing Station, first drew my attention to the matter several years 
ago, and showed me some oscillograms he had taken of the 
triple-frequency earth currents occurring under such condi- 
tions. But so far as I know no data of the voltages corre- 
sponding with these harmonics have been published in reference 
to any station, and I doubt whether such voltages have been 
ever actually measured. Oscillograms are very pretty things, 
but are useless for exact data, and until definite measurements 
are obtainable I do not know that anyone can estimate the true 
importance of these harmonics, unless it be from actu:»l experi- 
ence of their effects. 

I write this letter to make a suggestion which I believe is 

novel, and on which I should be interested to learn the opinions 
of others. The suggestion is that each alternator should have 
its star point connected to an earthing bar through a choking 
coil, and that the earthing bar should be well earthed through 
a low resistance of the usual kind. The sketch shows two 
star wound three-phase alternators, AjAo, earthed in this way, 
and parallel connected to the mains ; Zj Z, represent the 
choking coils and 1\ the earthing resistance. 

Under these conditions, if the distributing system is insu- 
lated from earth, as will normally be the case, the resistance 
R will have no current through it and the earthing bar B B 
will be at zero potential. The point is that each of the impe- 
dances Zj Zj will take a voltage representing the third har- 
monic voltage in the windings of the corresponding alternator, 
and will normally choke down any current these voltages tend 
to cause. Moreover, these choking coils will form essentially 
the only impedance in the path of the current caused by the 
third harmonic voltage. The three windings of each alter- 
nator are so joined up in parallel that they constitute a non- 
inductive resistance so far as the current of triple frequency is 
concerned, and hence when two alternators are parallel con- 
nected with star points earthed in the ordinary waj- it is pos- 
sible for a third harmonic voltage of small magnitude to cause 
quite a large current circulating around the machines. It is 
probably owing to this fact that appreciable currents have been 
observed due to the third harmonic voltage, for if the windings 
of the alternator acted as a choking coil, the high impedance 
of this for currents of triple frequency would reduce any such 
currents to a negligible magnitude. 



— B 

In the absence of actual data I can only guess the magni- 
tude of the voltage corresponding with the third harmonic. 
Let us assume there are three alternators in parallel, the first 
an ideal .alternator with no harmonic in its voltage, the second 
an ordinary machine with a third harmonic voltage of, say, 2 
per cent, of the phase voltage, and finally an abnormal machine 
with a third harmonic voltage of 10 per cent, of the phase 
voltage. Assuming the voltage from the star point to line is 
5,000 volts, the three third harmonic voltages will then be 0, 
100 and 500 volts. The ideal machine will have its star point 
at exactly earth potential, and can be joined direct to the 
earthing bar without using any choking coil. The choking 
coil for the ordinary machine will lie subjected to 100 volts, 
widle that for the abnormal machine will have 500 volts upon 
it. These voltages would cause vciy large ciu'rents through 
the machine windings were it not for the choking coils. With 
their aid the currents can easily be reduced to negligible 
values, while the voltages on these choking coils will indicate 
important facts about the alternators. 

Now, without discussing details of the automatic earthing 
switch described in Mr. Rider's Paper, let us consider the 
results it secures. These appear to be three in number. In 
the first place, any alternator which is shut down has its star 
point disconnected from earth. No advantage is claimed for 
this result, and earth potential would appear to be the safest 
of all potentials for an unused machine. Again, only one 
acting machine is earth-connected at any given moment. The 
object of this appears to be two fold. Heavy earth currents 
between two machines due to the third harmonic voltage are 
prevented. The choking coils now suggested seem to secure the 
same result in a simpler fashion. Another resttlt of the switch 



is that if an earth occurs on one of tho phases only the alter- 
nator actually connected witli earth is called upon to supply 
the short-circuit current, so that the " voltage of the whole 
station" can be maintained " pendini;- the opening of the 
time-limit circuit-breaker." But the choking coils here sug- 
gested could easily be designed to prevent serious earth cur- 
rents even in this case. The object of the earth connection is 
to keep the neutral points of the alternators at earth potential, 
not to encourage leakage currents to earth. If it is desirable 
for one of the alternators to be available to force current 
through a fault, all that is needed is to connect the neutral 
point of its windings direct to the earthing bar, omitting the 
choking coil. So far as 1 can see, the arrangement of choking 
coils above suggested forms a simple and more certain safe- 
guard than the automatic switch. The cost may possibly be as 
great, but in this matter safety is the first consideration. The 
choking coils can be made to give valuable information about 
the machines. They are approximately at earth potential, and 
the voltages or currents they take might possibly be utilised 
to work safety appliances. 

Someone may object that according to the above figures the 
star points of the generators instead of being kept at earth 
potential differ from it by 100 or 500 volts. But the choking 
coils are not the cause of this and nothing can possibly alter it, 
except those heavy earth currents which the automatic switch 
is designed to prevent, or such changes in the structure of the 
alternators as will do away with the third harmonic voltages. 
These voltages exist on the various parts of Mr. Rider's auto- 
matic switch, and are only reduced to zero on that switch 
which is connected to earth by producing a corresponding 
shift in the values of the line voltages to earth. — I am, &c., 
Technical School, Birmingham, April 20, W. E. Sumi'NER. 


are eight heating tubes filled to the iiLside of the oven, three on 
each side and two at the top immediately beneath the opening. 
These latter tubes are intended to serve the double purpose of brown- 
ing the joint or poultry and heating the saucepan or kettle above. 
There are, in addition to these, two heating tubes beneath a sheet of 
iron forming the bottom of the oven, which are only put into use 
when required for grilling or baking pastrj', cakes, &e. Toasting 
can be done from the top of the oven effectively. The makers claim 
that no special utensils are required in using this apparatus and that 
all the processes of cooking, roasting, baking, boiling, stewing, sim- 
mering, or, in fact, anything that can be done in a stove by the regu- 
lation of heat, can be jjerformed with these cookers. We have 
inspected the stoves and have satisfied ourselves of their utility as 
cooking and lieating apparatus and of their neat and taking appear- 
ance. The figures as to current consumption have been supplied 
by the makers. 



A new departure in no-volt, and overload release coils, as applied to 
motor starters, circuit breakers, &c., has been devised and patented 

Aoju^^ Overload 

Fig. 1. — '■ Denny's " Combined No- volt and Overload Release Coil. 

by Mr. C. W. Denny, of 67, CVoss Brook-street. Waltham Cross. We 
are able to illustrate in the accompanying diagrams (Figs. 1 and 2) a 
form of coil arranged for use in conjunction with starting switches of 

The accompanying illustration shows an example of the " Popular" 
oven, with two side attachments, of the Le Radiant system of electric 
cooking. This oven is placed on the market in this country by Le 
Radiant (Ltd.). 76, Newman-street, Oxford-street, London, W., for 
whom Ml'. C. Fonteyn is the representative. The oven is supplied 
with or without the side pieces, which are completely removable, 
and are each controlled by two two-way switches. The complete 
piece of cooking apparatus as shown has a total consumption when 
at full heat of 4 units per hour. The height of the centre piece of 
apparatus is 17 in., width 17 in., depth 18J in., and of the side pieces 
height 4J in., length 17| in., depth 18i in. The size of the boiling 
rings, which are oval-shaped, is 7 in. by 6 in. The available cooking 
space is 9J in. by 10 in. by 14| in., and the diameter of tlie openings 
at the top of the oven for boiling purposes 7 in. The total consump- 

J>1J IIADIANI ■' lV'ri-L\ii ' 

tion of the centre piece of the apparatus_;al full [heat is 1-S units 
per hour. The centre piece is constructed of cast uon, highly 
enamelled in white or other colour inside and out, and reflectors are 

nickel plated and removable; the observation holes are of mica. 

and the heating tubes are protected by removable screens. There I is brought on to the starter contacts the main current passes round the 

the multiple contact type. By combining the no-volt and overload 
release features in one coil, the connections are considerably simjiliticd 
and the manufactui'e cheapened. A furtlier advantage is claimed in 
the fact that no shunt connections are 
brought into the starter (in the case of 
shunt wound motors), this point being 
of greater significance when the starter 
is at some considerable distance from the 
motor, two wires only being necessary 
in connecting up, as against throe in 
the usual arrangement. Tlie coil is. 
however, adaptable to shunt and scries 
motors alike. 

The magnet employed, being similar 
in appearance to an ordinary no- volt coil. 
is fitted with two armatures, or keepers. 
the one on the left in Fig. 1 l>eing the 
no volt keeper, and the other the over- 
load keeper : the coil when in vise being 
mounted in an inclined position the no- 
volt keeper rests on the magnet face, 
and the overload keeper rests against an 
adjustable stop away from the magnet 
face. Pas.sing through a transverse hole 
in each magnet pole piece, is a freely 
sliding rod or plunger, slightly longer than 
the pole jiiece. and normally projecting 
a short distance beyond tho overload 
keeper end of the magnet. The lower ends come opposite to tho 
free end of the overload keeper, and the upper ends opposite to the 
no-volt keeper. 

The action of the magnet is as follows : As soon as the switch arm 





coil, and energises the magnet. When tlie switch arm has arrived 
at the full ■'